Chap11 Fr Rev

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Chap11 Fr Rev

  1. 1. Chapter 11 The French Revolution And Napoleon (1789–1815)
  2. 2. The French Revolutions Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité:The French Revolution 
  3. 3. Chapter 11: The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789–1815) Section 1: The Old Order Section 2: Constitutional Government Section 3: Dawn of a New Era Section 4: Napoleon’s Empire Section 5: Peace in Europe
  4. 5. The French Revolution <ul><li>The French Revolution is one of the most important events in modern history. It was more radical than either the English or American Revolutions, and had a far greater impact on 19th century Europe. The unthinkable fall of the Bourbons resonated throughout Europe, sparking a series of revolutions which rallied behind liberalism and nationalism. The major socialist revolutions of the twentieth century in Russia, China and Cuba were inspired the French example.  </li></ul>
  5. 6. On the Eve of the Revolution <ul><li>What was the social structure of the old regime? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did France face economic troubles in 1789? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Louis XVI call the Estates General? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did a Paris crowd storm the Bastille? </li></ul>1
  6. 7. The Three Estates <ul><li>Before the revolution the French people were divided into 3 groups: the 1st estate consisted of the clergy , the second estate of the nobility and the third estate of the bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants. Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>The first estate, the clergy, consisted of rich and poor.  There were very wealthy abbots, members of the aristocracy who lived in luxury off of wealthy church lands,  and poor parish priests, who lived much like the peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>The second estate , the nobility, inherited their titles and their wealth came from the land. Some members of the nobility had little money, but had all the privileges of noble rank. However, most enjoyed both privileges and wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>The third estate , the common people, was by far the largest group of people in France. Everyone who was not a member of the first or second estates was a member of the third. It included the wealthy merchants whose wealth rivaled that of the nobility, the doctors and lawyers, the shopkeepers, the urban poor, and the peasants who worked the land. Obviously, a very diverse group. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Old Regime The BOURGEOISIE and PEASANTS Peasants were 90 percent of French population Resented privilege of first and second estates Burdened by taxes Many earned miserable wages and faced hunger and even starvation The NOBILITY Owned land but had little money income Hated absolutism Feared losing traditional privilege, especially exemption from taxes The CLERGY Enjoyed enormous wealth and privilege Owned about 10 percent of land, collected tithes, and paid no taxes Provided some social services THIRD ESTATE SECOND ESTATE FIRST ESTATE Under the ancien regime , or old order, everyone in France belonged to one of three classes. 1
  8. 9. In this cartoon from the time, Louis is looking at the chests and asks &quot;where is the tax money?&quot; Cartoon 1789 - Collection Banque Nationale de Paris (Paris: Editions Hervas, 1988) The financial minister, Necker, looks on and says &quot;the money was there last time I looked.&quot; The nobles and clergy are sneaking out the door carrying sacks of money, saying &quot;We have it.&quot; What did the nobility want? With the exception of a few liberals, the nobility wanted greater political influence for themselves but nothing for the third estate.  The King attempted to solve the financial crisis by removing some of the nobles' tax exemptions. However, the nobility saw themselves as special, with better blood, and entitled to all of their class privileges. The Parlement, a judicial organization controlled by the nobility, invoked its powers to block the King's move. He was forced reluctantly to call a meeting of the Estates General in 1788.
  9. 11. Economic Troubles <ul><li>Economic woes added to the social unrest and heightened tension </li></ul><ul><li>For years, the French government had engaged in deficit spending that is, a government’s spending more money than it takes in. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV had left France deeply in debt. Recent wars, a general rise in costs in the 1700s, and the lavish court were incredibly costly. To bridge the gap between income and expenses, the government borrowed more and more money. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad harvests in the late 1780s sent food prices soaring and brought hunger to poorer peasants and city dwellers. </li></ul>1
  10. 12. The King and Queen of France lived in luxury and splendor at the magnificent Palace of Versailles outside of Paris. The government of France, however, was bankrupt and was facing a serious financial crisis. The crisis came about primarily because of an inefficient and unfair tax structure, outdated medieval bureaucratic institutions, and a drained treasury which was the result of aiding the Americans during the American Revolution, long wars with England, and overspending.
