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Ch18 20classzonebook

  1. 1. The World Since1945: An Overview(1945–Present)
  2. 2. The World Since 1945:An Overview(1945–present)Section 1: The Changing PoliticalClimateSection 2: Global Economic TrendsSection 3: Changing Patterns ofLife
  3. 3. The Changing Political Climate• How did the end of colonialism and the ColdWar shape the world?• How did new nations try to form stablegovernments?• What role have world organizations played?• What enduring issues face the world today?1
  4. 4. The Cold War and the End ofColonialismIn the postwar decades, the colonial empires built by thewestern powers crumbled.In Asia and Africa, people demanded and won freedoms.Between 1950 and 1980, more than 50 new nations emerged inAfrica alone.The new nations emerged in a world dominated and divided bythe Cold War. Each of the superpowers, the United States andthe Soviet Union, wanted new countries to adopt its ideology, orsystem of thought or belief—either capitalism or socialism.
  5. 5. The Great Liberation and the ColdWar, 1945 – 19901
  6. 6. After winning independence, new nations had high hopes for thefuture. Still, they faced immense problems.New nations wrote constitutions modeled on westerndemocracies.Most were unable to sustain democratic rule.As problems multiplied, military or authoritarian leaders oftentook control. They imposed order by building one-partydictatorships.Despite setbacks, in the 1980s and 1990s democracy did makeprogress in some African, Asian, and Latin American nations.1How Did New Nations Seek Stability?
  7. 7. The Role of World OrganizationsInternational organizations deal with issues of global concern.The UN was set up as a forum for settling world disputes. Itsresponsibilities have expanded greatly since 1945. UN agenciesprovide services for millions of people worldwide.Many nations formed regional groups to promote trade or meetcommon needs. Examples include the European Union (EU) and theNorth American Free Trade Association (NAFTA).The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) play alarge role in the world economy. WHO is the World HealthOrganization. NGOs swoop in to help in many crisis areas.Other types of nongovernmental organizations have forged valuableglobal networks. Examples include the International OlympicCommittee and the International Red Cross.1
  8. 8. A family in Indonesia tries to make their way to shelter after tsunamis destroyedtheir village in 2004.Aid organizations like CARE (logo above) worked to bring relief to the devastatedregion.NGO’s= non-government organizations, like Greenpeace, Oxfam, AmnestyInternational, International Red Cross/Red Crescent, Doctors Without Borders, etc.
  9. 9. G-20majoreconomiesHaves vs. Have-NotsThird World=DevelopingCountriesLDC’s=LesserDevelopedCountries
  10. 10. •Loss and weakening of state/governmental sovereignty•Pressure to conform to global norms (business, law, culture, etc..)•Increased demands for autonomy (freedom?) within state borders•More vulnerable to actions/choices of other nations•Need to be more sensitive to decisions within the state•Problems once containable now spread to other nations more easily(crime, drugs, disease, pollution, terrorism, economic crisis)•Resources (land, capital, people) more easily exploited in developingstates•More pressure to compete globally•Rapid raise in costs of urbanization and industrialization(pollution, crime, economic stratification, erosion of traditionalculture)•"Americanization" or "Westernization" of culture and politics;emphasis on homogeneity (McWorld)Costs of Globalization
  11. 11. •Interdependence leads to more cooperation on largerproblems•Reduction in barriers to trade, investment, and capital(human and physical) makes economic transactionseasier, more efficient and more profitable•Rapid economic growth•Consumers gain more access to wider array of products andreduced costs•Creation of regional and global institutions to cope withregional or global issues•Spread of democracy and human rights•Empowerment of non-state actors•New avenues for political access, redress and voice•Creating a sense of global citizenshipBenefits of Globalization
  12. 12. Global IssuesMany issues pose a challenge to world peace.DEADLY WEAPONSSince the United States explodedtwo atomic bombs in1945, nations have pouredresources into building nuclearweapons.Weapons of Mass Destruction--WMDsHUMAN RIGHTSHuman rights include “the rightto life, liberty, and security ofperson.” Human rightsabuses, including torture andarbitrary arrest, occur around theworld.THE QUESTION OF INTERVENTIONDoes the world community have aduty to step in to end human rightsabuses? How can it intervene whenthe UN Charter forbids any actionthat violates the independence of amember nation?TERRORISMSince the1960s, incidents ofterrorism have increasedaround the world.
  13. 13. An Illegal CrossingEach year tens of thousands of illegalimmigrants, like this family, risk their lives tocross the border between Mexico and theUnited States. What factors lead people torisk their lives in illegal border crossing?Why do signs like the one above fail to determany migrants?Immigration Issues
  14. 14. ReligiousDifferences
  15. 15. Section AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end ofa) World War II.b) European colonial empires.c) the Cold War.d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created topromote trade and meet common needs?a) the European Unionb) the International Red Crossc) the International Olympic Committeed) the UN1
  16. 16. 1Section AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end ofa) World War II.b) European colonial empires.c) the Cold War.d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created topromote trade and meet common needs?a) the European Unionb) the International Red Crossc) the International Olympic Committeed) the UN
  17. 17. Global Economic Trends• In what ways are the global North and Southeconomically interdependent?• Why have developing nations had troublereaching their goals?• How is economic development linked to theenvironment?2
  18. 18. The Global North and SouthIt includes the industrial nations ofEurope and North America, as wellas Japan and Australia.Although pockets of povertyexist, the standard of living isgenerally high.Most people are literate, earnadequate wages, and have basichealth services.Most nations have basicallycapitalist economies.It refers to the developing world.The South has 75 percent of theworld’s population and much ofits natural resources.While some nations have enjoyedstrong growth, overall the globalSouth remains underdevelopedand poor.For most people, life is a dailystruggle for survival.An economic gulf divides the world into two spheres — therelatively rich nations of the global North and the relatively poornations of the global South.GLOBAL NORTH GLOBAL SOUTH2
  19. 19. Economic InterdependenceRich and poor nations are linked by many economic ties.•The nations of the global North control much of the world’scapital, trade, and technology.•The global North depends on low-paid workers in developingstates to produce manufactured goods as inexpensively as possible.In an interdependent world, events in one country can affectpeople everywhere.EXAMPLE: In 1973, a political crisis led the oil-rich nations of theMiddle East to halt oil exports and raise oil prices. OPEC Theseactions sent economic shock waves around the world.2OPEC
  20. 20. Obstacles to DevelopmentPOPULATION AND POVERTYIn the developing world, rapid population growth is linked to poverty.ECONOMIC DEPENDENCEMost new nations remained dependent on their former colonial rulers.POLITICAL INSTABILITYPolitical unrest often hindered economic development.ECONOMIC POLICIESMany new nations saw socialism, rather than capitalism, as a way tomodernize quickly. In the long run, socialism blocked economic growth.Why have many developing nations been unable to makeprogress toward modernization?GEOGRAPHYLack of natural resources, difficult climates, uncertain rainfall, and lackof good farmland have been obstacles for some nations.2
  21. 21. Health Statistics of Selected Countries, 19992
  22. 22. Now, across the developing world, many people are caught in a cycle of poverty. The UNestimates that 35,000 children die each day from starvation, disease, and other effects ofpoverty. Because of malnutrition and the lack of good schools, millions of people are proneto disease and unable to earn a good living. They and their children remain poor andcannot escape this tragic cycle.Rising Populations Strain Resources
  23. 23. Development and theEnvironmentEconomic development has taken a heavy toll on theenvironment. Modern industry and agriculture havegobbled up natural resources and polluted much of theworld’s water, air, and soil.•Strip mining destroyed much land.•Chemical pesticides and fertilizers harmed the soil and water.•Gases from factories produced acid rain.•The emission of gases into the upper atmosphere has causedglobal warming, the increase in world temperatures.2Rich nations consume most of the world’s resources and producemuch of its pollution. At the same time, they have led thecampaign to protect the environment.
  24. 24. A Risky SituationVials of the bacteria that cause plague were left improperly secured inKazakhstan by Soviet scientists.Nukes or plutonium for sale???
  25. 25. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is aninternational organization designed by itsfounders to supervise and liberalizeinternational trade. The organization officiallycommenced on January 1, 1995 under theMarrakech Agreement, replacing the GeneralAgreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), whichcommenced in 1947.
  26. 26. Ending Child Labor RUGMARK, an organizationthat works to end child labor, sponsors theeducation of South Asian students like this girl.The RUGMARK label on her sleeve also appearson carpets and rugs that were made withoutchild labor. What effect might labels like thisone have on people’s buying habits?Often it is slave labor/children who pick thebeans for your chocolate--and for minimalwages, if they are paid at all.Human Trafficking, debt slavery, childsoldiers, prostitution, sexploitation, smuggling, and body parts…are all BIG issues.Nike sweatshopin China.
  27. 27. Which of the following is true?a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.c) Most nations in the Global North have basicallysocialist economies.d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a highstandard of living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 wasa) Angola. c) the United States.b) Japan. d) Guatemala.Section Assessment2
  28. 28. Section Assessment2Which of the following is true?a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.c) Most nations in the Global North have basicallysocialist economies.d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a high standardof living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 wasa) Angola. c) the United States.b) Japan. d) Guatemala.
  29. 29. Antarctica is the coldest inhabited place on Earth. From September to March—the summermonths—temperatures are about 50 degrees below zero with a wind chill of 80 below. Wintermonths are 50 degrees colder than that. There is continuous daylight in the summer anddarkness in winter. Visitors only see sunrises and sunsets for a few weeks between the seasons.Scientists work year-round in the harsh conditions of the South Pole. It is a forbiddingenvironment that not everyone is ready to face
  30. 30. Quiz on Antarctica
  31. 31. Chapter 18: The Colonies BecomeNew NationsChapter ObjectiveTrace independence movements and political conflicts in Africaand Asia as colonialism gave way after World War II.SECTION 1 The Indian Subcontinent Achieves FreedomTrace the struggles for freedom on the Indian subcontinent.SECTION 2 Southeast Asian Nations Gain IndependenceTrace the independence movements in thePhilippines, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.SECTION 3 New Nations in AfricaExplain the independence movements and struggles inGhana, Kenya, Congo, and Angola.**SECTION 4 Conflicts in the Middle EastDescribe the formation of Israel and the conflicts in theMiddle East.SECTION 5 Central Asia StrugglesSummarize the struggles for independence in Central Asia.
  32. 32. PartitionofIndia, 19471
  33. 33. In an effort to end Indias religiousstrife, he resorted to fasts and visits tothe troubled areas. He was on one suchvigil in New Delhi when NathuramGodse, a Hindu extremist who objectedto Gandhis tolerance for theMuslims, fatally shot him. Knownas Mahatma, or "the great soul," duringhis lifetime, Gandhis persuasive methodsof civil disobedience influenced leadersof civil rights movements around theworld, especially Martin LutherKing, Jr. in the United States.On 30 January1948, Gandhi was shotand killed while havinghis nightly public walkon the grounds…
  34. 34. Why Was India Partitioned?After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand forindependence.Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan.Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain topartition, or divide, the subcontinent.In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and MuslimPakistan.As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence eruptedin Northern India.Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a millionpeople, including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed.Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensionspersisted.1
  35. 35. Muslims leave India, 1947
  36. 36. Hat worn by Indian border guards along theborder with PakistanRefugees Flee Amid ViolenceHowever, Hindus and Muslims still livedside by side in many cities and rural areas.As soon as the new borders becameknown, millions of Hindus on the Pakistaniside of the borders packed up theirbelongings and fled to the new India. Atthe same time, millions of Muslims fledinto newly created Pakistan. An estimated10 million people fled their homes, mostof them on foot.Muslims fleeing along the crowded roadsinto Pakistan were slaughtered by Hindusand Sikhs , members of an Indian religiousminority. Muslims massacred Hindu andSikh neighbors. Around one million peopledied in these massacres. Others died ofstarvation and exposure on the road.
  37. 37. India’s population boom and the labor-savingmethods of the Green Revolution resulted inmillions of rural families migrating to cities.But overcrowded cities like Kolkata (orCalcutta) and Mumbai (or Bombay) could notprovide jobs and basic services for everyone.To help the urban poor, Mother Teresa, aRoman Catholic nun, founded the Missionariesof Charity in Calcutta. This group provides foodand medical care to thousands. Still, millionsmore remained in desperate need.The Indian government backed familyplanning, but did not adopt the harsh policiesthat China did. Efforts to slow populationgrowth had limited success. PoorerIndians, especially in rural areas, still seechildren as an economic resource who helpwork the land and care for parents in old age.Combating PovertyMother Teresa worked withthe poor in Calcutta, India.