  11. 14. The Meeting of the Estates General France’s economic crisis worsened, bread riots spread, and nobles denounced royal tyranny. Louis XVI summoned the Estates General. The Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly and invited delegates from the other two estates to help them write a constitution. When reform-minded clergy and nobles joined the Assembly, Louis grudgingly accepted it. 1
  12. 15. The meeting of the Estates General May 5, 1789 When the Estates General met, each estate solemnly marched into the hall at Versailles. The third estate, dressed all in black, the nobility dressed in all their finery and finally the clergy dressed in full regalia.   The delegates of the third estate insisted that the three orders meet together and that the vote be taken by head, rather than by order. (Since there were far more delegates from the third estate, this plan would give them a majority). The King refused to grant their request. The third estate refused to budge. Seating— Left = radical Center = moderate Right = conservative
  13. 17. The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) The Estates General met separately at the King's insistence. The Third Estate established the National Assembly, but was locked out of their regular meeting place at Versailles. They moved to the indoor tennis court. On June 20, 1789, the Tennis Court Oath was taken. They pledged not to leave until France had a new Constitution. The king gave in and told the First and Second Estates to join them.
  14. 19. October 5,1789- Paris women invaded Versailles demanding bread…”Let them eat cake,” said Marie Antoinette. It is a fictitious quote, but the myth persists.
  15. 21. Timeline of the French Revolution
  16. 23. T he First French Empire <ul><li>T he First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire, the Napoleonic Empire or simply as The Empire, </li></ul><ul><li>covers the period of the domination of France and of much </li></ul><ul><li>of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France . Constitutionally, it refers to the period of 1804 to 1814 , from the Consulate to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in the history of the French state, with a coda in the Hundred Days of 1815. The First French Empire stands distinct from its imitator and would-be successor the Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852-1870). Bonaparte's march to empire began with the Constitution of the year X (August 1802). Having become &quot;First Consul&quot;, he attracted more power and gravitated towards imperial status, gathering support on the way for his internal rebuilding of France and its institutions. He gradually dampened opposition and Republican enthusiasm, using exile, systematic bureaucratic oppression and constitutional means. The decision of the Senate on May 18, 1804, giving him the title of emperor, was the counterblast to the dread he had excited. </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>Never did a harder master ordain more imperiously, nor understand better how to command obedience. &quot;This was because,&quot; as Goethe said, &quot;under his orders men were sure of accomplishing their ends. That is why they rallied round him, as one to inspire them with that kind of certainty.&quot; Indeed no man previously ever concentrated authority to such a point, nor showed mental abilities at all comparable to his: an extraordinary power of work, prodigious memory for details and fine judgment in their selection; together with a luminous decision and a simple and rapid conception, all placed at the disposal of a sovereign will.  </li></ul><ul><li>No head of the state gave expression more imperiously than this Corsican to the popular passions of the French of that day: abhorrence for the emigrant nobility, fear of the ancien régime, dislike of foreigners, hatred of England, an appetite for conquest evoked by revolutionary propaganda, and the love of glory.   </li></ul><ul><li>I n this Napoleon was a soldier of the people: because of this he judged and ruled his contemporaries. Having seen their actions in the stormy hours of the French Revolution, he despised them and looked upon them as incapable of disinterested conduct, conceited, and obsessed by the notion of equality. Hence his colossal egoism, his habitual disregard of others, his jealous passion for power, his impatience of all contradiction, his vain untruthful boasting, his unbridled self-sufficiency and lack of moderation - passions which were gradually to cloud his clear faculty of reasoning.  </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>His genius, assisted by the impoverishment of two generations, was like the oak which admits beneath its shade none but the smallest of saplings. With the exception of Talleyrand, after 1808 he would have about him only mediocre people, without initiative, prostrate at the feet of the giant: his tribe of paltry, rapacious and embarrassing Corsicans; his admirably subservient generals; his selfish ministers, docile agents, apprehensive of the future, who for fourteen long years felt a prognostication of defeat and discounted the inevitable catastrophe. So First Empire France had no internal history outside the plans and transformations to which Napoleon subjected the institutions of the Consulate, and outside the after-effects of his wars. Well knowing that his fortunes rested on the delighted acquiescence of France, Napoleon expected to continue indefinitely fashioning public opinion according to his pleasure.  </li></ul>
  19. 26. Causes and Effects of the French Revolution 4 Corrupt, inconsistent, and insensitive leadership Prosperous members of Third Estate resent privileges of First and Second estates Spread of Enlightenment ideas Huge government debt Poor harvests and rising price of bread Failure of Louis XVI to accept financial reforms Formation of National Assembly Storming of Bastille Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted France adopts its first written constitution Monarchy abolished Revolutionary France fights coalition of European powers Reign of Terror Napoleon gains power Napoleonic Code established French public schools set up French conquests spread nationalism Revolutions occur in Europe and Latin America Immediate Effects Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes Long-Term Effects