  38. 38. Cities Rapidly GrowIn African, Asian, and Latin American nations, people have flooded into cities such as SãoPaulo, Brazil, and Mumbai, India, to find jobs and escape rural poverty. Besides economicopportunities, cities offer attractions such as stores, concerts, and sports. However, with nomoney and few jobs, newcomers must often settle in shantytowns. These slums of flimsyshacks are as crowded and dangerous as the slums of Europe and North America were in the1800s and early 1900s. They lack basic services, such as running water, electricity, or sewers.Drugs and crime are constant threats.Mumbai, India, a poor slum contrasts sharply with an affluent suburb.
  39. 39. Bangalore: A Customer Support CenterWorkers in Bangalore, India, serve as customer service operators for Americanand European companies. To make callers feel more comfortable, the operatorsare trained in English and American slang.How do you expect the customer service industry to change as more countriesdevelop?Outsourcing of American jobs gains India money,employment and infrastructure, but costs America bigtime!
  40. 40. “Vivisection” of India (Gandhi)• Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League• Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party• 1947 partition– 500,000 killed– 10 million refugees• India moves towardnonalignment position– The “third path”
  41. 41. The Two Pakistans Grow ApartFrom the beginning, West Pakistan tended to dominate the nation’sgovernment, even though East Pakistan had a larger population. Thegovernment concentrated most economic development programs inWest Pakistan, while East Pakistan remained mired in poverty. Mostpeople in East Pakistan were Bengalis, while West Pakistanis came fromother ethnic groups. Many Bengalis resented the central government’sneglect of their region.Bangladesh Breaks AwayIn 1971, Bengalis declared independence for East Pakistan under thenew name of Bangladesh, or “Bengali Nation.” Pakistan’s military rulerordered the army to crush the rebels. India supported the rebels byattacking and defeating the Pakistani army in Bangladesh. Pakistan waseventually compelled to recognize the independence of Bangladesh.
  42. 42. Cause and Effect: Partition of India1Muslim conquestof northern Indiain 1100sBritish imperialismin IndiaNationalistsorganize theIndian NationalCongress in 1885Muslimnationalists formseparate MuslimLeague in 1906Long-TermCausesWorld War IIweakens Europeancolonial empiresPressure from IndiannationalistsincreasesInsistence byMuhammad AliJinnah and theMuslim League thatMuslims have theirown stateRioting betweenHindus and Muslimsthroughout northernIndiaShort-TermCausesViolence erupts asmillions of Hindusand Muslims crossthe borderbetween Indiaand PakistanGandhi isassassinated byHindu extremistsIndia and Pakistanbecome centersof Cold WarrivalryEstablishment ofthe state ofBangladeshEffectsContinuing clashbetween India andPakistan over KashmirNuclear arms race asboth India andPakistan refuse tosign Non-ProliferationTreatyOh, yeah--That’s whereOsama was“hiding”Connections toToday
  44. 44. Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin LadenArabic: (March 10, 1957 – May 1, 2011)was a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leader ofthe terrorist organization a l-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attacks on theUnited States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian targets.Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigations list of FBI Ten MostWanted Fugitives.Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization had been major targets of theUnited States War on Terror. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders were believedto be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistans Federally AdministeredTribal Areas. Navy SEALs took him out.Gothim!
  45. 45. The assassination of Benazir Bhuttooccurred on 27 December 2007in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Bhutto, twice PrimeMinister of Pakistan (1988–1990; 1993–1996) and then-leader of the oppositionPakistan Peoples Party, had beencampaigning ahead of elections due inJanuary 2008. Shots were fired at her aftera political rally and a suicide bomb wasdetonated immediately following theshooting. She was declared dead at 18:16local time, at Rawalpindi General Hospital.24 other people were killed by the bombing.Bhutto had previously survived a similarattempt on her life that killed at least 139people, after her return from exile twomonths earlier.Though early reports indicated that she hadbeen hit by shrapnel or the gunshots, thePakistani Interior Ministry initially statedthat Bhutto died of a skull fracture sustainedwhen the force of the explosion caused herhead to strike the sunroof of the vehicle.The War on Terrorism had a major impact onPakistan, when terrorism inside Pakistan increasedtwofold. The country was already gripped withsectarian violence, but after 9/11, it also had thedirect threat of Al-Qaeda and Taliban, which usuallytargeted high-profile political figures.
  46. 46. The Kashmir QuestionIn 1947, British India was partitioned intoHindu-majority India and Muslim-majorityPakistan. Kashmir is claimed by both India andPakistan and has been a battleground betweenthe two countries. The documents below helpto show why the “Kashmir problem” remainsworrisome today.
  47. 47. Struggles OverKashmirFollowing independence, Indiaand Pakistan fought a warover Kashmir, a state in theHimalayas with Muslim andHindu populations. Its Hinduruler sought to join India eventhough much of the state’sMuslim majority wanted to bepart of Pakistan. In 1949, Indiaand Pakistan agreed to stopfighting.The peace between the two nations was short-lived. In 1965, Pakistanand India fought another war over Kashmir and have had several briefclashes since then. Over the years, Muslim Kashmiriseparatists, supported by militants from neighboring Pakistan, havefought Indian troops. Indian forces, in turn, have attacked MuslimKashmiris.
  48. 48. Democracy: The GlobalSpread of DemocracyThis chapter describesthe spread of democracyto West Germany andJapan and later toEastern Europe. Using anencyclopedia, researchthe move to democracyin an Eastern Europeancountry. Then research amove to democracy in acountry in LatinAmerica, East Asia, orAfrica. How was thetransition to democracysimilar or different inthese two countries?
  49. 49. 71Indian Democracy• Indian democracy flourishesunder Indira Ghandi (1917-1984)– Daughter of Nehru, no relationshipto Mohandas– “Green Revolution” increasesagricultural yields– Repressive policies to slowpopulation growth, includingforced sterilization• Assassinated by Sikh bodyguardsafter attack on Sikh extremists inAmritsar, 1984
  50. 50. Sikhs RebelSome Indian Sikhs wanted independence forthe prosperous and largely Sikh stateof Punjab. In 1984, armed Sikh separatists tookdramatic action. They occupied the GoldenTemple, the Sikh religion’s holiest shrine.When talks failed to oust them, Indira Gandhisent troops. Thousands of Sikhs died in thefighting, and the Golden Temple was damaged.A few months later, Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguardsassassinated her, igniting more religiousviolence.Prime Minister IndiraGandhi led India from 1966to 1977 and again from1980 to 1984.