  20. 27. Storming of the Bastille <ul><li>The commander of the Bastille opened fire on the </li></ul><ul><li>crowd, and a battle ensued, in which many people </li></ul><ul><li>were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>The storming of the Bastille quickly became a symbol of the French Revolution, a blow to tyranny. Today, the French still celebrate July 14 as Bastille Day. </li></ul>1 On July 14, 1789, more than 800 Parisians gathered outside the Bastille, a medieval fortress used as a prison. They demanded weapons believed to be stored there.
  21. 31. “ Men will not be free until the last king is strangled with the entrails of the last priest. ” – Denis Diderot
  22. 33. The tricolor cockade on a tricorn hat, the symbol of the Revolution Citizen Sam Neill
  23. 34. When he returned to France in 1781, Lafayette was famous -- 'a hero of two worlds'. He received many honors, was made commander of the Paris National Guard (1781-91), and became active in politics in France. In late 1784, he returned briefly to the United States to visit George Washington at Mount Vernon. Lafayette
  24. 35. <ul><li>Back in France in 1788, Lafayette was called to the Assembly of Notables to respond to the fiscal crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Lafayette proposed a meeting of the French Estates-General, where representatives from the three traditional classes of French society — the clergy, the nobility and the commoners — met. </li></ul><ul><li>He served as vice president of the resulting body and presented a draft of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. </li></ul><ul><li>Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the French (Garde nationale) National Guard in response to violence leading up to the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Revolution, Lafayette attempted to maintain order, for which he ultimately was persecuted by the Jacobins. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791, as the radical factions in the Revolution grew in power, Lafayette tried to flee to the United States through the Dutch Republic. He was captured by Austrians and served nearly five years in prison. </li></ul><ul><li>Lafayette returned to France after Bonaparte freed him from an Austrian prison in 1797. </li></ul>
  25. 36. <ul><li>Returning to France, Lafayette tried, but was unable to influence a more moderate course in the French revolution. When France was attacked by the European coalition, Lafayette was given command of the French Revolution Army of the Center in 1792. As with other noblemen who still served the Revolution, Lafayette had cause to fear the Jacobin factions that had taken control of French politics, and he fled to Belgium. However, the Austrians considered Lafayette a cause of the anti-monarchial revolt in France and imprisoned him (one year at Magdeburg, and four years at Olmutz). He was freed by Napoleon in September 1797 . While he acknowledged Bonaparte's position, Lafayette declined to accept any role in the Emperor's regime and refused the Legion d'Honor . </li></ul>Lafayette
  26. 37. Lafayette <ul><li>After Napoleon, Lafayette remained active, but continuously lost influence in French politics. For a time he was an elected member of the Chamber of Deputies. However, his political philosophy was too simplistic for the complexities that faced France. He was not destined to contribute as much to France as he did to the United States in those nations' respective quests for political freedom. His significant legacy has been as a symbol for a tradition of continuing French and American alliances. </li></ul>
  27. 38. Lafayette <ul><li>Lafayette continued to maintain strong ties with his associates of the American Revolution. He made an extensive visit to the United States in 1824-25. He returned to France with barrels of American soil, which was placed around his casket. He and his wife, Adrienne de Noailles, are buried in Le Jardin de Picpus cemetery, Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Since after World War I, an American flag has been at his grave site. It remained there, undisturbed, during the German occupation in World War II. </li></ul>
  28. 39. Section 1 Assessment <ul><li>Which class made up 98 percent of the population of France in 1789? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the First Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Second Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the Third Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the First and Second estates combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was not a cause of France’s economic troubles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) deficit spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) bad harvests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) overspending by Louis XIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) increased wages for peasant workers </li></ul></ul>1
  29. 40. Section 1 Assessment <ul><li>Which class made up 98 percent of the population of France in 1789? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the First Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Second Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the Third Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the First and Second estates combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was not a cause of France’s economic troubles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) deficit spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) bad harvests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) overspending by Louis XIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) increased wages for peasant workers </li></ul></ul>1
  30. 41. Creating a New France <ul><li>How did popular revolts contribute to the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What moderate reforms did the National Assembly enact? </li></ul><ul><li>How did foreign reaction to the revolution help lead to war? </li></ul>2
  31. 42. Popular Revolts <ul><li>In such desperate times, rumors ran wild and set off what was later called the “Great Fear.” </li></ul><ul><li>A radical group called the Paris Commune replaced the royalist government of Paris. Various factions, or small groups, competed for power. </li></ul><ul><li>In the countryside, peasants attacked the homes and manors of nobles. </li></ul>The political crisis of 1789 coincided with the worst famine in memory. Starving peasants roamed the countryside or flocked to the towns. Even people with jobs had to spend most of their income on bread. 2
  32. 45. 2
  33. 48. Foreign Reaction <ul><li>Events in France stirred debate all over Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of the Enlightenment applauded the reforms of the National Assembly. They saw the French experiment as the dawn of a new age for justice and equality. </li></ul><ul><li>European rulers and nobles denounced the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791, the monarchs of Austria and Prussia issued the Declaration of Pilnitz, in which they threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionaries in France took the threat seriously and prepared for war. </li></ul>2
  34. 50. Section 2 Assessment <ul><li>Which of the following was a reform of the National Assembly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) compensating peasants for lands seized by the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) calling for taxes to be levied according to Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) supporting labor unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) ending feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who issued the Declaration of Pilnitz? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the peasants of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the monarchs of Austria and Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the Second Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) revolutionaries in France </li></ul></ul>2
  35. 51. Section 2 Assessment <ul><li>Which of the following was a reform of the National Assembly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) compensating peasants for lands seized by the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) calling for taxes to be levied according to Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) supporting labor unions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) ending feudalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who issued the Declaration of Pilnitz? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the peasants of France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the monarchs of Austria and Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the Second Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) revolutionaries in France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. </li></ul>2
  36. 52. Radical Days <ul><li>Why did radicals abolish the monarchy? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the excesses of the Convention lead to the Directory? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did the revolution have on women and daily life? </li></ul>3
  37. 53. The Guillotine <ul><li>Although the guillotine's fame dates from its extensive use during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution , the first guillotine-like instrument was used as early as 1307. It may have been used earlier but the first solid evidence is its use in Ireland in 1307. It was not used much until it became the official instrument of execution for the French revolution. It was named for Dr. Guillotin, who proposed that such a machine be used for official executions. It was actually constructed by others, though his name was forever associated with the machine.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was adopted because it was an egalitarian and humanitarian form of capital punishment. Previously the form of execution depended in part on a person's class. A noble might merit a quick blow from the headsman's axe (the custom was to offer a tip to the executioner to ensure a swift death), but if you were a commoner, you might suffer the torture of a drawing and quartering or some equally painful death.  </li></ul>
  38. 54. <ul><li>Some have speculated that these very virtues made it easier and more efficient to use it as an instrument to kill in large numbers. Would Maximilien Robespierre and his followers have been so quick to remove those citizens who failed to measure up in order to create his perfect &quot;republic of virtue&quot; if it were not so efficient and humane? It certainly would have been more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of its efficiency, an execution by guillotine was still a sickening spectacle. When the head was severed, blood poured from the body as the heart continued to pump. When it was used frequently (as it was during the revolution), the stench from the place of execution was horrible. There is also some evidence to suggest that the head retained some life for a moment after the head was severed and so the death might not be as quick as has been supposed. </li></ul>Although the guillotine is most closely associated with the French, the Nazis guillotined more people than were killed during the French Revolution. Hitler considered it a demeaning form of punishment and used it for political executions. 20,000 had a date with Madame la Guillotine in 1942 and 1943.  The last use of the guillotine was in 1977. Capital punishment has been abolished in France.