  51. 51. Urbanizationundermined sometraditions, but mostIndians continued tolive in villages.The government triedto end discriminationbased on caste.However, deepprejudice continued.India adopted a socialistmodel to expand agricultureand industry.Rapid population growthhurt efforts to improveliving conditions.An economic slowdownforced India to privatizesome industries and makeforeign investment easier.India’s constitution set up afederal system.For 40 years afterindependence, the Nehrufamily led India.India’s size and diversityhave contributed toreligious and regionaldivisions.Today, India is the world’slargest democratic nation.SOCIALECONOMICPOLITICALIndia: Political, Economic, and Social Change1
  52. 52. Pakistan and BangladeshAfter independence, military leadersseized power and ruled as dictators.When civilian leaders were finallyelected, the military continued tointervene.The country lacked naturalresources for industry.Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts.Severe economic problems andcorruption plagued the government.Forty percent of the nation’s budgetIn 1971, Bengalis declaredindependence for Bangladesh.Geography has made it difficult torise out of poverty.Explosive population growth hasfurther strained resources.Since the early 1990s, civiliangovernments have worked toencourage foreign investments.PAKISTAN BANGLADESH1
  53. 53. Bangladeshi Laily Begum used tosleep in a cow shed and spend herdays begging. Then she got a loanfor $119 from Grameen Bank, aBangladesh-based organizationthat lends money to the poor. Shebought a cow and began to buildher own business selling milk.Today she and her husband ownseveral shops and a restaurant.“People now come to me for help. . . I can feed myself and myfamily, and now other people lookat me and they treat me withrespect.”—Laily Begum, February 12, 1998A loan recipient poses with thecows she bought to help generateincome.Micro-loans allowpeople to helpthemselves.
  54. 54. Conflict Divides Sri LankaThe British colony of Ceylon, an island just south of India, gained independence in 1948. Itchanged its name to Sri Lanka in 1972. A majority of Sri Lankans are Buddhists who speakSinhalese. However, a large Tamil-speaking Hindu minority lives in the north and east. SriLanka adopted policies that favored the Sinhalese majority. These policies angered manyTamils. In the late 1970s, Tamil rebels began a military struggle for a separate Tamil nation.After years of fighting, Sri Lanka’s government and the Tamil rebels signed a peaceagreement in 2002. The rebels agreed to stop fighting, and the government agreed to givethe Tamil region some freedoms. However, it was uncertain whether this agreementwould hold.
  55. 55. Bangladesh Breaks AwayIn 1971, Bengalis declaredindependence for East Pakistanunder the new nameof Bangladesh, or “BengaliNation.” Pakistan’s military rulerordered the army to crush therebels. India supported therebels by attacking anddefeating the Pakistani army inBangladesh. Pakistan waseventually compelled torecognize the independence ofBangladesh.Floods Ravage Bangladesh Devastating floodsoften occur in Bangladesh after the summerrains. In this photo, relief workers aredelivering supplies to a family trapped on theirroof. How might frequent floods make it moredifficult to improve the economy ofBangladesh?
  56. 56. Which of the following was an effect of the partition of India?a) British imperialism in Indiab) World War IIc) establishment of the state of Bangladeshd) the organization of the Indian National CongressWhich of the following was not a challenge facing Pakistan afterindependence?a) lack of natural resourcesb) government corruptionc) ethnic tensionsd) failed socialist economic policiesSection Assessment1
  57. 57. Section Assessment1Which of the following was an effect of the partition of India?a) British imperialism in Indiab) World War IIc) establishment of the state of Bangladeshd) the organization of the Indian National CongressWhich of the following was not a challenge facing Pakistan afterindependence?a) lack of natural resourcesb) government corruptionc) ethnic tensionsd) failed socialist economic policies
  58. 58. How is South Asia Linkedto World Affairs?• India and Pakistan achieved their independence asthe Cold War began.• Pakistan accepted military aid from the UnitedStates, while India signed a treaty of friendship withthe Soviet Union.• When the Cold War ended, both India and Pakistansought aid from the western powers.• Regional conflicts bred global concern after bothIndia and Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons.• Non-aligned countries Like India, Pakistan, & LatinAmerica were referred to as the Third World.1
  59. 59. Developing Nations of Southeast AsiaSoutheast Asian nations faced many problems after independence.They lacked experience in self-government.They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts.Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent.For years, repressive military rulersbattled rebel ethnic minorities.They isolated the country andimposed state socialism.In 1990, the government heldelections. The opposition partywon, but the military rejected theelection results.Geography posed an obstacle tounity in Indonesia.Under authoritarian rule,Indonesia made great economicprogress.The 1997 Asian financial crisis led toriots against the government.A new government was elected andfaced many problems.MYANMAR INDONESIA4
  60. 60. Myanmar SuffersBritain granted independence to its former colony of Burma in 1948. Burma was renamedMyanmar in 1989. Ethnic tensions have plagued Myanmar. The majority, Burmans, havedominated other ethnic groups. The military government has limited foreign trade, andliving standards remain low.Under mounting foreign pressure, elections were held in 1990. A party opposed tomilitary rule won. It was led by Aung San Suu Kyi, whose father had helped Burma winindependence. The military rejected the election results and jailed, killed, or exiled manyopponents. Suu Kyi was held under house arrest. In 1995, Suu Kyi won the Nobel PeacePrize for her “nonviolent struggle for democracy and human rights,” but she remained aprisoner in her own country.Aung San Suu Kyi 1945–,is a Burmese political leader; grad.Oxford Univ. The daughter ofassassinated (1947) nationalist generalU Aung San, who is regarded as thefounder of modern Myanmar,Aung San Suu Kyi was released inNovember after spending most ofthe past 20 years under housearrest in Myanmar (AFP/File, SoeThan Win)
  61. 61. Sukarno, Indonesia’s first president, who won their independence from the Dutch, wasremoved by Suharto, whose “New Order” got population growth and food production undercontrol.Flag of the Southeast Asiannation of MalaysiaYang di-Pertuan Agong of MalaysiaWas elected for the second time as king.The title is mostly ceremonial.The Prime Ministerreally runs the show:Najib Razak
  62. 62. Southeast Asia’s Oil WealthOil and gas reserves have been an importantsource of wealth for Indonesia and itsneighbors. This oil well is in the oil-richmonarchy of Brunei. Brunei is on the island ofBorneo, which is divided amongBrunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia.Ethnic Conflicts and Natural DisastersReligious and ethnic conflicts fueled violence in parts of Indonesia. In the Moluccas, agroup of eastern islands, fighting between Muslims and Christians claimed thousands oflives. Discrimination against Chinese on the island of Java led to vicious attacks on theirbusinesses. Rebels in Papua, on the island of New Guinea at the eastern end ofIndonesia, sought independence from Indonesia, as did conservative Muslim rebels inAceh), at the northwestern end of Indonesia.Natural disasters have added to Indonesia’stroubles. In 2004, an earthquake caused atsunami, or giant wave, that devastated thecoast of Aceh and left over 100,000 dead.Related tsunamis ravaged Thailand, SriLanka, and other countries around the IndianOcean.
  63. 63. The Pacific Rim• By the 1990s, the volume of trade across the Pacific Rim wasgreater than that across the Atlantic. The region has potentialfor further growth.• Countries on the Pacific Rim formed a huge market thatlured investors, especially multinational corporations.• The development of the Pacific Rim promises to bring theAmericas and Asia closer together.In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asiaare part of a vast region known as the Pacific Rim. It includescountries in Asia and the Americas that border the PacificOcean.4
  64. 64. Pacific Powerhouse The countries of the Pacific Rim have geographic, cultural, andeconomic ties. The region is a major center of ocean trade routes, shown on the map above.
  65. 65. Section AssessmentAfter the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War,a) the North Vietnamese united the country.b) South Vietnam invaded North Vietnam.c) Vietnam remained divided.d) the Soviet Union occupied the country.The Pacific Rim refers to countries ina) Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.b) East Asia and India that border the Pacific Ocean.c) North and South America that border the Pacific Ocean.d) East Asia and South Asia that border the Pacific Ocean.4
  66. 66. Section Assessment4After the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War,a) the North Vietnamese united the country.b) South Vietnam invaded North Vietnam.c) Vietnam remained divided.d) the Soviet Union occupied the country.The Pacific Rim refers to countries ina) Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.b) East Asia and India that border the Pacific Ocean.c) North and South America that border the Pacific Ocean.d) East Asia and South Asia that border the Pacific Ocean.
  67. 67. Japan Becomes anEconomic Superpower• What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic miracle?• How did Japan interact economically and politically withother nations?• How are patterns of life changing in Japan?1
  68. 68. Recovery and Economic MiracleIn 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japanto recover and produce an economic miracle?• Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, thenation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to hightechnology.• While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfullyindustrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly buildefficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology.• Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force.• Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks thecapital to invest in industrial growth.• Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining alarge military force.1
  69. 69. Peace Comes to JapanA 1945 poster printed by a Japanesebank encourages people to “make abright future for Japan.”Land Reform Benefits Japanese FarmersJapan’s postwar land reform redistributed land from wealthy landlords to smallfarmers such as the ones in this photo.How would ownership of land benefit farmers?
  70. 70. In 1952, the United States ended theoccupation and signed a peacetreaty with Japan. Still, the twonations kept close ties.American military forces maintainedbases in Japan, which in turn wasprotected by American nuclearweapons.The two countries were also tradingpartners, eventually competing witheach other in the global economy.Japan’s Economic MiracleBy the 1970s and 1980s, Japan prospered by manufacturing products to be soldoverseas, such as the televisions being assembled in this photo.
  71. 71. JapaneseMotorVehicleExports, 19971
  72. 72. Economic and Political Interaction• The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence onthe world market. In response to the economic challenge the oilcrisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-producingnations of the Middle East.• Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memoriesof World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartimeactions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some publicregrets for the destruction of the war years.• For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics.More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japanranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid. Well….1
  73. 73. Changing Patterns of Life• In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression. Many workerslost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment, and confidence wasundermined.• In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s dominantpolitical party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded politicians brokewith the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power.• Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped apartments.• While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them insubordinate positions in the workplace.• For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours. Manyyounger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy themselves. Someolder Japanese worry that the old work ethic is weakening.1
  74. 74. The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai
  75. 75. TsunamiA deadly 8.9 earthquake struckJapan, one of the largestearthquakes in the history ofJapan.A massive 23-foot tsunami alsohit the coast killinghundreds, leveling homes, andsweeping away cars and boats.200 to 300 bodies were foundin the northeastern coastal cityof Sendai, according to the AP.Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko
  76. 76. Section Assessment1Which of the following contributed to Japan’s economicrecovery?a) Japan was industrializing for the first time.b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize theeconomy.c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force.d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motorvehicles it produced to a) Britain.b) Germany.c) Saudi Arabia.d) the United States.
  77. 77. Section Assessment1Which of the following contributed to Japan’s economicrecovery?a) Japan was industrializing for the first time.b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize theeconomy.c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force.d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motorvehicles it produced to a) Britain.b) Germany.c) Saudi Arabia.d) the United States.
  78. 78. Africa(1945–Present)
  79. 79.
  80. 80. Achieving Independence• How did colonialism contribute to a growingspirit of nationalism?• What routes to freedom did Ghana, Kenya, andAlgeria follow?• How did the Cold War affect Africa?1
  81. 81. Nelson Mandela, who led a struggle against racial discrimination, wasimprisoned for 27 years, but eventually became president of South Africa from 1948 to 1994, a policy or system ofsegregation or discrimination on grounds of race.The white supremacist governmentsegregated education, medical care, beaches, and other publicservices, and provided black people with services inferior tothose of white people.
  82. 82. Eritreans celebrateindependence in1993 at the end oftheir long war forfreedom.