  39. 55. <ul><li>The official executioner of the French Revolution, Charles-Louis Sanson, said on April 25, 1792: </li></ul><ul><li>” Today the machine invented for the purpose of decapitating criminals sentenced to death will be put to work for the first time. Relative to the methods of execution practiced heretofore, this machine has several advantages. It is less repugnant: no man's hands will be tainted with the blood of his fellow being, and the worst of the ordeal for the condemned man will be his own fear of death, a fear more painful to him than the stroke which deprives him of life.” </li></ul>
  40. 56. 1789 Doctor of Death <ul><li>A medical man’s humane gesture turns into a symbol of terror! </li></ul><ul><li>After the outbreak of the French Revolution, a doctor and member of the National Assembly beseeched his fellow revolutionaries to outlaw inhumane forms of execution. </li></ul><ul><li>He described in detail gory executions and advocated a less painful method. </li></ul>
  41. 57. Dr. Joseph Gullotin became an instant celebrity after championing this new means of execution, and although he neither invented nor designed the device, his name will be permanently attached to it. Soon the Guillotine will take center stage in the drama of the French Revolution and fourteen thousand “enemies of the state” shall bring huge crowds to witness their deaths at Madame Guillotine.
  42. 58. “ With my machine I’ll take your head off in a flash, and you won’t even feel the slightest pain.”
  43. 60. Radicals and the Convention <ul><li>Radicals took control of the Assembly and called for the election of a new legislative body called the National Convention. They granted suffrage, or the right to vote , to all male citizens , not just to property owners. </li></ul><ul><li>The convention set out to erase all traces of the old order. It voted to abolish the monarchy and declare France a republic. The Jacobins, who controlled the Convention, seized lands of nobles and abolished titles of nobility. </li></ul>3
  44. 61. Georges-Jacques Danton <ul><li>Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as &quot;the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic“. A moderating influence on the Jacobins, he was guillotined by the advocates of revolutionary terror after accusations of venality and leniency to the enemies of the Revolution. </li></ul>According to a biographer, &quot;Danton's height was colossal, his make athletic, his features strongly marked, coarse, and displeasing; his voice shook the domes of the halls&quot;. He said to his executioner: &quot;Don't forget to show my head to the people. It's well worth seeing.&quot;
  45. 62. Maximilien Robespierre <ul><li>Robespierre is one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. He largely dominated the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror, which ended with his arrest and execution in 1794. </li></ul>Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre
  46. 63. <ul><li>Robespierre was influenced by 18th century Enlightenment philosophes such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu, and he was a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wing bourgeoisie. He was described as physically unimposing and immaculate in attire and personal manners. His supporters called him &quot;The Incorruptible&quot;, while his adversaries called him the &quot;Tyrant&quot; and dictateur sanguinaire (bloodthirsty dictator). </li></ul>Maximilien Robespierre Portrait of Robespierre after his election to the Estates General, 1789
  47. 66. Charlotte Corday <ul><li>As the French Revolution wore on, Charlotte Corday no longer believed that a Republic would be possible. She felt that Jean-Paul Marat, who daily demanded more and more heads, was in large part responsible for the misfortunes that the French people were undergoing. She resolved to rid the country of him. On July 9, 1793, Charlotte requested an appointment with Marat at his home Marat agreed; by stating that she had &quot;information to give him&quot; and that he could even &quot;render a great service to France&quot;, she managed to obtain a meeting with him. </li></ul>
  48. 67. <ul><li>The meeting took place in his bathroom; he was in his bathtub. It was there that Charlotte killed him, using a table knife &quot;with a dark wooden handle and a silver ferrule, bought for a few sols at the Palais-Royal&quot;. </li></ul>Charlotte Corday
  49. 68. Jean-Paul Marat: Popular journalist who advocated extreme measures against traitors and hoarders. Assassinated in the bath in1793.