  83. 83. Decolonizationin Africa
  84. 84. Decolonization in Africa• 19th century “scramble for Africa”• Legacy of colonial competition• Internal divisions– Tribal– Ethnic– Linguistic– Religious
  85. 85. France and North Africa• Abandonment of most territories– 1956 Morocco and Tunisia gain independence, 13other colonies in 1960• But determination to retain Algeria– Longer period of French colonization– 2 million French citizens born or settled in Algeriaby WW II
  86. 86. 122Négritude: “Blackness”• Influence of “black is beautiful” from USA• Revolt against white colonialvalues, reaffirmation of African civilization• Connection with socialism, Communism• Geopolitical implicationsAfrican needs unity. OAU Organization of African Unity states goals as:1. To educate Africans about Africa.2. To foster pride in African culture.3. To encourage actions that will improve the standard of living in Africa.But strong leaders who value the welfare of their people are the foremost andmain ingredient.
  87. 87. Post-Independence Difficulties• Pax Romana of European colonists• Civil wars in Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Sudan• Economic hardships• Instability of democratic regimes
  88. 88. Afrocentrism • KwameNkrumah, leader of Ghana• Celebrated visitof QueenElizabeth II in1961, affirmation of Ghaneseindependenceand equality.Kwame Nkrumah leading IndependenceCelebrations
  89. 89. The Colonial Legacy• After liberation, the pattern of economic dependence established during thecolonial period continued.• During the colonial period, Europeans undermined Africa’s traditionalpolitical system.• Colonial doctors addressed some diseases, such as yellowfever, smallpox, and malaria. Colonial governments did not emphasizegeneral health care, however.• At independence, African nations inherited borders drawn by colonialpowers. These borders often caused immense problems.Western imperialism had a complex and contradictory impacton Africa. Some changes brought real gains. Others had adestructive effect on African life that is felt down to the present.1
  90. 90. A Growing Spirit of NationalismMost were westerneducated.Leaders organizedpolitical parties, whichpublishednewspapers, heldrallies, and mobilizedsupport forindependence.After the war, mostEuropeans had had their fillof fighting.In response to growingdemands forindependence, Britain andFrance introduced politicalreforms that would lead toindependence.Japanese victories in Asiashattered the West’sreputation as anunbeatable force.Africans who fought forthe Allies resented thediscrimination and second-class status they returnedto at home.NationalistLeadersThe GlobalSettingImpact ofWorld War IIIn 1945, the rising tide of nationalism was sweeping over Europeancolonial empires. Around the world, liberation would follow this tide.1
  91. 91. Routes to FreedomMuslim Algerian nationalistsused guerrilla warfare to winindependence from France.During eight years offighting, hundreds ofthousands of Algerians, andthousands of French, werekilled.In 1962, Algeria wonindependence.Before World War II, JomoKenyatta became a spokesmanfor the Kikuyu, who had beendisplaced by white settlers.Radical leaders turned toguerrilla warfare.The British imprisoned Kenyattaand killed or imprisonedthousands of Kikuyu.In 1963, Kenya won itsindependence.Kwame Nkrumah tried towin independence for theBritish trading colony GoldCoast. He organized strikesand boycotts.Nkrumah was imprisoned.In 1957, Gold Coast wonindependence.Nkrumah named the newcountry Ghana, after theancient West Africanempire.ALGERIAKENYAGHANADuring the great liberation, each African nation hadits own leaders and its own story.1
  92. 92. Clashes With Rebels Drag OnRebel guerrillas have fought across the Philippines for decades, taking many lives. Somerebels are Communists. Others belong to Muslim separatist groups in the south. SomeMuslim rebels have ties to international terrorism. As part of its war on terrorism, theUnited States has aided the Filipino government in its fight against Muslim rebels.Britain’s Prince Philip and QueenElizabeth II congratulate Jomo Kenyattaas his nation, Kenya, gains independencein 1963.The Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom, flew over many African countriesbefore independence.
  93. 93. Jomo KenyattaJomo Kenyatta (c. 1894–1978) was born in a smallKikuyu village and educated at a Christian mission.Moving to Nairobi, he was quickly drawn to thefirst stirrings of the nationalist cause. He became aprominent anticolonial organizer and waseventually elected president of the Kenya AfricaUnion. The British arrested Kenyatta in 1952 andconvicted him in 1953 on charges of inciting theMau Mau uprising against the British. Released in1961, he resumed leadership of the movement forindependence, which was finally granted inDecember 1963. When Kenya became a republicin 1964, Kenyatta was elected its first president.Under his 15-year rule, Kenya enjoyed politicalstability and economic advances. Eachyear, October 20, the date of his arrest, iscelebrated as Kenyatta Day.What role do you think national heroes play inhelping to form a nation’s identity?
  94. 94. Africa’s Mineral WealthA miner in the West African countryof Sierra Leone rinses and sifts gravelfrom a pit in an effort to find roughdiamonds. Rich mineral deposits areimportant to the economies of manyAfrican nations.Many early leaders established one-partypolitical systems. Multiparty systems, theseleaders declared, encouraged disunity. Manyone-party states became dictatorships.Dictators often used their positions to enrichthemselves and a privileged few.When bad government policies led tounrest, the military often seized power. Morethan half of all African nations sufferedmilitary coups . A coup, or coup d’état , is theforcible overthrow of a government. Somemilitary rulers were brutal tyrants. Otherssought to improve conditions. Military leadersusually promised to restore civilian rule oncethey had cleaned up the government. In manycases, however, they gave up power onlywhen they were toppled by other militarycoups.