  50. 69. <ul><li>In the middle of the Terror, the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat , &quot;the Friend of the People&quot;, made Charlotte Corday the heroine of the French people. After the event, she was immediately arrested and imprisoned in the Conciergerie. The verdict at her trial left no room for doubt : she was condemned to death. On July 17, 1793, at about seven o'clock in the evening, she walked up the several steps to the scaffold and was guillotined. </li></ul>Charlotte Corday
  51. 73. Detail From Triumph of Marat , Boilly, 1794 (Musee des Beaux-Arts)
  52. 74. From Convention to Directory By early 1793, France was at war with most of Europe. Within France, peasants and workers were in rebellion against the government. The Convention itself was bitterly divided. To deal with threats to France, the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety. The Reign of Terror lasted from about July 1793 to July 1794. Under the guidance of Maximilien Robespierre, some 40,000 people were executed at the guillotine. In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates created another constitution, the third since 1789. The Constitution of 1795 set up a five-man Directory and a two-house legislature. 3
  53. 77. representatives.
  54. 78. Women in the Revolution <ul><li>Women of all classes participated in the revolution from the very beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women were very disappointed when the Declaration of the Rights of Man did not grant equal citizenship to women. </li></ul><ul><li>Women did gain some rights for a time. However, these did not last long after Napoleon gained power. </li></ul>3
  55. 79. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen <ul><li>The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining the individual and collective rights of all the estates of the realm as universal. Influenced by the doctrine of natural rights, the rights of Man are universal: valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself. Although it establishes fundamental rights for French citizens and all men without exception , it addresses neither the status of women nor slavery; despite that, it is a precursor document to international human rights instruments. </li></ul>
  56. 80. Omissions ! <ul><li>While it set forth fundamental rights, not only for French citizens but for &quot;all men without exception,&quot; it did not make any statement about the status of women, nor did it explicitly address slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Women's rights </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration recognized most rights as belonging only to men. This was despite the fact that after The March on Versailles on 5 October1789, women presented the Women's Petition to the National Assembly in which they proposed a decree giving women equality. In 1790 Nicolas de Condorcet and Etta Palm d’Aelders unsuccessfully called on the National Assembly to extend civil and political rights to women. Condorcet declared that “and he who votes against the right of another, whatever the religion, color, or sex of that other, has henceforth adjured his own&quot;. The French Revolution did not lead to a recognition of women’s rights and this prompted de Gouges to publish the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in September 1791. [12] </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen is modeled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and is ironic in formulation and exposes the failure of the French Revolution which had been devoted to equality It states that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ This revolution will only take effect when all women become fully aware of their deplorable condition, and of the rights they have lost in society”. </li></ul><ul><li>The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen follows the seventeen articles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen point for point and has been described by Camille Naish as “almost a parody... of the original document”. The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen proclaims that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.” </li></ul><ul><li>The first article of Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen replied: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights. Social distinctions may only be based on common utility”. </li></ul><ul><li>De Gouges also draws attention to the fact that under French law women were fully punishable, yet denied equal rights, declaring “Women have the right to mount the scaffold, they must also have the right to mount the speaker’s rostrum”. [13] </li></ul><ul><li>Women were eventually given these rights with the adoption of the 1946 Constitution of the French Fourth Republic </li></ul>
  57. 81. Slavery <ul><li>The declaration did not revoke the institution of slavery, as lobbied for by Jacques-Pierre Brissot's Les Amis des Noirs and defended by the group of colonial planters called the Club Massiac because they met at the Hôtel Massiac. Despite the lack of explicit mention of slavery in the Declaration, slave uprisings in Saint-Domingue that would later be known as the beginning of the Haitian Revolution took inspiration from its words, as discussed in C.L.R. James' history of the Haitian Revolution, The Black Jacobins .Deplorable conditions for the thousands of slaves in Saint-Domingue, the most profitable slave colony in the world, also led to the uprisings which would be known as the first successful slave revolt in the New World. Slavery in the French colonies was abolished in 1794, but reinstated by Napoleon in 1802. The colony of Saint-Domingue declared its independence in 1804. </li></ul>
  58. 82. Changes in Daily Life <ul><li>By 1799, the French Revolution had dramatically changed France. It had dislodged the old social order, overthrown the monarchy, and brought the Church under state control. Many changes occurred in everyday life: </li></ul><ul><li>New symbols, such as the tricolor, emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>Titles were eliminated. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate fashions were replaced by practical clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>People developed a strong sense of national identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, a strong feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country, spread throughout France. </li></ul>3