  95. 95. The Cold War and Africa• By supplying arms to rival governments, the superpowers boostedthe power of the military in many countries and contributed toinstability.• Cold War rivalries affected local conflicts within Africa. The SovietUnion and the United States supported rival groups in the liberationstruggles.• Weapons supplied by the superpowers enabled rivalclans, militias, or guerrilla forces to spread violence across manylands.African nations emerged into a world dominated byrival blocs led by the United States and the SovietUnion.1
  96. 96. Although African nations gained political independence, colonialpowers often retained control of businesses in their formercolonies. Many new nations thus remained dependenteconomically on their former colonizers.During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United Statescompeted for military and strategic advantage through allianceswith several African countries. For example, the United Statessupported Mobutu Seso Seko, the dictator of Zaire (now known asthe Democratic Republic of the Congo), to counter Soviet supportfor the government of neighboring Angola. Likewise, during the1970s, the United States had an alliance with the government ofSomalia, while the Soviet Union supported neighboring Ethiopia.These countries attracted superpower interest because theycontrolled access to the Red Sea, a vital shipping route connectingAsia, Europe, and Africa. Each superpower wanted to make surethat the other did not gain an advantage.Foreigners Jostle for InfluenceMobutu Sese SekoNkuku Ngbendu wa ZaBanga (14 October1930 –7 September1997), commonlyknown as Mobutuor Mobutu Sese SekoMobutu was overthrown in the First Congo War by Laurent-Kabila, who was supported by thegovernments of Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Ethnic Tutsis in Zaire, known asBanyamulenge, had long opposed Mobutu due to his open support for Rwandan Hutuextremists responsible for the Rwandan genocide in 1994. When his government issued anorder in November 1996 forcing Tutsis to leave Zaire on penalty of death, they erupted in
  97. 97. The British trading colony Gold Coast was later renameda) Kenya.b) Zaire.c) Congo.d) Ghana.Which of the following was not a way that the Cold War impactedAfrica?a) The superpowers boosted the power of African militaryleaders.b) The superpowers cooperated to resolve regional conflicts.c) The superpowers provided weapons to clans and militias.d) The superpowers supported rival groups in liberationstruggles.1Section Assessment
  98. 98. 1The British trading colony Gold Coast was later renameda) Kenya.b) Zaire.c) Congo.d) Ghana.Which of the following was not a way that the Cold War impacted Africa?a) The superpowers boosted the power of African militaryleaders.b) The superpowers cooperated to resolve regional conflicts.c) The superpowers provided weapons to clans and militias.d) The superpowers supported rival groups in liberation struggles.Section Assessment
  99. 99. An Election CelebrationCitizens of Mauritania, in West Africa, celebrate the reelection ofthe country’s president in 2003.What signs of democracy do you see in this photograph?
  100. 100. Market Women inGhanaIn West Africancountries such asGhana, many of thebusinesspeople arewomen. The womanin this photo runs agrocery stand in alocal market.Why might West African political candidates seek to win the favorof local market women?
  101. 101. Programs for Development• What were barriers to unity and stability in Africa?• What economic choices did African nations make?• What critical issues affect African nations today?• How has modernization affected patterns of life?2
  102. 102. Barriers to Unity and Stability• Once freedom was won, many Africans felt their firstloyalty to their own ethnic group, not to a nationalgovernment.• Civil wars, some of which were rooted in colonialhistory, erupted in many new nations.• Faced with divisions that threatened nationalunity, many early leaders turned to a one-partysystem.• When bad government led to unrest, the militaryoften seized power.2
  103. 103. Economic ChoicesLenders required developing nations tomake tough economic reforms beforeextending new loans.In the short term, these reformsincreased unemployment and led tohigher prices the poor could not pay.Many governments kept food pricesartificially low to satisfy poor city people.As a result, farmers used their land forexport crops or produced only forthemselves. Many governmentsneglected rural development in favor ofindustrial projects.Governments pushed to grow morecash crops for export.As a result, countries that once fedtheir people from their own landhad to import food.Many new nations chose socialism.Some nations set up mixedeconomies, with both private andstate-run enterprises.SOCIALISM OR CAPITALISM CASH CROPS OR FOODURBAN OR RURAL NEEDS THE DEBT CRISIS2
  104. 104. Critical IssuesThe AIDS epidemic spread rapidlyacross parts of Africa. In 2007,it was estimated that more than 40million people were infectedwith the virus.Once forests were cleared,heavy rains washed nutrientsfrom the soil and destroyedits fertility.The rising population put astaggering burden on Africa’sdeveloping economies.In the 1970s and1980s, prolonged droughtcontributed to famine in partsof Africa.POPULATION EXPLOSION DROUGHT AND FAMINEDEFORESTATION AIDS2
  105. 105. Displaced by Drought A Sudanese motherand children escape famine caused byyears of drought.How can geography affect migrationpatterns?Drought Brings Starvation:Desertification is a real threat.AIDS Kills MillionsSince the 1980s, the devastating disease AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) hastaken a heavy toll on Africas people. AIDS iscaused by a deadly virus commonly called HIV.HIV damages the body’s ability to fight offinfections.AIDS spread rapidly across Africa. In nationssuch as South Africa and Botswana, up to onethird of adults were infected with HIV. In theearly 2000s, the UN estimated that more than2 million Africans died of the disease eachyear. Their deaths left millions of orphanedchildren. The loss of so many skilled andproductive workers also damaged manycountries’ economies.
  106. 106. Desertificationin AfricaDesertification isthe spread of desertareas.Overgrazing andfarming removetopsoil and speed upthe process ofdesertification.2
  107. 107. Old and New PatternsMessages of reform based on Islamictraditions and the call for social justicewere welcomed by many IslamicAfricans.In some areas, it stimulated deeperreligious commitment.Christianity has grown since itsintroduction to Africa centuries ago.Christian churches often combineChristian and traditional Africanbeliefs.As men moved to cities, rural womentook on the sole responsibility ofproviding for their children.Most constitutions promised womengenerous rights. In reality, most women’slives continued to be ruled by traditionallaws.Urbanization contributed to thedevelopment of a larger nationalidentity.However, it weakened traditionalcultures and undermined ethnic andkinship ties.In Africa, as elsewhere, modernization disrupted old ways.URBANIZATION WOMENCHRISTIANITY ISLAMIC REVIVAL2
  108. 108. Section Assessment2What happened when governments pushed to grow more cashcrops for export?a) These countries had a surplus of food.b) These countries had to import food to feed their populations.c) These countries became increasingly wealthy.d) These countries were able to produce adequate food inaddition to the cash crops.Messages of Islamic reforma) were rejected by many Islamic Africans.b) weakened Islamic religious commitment.c) were repressed by African governments.d) were welcomed by many Islamic Africans.
  109. 109. Section Assessment2What happened when governments pushed to grow more cashcrops for export?a) These countries had a surplus of food.b) These countries had to import food to feed their populations.c) These countries became increasingly wealthy.d) These countries were able to produce adequate food inaddition to the cash crops.Messages of Islamic reforma) were rejected by many Islamic Africans.b) weakened Islamic religious commitment.c) were repressed by African governments.d) were welcomed by many Islamic Africans.
  110. 110. A young guerilla cradles herautomatic rifle a year beforethe end of El Salvador’s civilwar in 1992.