  59. 83. Pre-1789 A series of social and political tensions build within France, before being unleashed by a financial crisis in the 1780s. 1789 – 91 The Estates General is called, but instead of bowing to the king it takes radical action, declaring itself a Legislative Assembly and seizing sovereignty. It starts tearing down the old regime and creating a new France. 1792 A second revolution occurs, as Jacobins and sans culottes force the creation of a French Republic. The Legislative Assembly is replaced by the new National Convention. 1793 – 4 With foreign enemies attacking from outside France and violent opposition occurring within, the ruling Committee of Public Safety put into practice government by terror. Their rule is short but bloody. 1795 – 1799 The Directory is created and put in charge of France, as the nation’s fortunes wax and wane. 1800 – 1802 A young General called Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power, ending the Revolution and consolidating some of its reforms. French Revolution Timeline
  60. 86. Section 3 Assessment <ul><li>In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates set up the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Convention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Directory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) National Assembly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) “Great Fear.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was true of women in the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The rights of women increased under Napoleon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Women were granted equal citizenship under the Declaration of the Rights of Man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Peasant women were confined to the home and did not participate at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Women of all classes participated from the very beginning. </li></ul></ul>3
  61. 87. Section 3 Assessment <ul><li>In reaction to the Reign of Terror, moderates set up the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Convention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Directory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) National Assembly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) “Great Fear.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was true of women in the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The rights of women increased under Napoleon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Women were granted equal citizenship under the Declaration of the Rights of Man. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Peasant women were confined to the home and did not participate at all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Women of all classes participated from the very beginning. </li></ul></ul>3
  62. 91. The Age of Napoleon Begins <ul><li>How did Napoleon rise to power? </li></ul><ul><li>How were revolutionary reforms changed under Napoleon? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Napoleon build an empire in Europe? </li></ul>4
  63. 92. The Rise of Napoleon 4 1769 Born on island of Corsica 1793 Helps capture Toulon from British; promoted to brigadier general 1795 Crushes rebels opposed to the National Convention 1796–1797 Becomes commander in chief of the army of Italy; wins victories against Austria 1798–1799 Loses to the British in Egypt and Syria 1799 Overthrows Directory and becomes First Consul of France 1804 Crowns himself emperor of France
  64. 93. France Under Napoleon <ul><li>Napoleon consolidated his power by strengthening the central government. </li></ul><ul><li>Order, security, and efficiency replaced </li></ul><ul><li>liberty, equality, and fraternity as the </li></ul><ul><li>slogans of the new regime. </li></ul>4 <ul><li>Napoleon instituted a number of reforms to restore economic prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon developed a new law code, the Napoleonic Code, which embodied Enlightenment principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon undid some of the reforms of the French Revolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Women lost most of their newly gained rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Male heads of household regained complete authority over their wives and children. </li></ul>
  65. 94. Building an Empire <ul><li>As Napoleon created a vast French empire, </li></ul><ul><li>he redrew the map of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>He annexed, or added outright, some areas to France. </li></ul><ul><li>He abolished the Holy Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>He cut Prussia in half. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon controlled much of Europe through forceful diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>He put friends and relatives on the thrones of </li></ul><ul><li>Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>He forced alliances on many European powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain alone remained outside Napoleon’s empire. </li></ul>4
  66. 95. Napoleon’s Power in Europe, 1812 4
  67. 96. Section 4 Assessment <ul><li>Which of the following never became a part of Napoleon’s empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was an immediate cause of the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the storming of the Bastille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Reign of Terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the establishment of the Napoleonic Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Napoleon’s rise to power </li></ul></ul>4
  68. 97. Section 4 Assessment <ul><li>Which of the following never became a part of Napoleon’s empire? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was an immediate cause of the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the storming of the Bastille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) the Reign of Terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the establishment of the Napoleonic Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Napoleon’s rise to power </li></ul></ul>4
  69. 98. The End of an Era <ul><li>What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire? </li></ul><ul><li>What events led to Napoleon’s downfall? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna? </li></ul>5
  70. 99. Challenges to Napoleon’s Empire <ul><li>The impact of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Many Europeans who had welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution nevertheless saw Napoleon and his armies as foreign oppressors. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon had replaced the king of Spain with his own brother, but many Spaniards remained loyal to their former king. Spanish patriots conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the French. </li></ul><ul><li>War with Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish resistance encouraged Austria to resume hostilities against the French. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all of Napoleon’s 400,000 troops sent on a campaign in Russia died, most from hunger and the cold of the Russian winter. </li></ul>5
  71. 100. Downfall of Napoleon . 1812—Napoleon’s forces were defeated in Russia. Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia form a new alliance against a weakened France. 1813—Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Nations in Leipzig. 1814—Napoleon abdicated, or stepped down from power, and was exiled to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. 1815—Napoleon escaped his exile and returned to France. Combined British and Prussian forces defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Napoleon was forced to abdicate again, and was this time exiled to St. Helena, an island in the South Atlantic. 1821—Napoleon died in exile. 5
  72. 101. Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcole
  73. 102. Legacy of Napoleon <ul><li>The Napoleonic Code consolidated many changes of the revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon turned France into a centralized state with a constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections were held with expanded, though limited, suffrage. </li></ul><ul><li>Many more citizens had rights to property and access to education. </li></ul><ul><li>French citizens lost many rights promised to them during the Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>On the world stage, Napoleon’s conquests spread the ideas of the revolution and nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon failed to make Europe into a French empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The abolition of the Holy Roman Empire would eventually contribute to the creation of a new Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon’s decision to sell France’s Louisiana Territory to America doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion. </li></ul>5
  74. 103. What Were the Goals of the Congress of Vienna? <ul><li>The chief goal of the Congress was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve this goal, the peacemakers did the following: </li></ul><ul><li>They redrew the map of Europe. To contain French ambition, they ringed France with strong countries. </li></ul><ul><li>They promoted the principle of legitimacy, restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated. </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the new order, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain extended their wartime alliance into the postwar era. </li></ul>
  75. 104. Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815 5
  76. 106. <ul><li>The alliance that formed to defeat Napoleon was made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Britain, Switzerland, and Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Britain, Italy, Poland, and Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Russia, Prussia, and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was an action taken by the peacemakers at the Congress of Vienna? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They restored hereditary monarchs to their thrones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) They set up representative governments in France and Austria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) They helped France regain some of its lost power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They dissolved the alliance that had defeated Napoleon. </li></ul></ul>Section 5 Assessment 5
  77. 107. <ul><li>The alliance that formed to defeat Napoleon was made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Britain, Switzerland, and Prussia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Britain, Italy, Poland, and Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Russia, Prussia, and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following was an action taken by the peacemakers at the Congress of Vienna? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They restored hereditary monarchs to their thrones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) They set up representative governments in France and Austria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) They helped France regain some of its lost power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They dissolved the alliance that had defeated Napoleon. </li></ul></ul>Section 5 Assessment 5
  78. 108. <ul><li>Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. </li></ul>
  79. 109. <ul><li>During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by some in the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the 'bogeyman'. become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a comically large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Tory press sometimes depicted Napoleon as much smaller than average height and this image persists. Confusion about his height also results from the difference between the French pouce and British inch—2.71 and 2.54 cm respectively; he was 5 ft 7 in tall, average height for the period, sometimes quoted as 5 ft 6 in. </li></ul>
  80. 110. <ul><li>In 1908 psychologist Alfred Adler cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex where short people adopt an overaggressive behavior to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex . The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short &quot;petty tyrant&quot; and this has become a cliché in popular culture. He is often portrayed wearing a comically large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the 1812 painting by Jacques-Louis David. </li></ul>
  81. 111. <ul><li>The King of Brobdingnag and Gulliver </li></ul><ul><li>Britain's King George III examines a tiny Napoleon Bonaparte through a spyglass. The cartoon shows Britain's contempt for France and its leader. - Printed 26 June, 1803. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

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