  111. 111. Adolescent boys wearing civilian clothes walk away from the weapons theyonce carried as child soldiers after being evacuated from a combat zone inSudan. More than 2,500 former child soldiers have been airlifted out of conflictzones in Sudan and brought to safe areas where rehabilitation and family-tracing programs are now underway. Ranging in age from 8 to 18 years, thechildren were demobilized from military camps run by the rebel SudanPeoples Liberation Army (SPLA). According to the latest report from the UNSecretary-General on children and armed conflict in the Sudan (2006), thereare an still thousands of child soldiers in various armed groups throughoutSudan.
  112. 112. • Around the world today, children are not only the victimsof war, but also the participants. At any one time, morethan 250,000 girls and boys under the age of 18 arefighting in armed conflicts.• These young soldiers are part of government forces andarmed opposition groups in more than 30 locationsworldwide. And while many child soldiers are betweenthe ages of 15 and 18, some are as young as 7 years old.What Should Be Done AboutChild Soldiers?”
  113. 113. The Convention on the Rights ofthe ChildIn 1989, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of theChild (CRC). The CRC spells out the basic human rights that all childrenhave, no matter where they live. These basic rights include:• Survival• Protection from abuse and exploitation• Full participation in family, cultural and social life• Development of ones personality, talents and abilities to their fullest potential• World leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for thembecause they are less physically and mentally mature than adults. Childrenare easily threatened by physical force because they’re smaller, and moreeasily intimidated because they’re younger. Therefore, they need specialprotection. By creating the CRC, the United Nations made sure that the worldrecognized that children have human rights too.• Article 38 of The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) requiresgovernments to take all possible steps to ensure that children under the age of15 have no direct part in hostilities. It states that no child below 15 should berecruited into the armed forces.
  114. 114. • Some 4,000 children, aged 7-17, have been recruited on both sides of the stillunresolved conflict. Children account for half of all those killed during theconflict, and of the estimated 20% of the population disabled by the fighting, themajority are children. Fewer than half eligible children attend primary school.UNICEF assistance includes support for primary health care andimmunization, basic education, rehabilitation of water and sanitationfacilities, therapeutic food supplies for malnourished children and mothers, andpsychosocial counseling for war-traumatized children. In addition, UNICEFcontinues to coordinate the demobilization of child soldiers and supports theregistration, tracing and family reunification of unaccompanied children, as well asproviding interim care.A boy soldier holding a rifle stands in a rowwith other child soldiers, members of thegovernment-allied Kamajor (civil defenseforces in the south), during a training sessionnear a centre run by the Christian Brothers, alocal NGO that works withunaccompanied, abused and streetchildren, as well as former child soldiers, inthe southern town of Bo.By late 1998, destruction of the basic infrastructure in Sierra Leone since theMay 1997 coup d tat (the elected government was restored in February 1998)has created a devastating situation, especially for children.
  115. 115. Control Arms Campaign is a campaign jointly run by International Action Network on SmallArms, Amnesty International, and Oxfam International to press governments to protectcivilians during conflicts and disasters and to finish the ATT (Arms Trade treaty)2000 people die each day from armed violence. 26 million people are currently displacedwithin their own countries by armed conflict. And around 30 conflicts still continue aroundthe world today. Children are often among those the most disadvantaged by the wars.The unregulated arms trade fuels conflict, poverty and serious human rights abuses. It alsolimits peoples ability to earn a living, grow crops, and benefit from education, whilstdiverting money that should be used for vital services such as health care. The Control Armscampaign has been set up to bring an end to the unregulated arms trade.
  116. 116. Child Soldiers is part of the War Child International Network campaign launched tovoice disapproval of children’s abuse by armies/militant groups in the countriesaffected by conflicts. 1 in 10 soldiers in armed conflict is a child. At this momentmore than 300.000 children are being used in wars worldwide. Campaign stressesthat children should never be soldiers. Not under any circumstances. Child andsoldier should never go together. But still, it happens. It happens every day. Some ofthem are only 8 years old.
  117. 117. Three Nations: A Closer Look• What were some pressures for changein Nigeria?• What effects did dictatorship have onthe Congo?• What was the outcome of Tanzania’sexperiment in socialism?3
  118. 118. A Nigerian child stands in frontof the massive trunk of a felledironwood tree.Plundering Forests at GunpointIn Ivory Coast, also known as Côted’Ivoire, civil war has allowed armedgangs to log trees that have takenhundreds of years to grow. This is having adevastating effect on local economies.Village chief Kouadio Yao told a UnitedNations worker of watching a nearbygrove of valuable teak trees beingcompletely destroyed.He was helpless to save it.“If someone came with a gun, would yoube able to stop them and demand thatthey pay for the trees? What I do know isthat because of the conflict, we have losteverything.”—Integrated Regional InformationNetworks (IRIN), December 23, 2004
  119. 119. Pressures for Change in NigeriaAt independence, Nigeria drew up a constitution to protect various regionalinterests.The system did not work and ethnic rivalries increased. When Ibo leadersdeclared the independent state of Biafra, civil war broke out. By the timeBiafra surrendered, almost a million people had died.During the 1970s oil boom, Nigeria set up industries and borrowed heavilyfrom the West.Between 1960 and 1985, rural people flooded to the cities. While the citiesgrew, Nigeria ignored its farmers. Once a food exporter, Nigeria beganimporting expensive grain.When oil prices fell, the economy almost collapsed.During Nigeria’s debt crisis in the 1980s, General Ibrahim Babangida imposedharsh economic reforms to restore economic stability.In 1993, elections were held, but Babangida and his military successors setaside election results and cracked down on critics.3
  120. 120. Dictatorship in DemocraticRepublic of the CongoAfter World War II, Belgium was determined to keep the Congo and did nothing toprepare the colony for freedom.In 1960, Belgium suddenly rushed the Congo to independence.With some 200 ethnic groups and no sense of unity, the new nation quickly splitapart.Civil war raged for almost three years.In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko seized power and renamed the country Zaire.For the next 30 years, Mobutu built an increasingly brutal dictatorship.In the late 1990s, ethnic violence in neighboring countries spilled intoZaire.Mobutu was at last overthrown.Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuingviolence.3
  121. 121. Laurent Kabila Topples Mobutu, but…• The country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997, whichhad been its name before Mobutu changed it to Zaire in 1971. But elation overMobutus downfall faded as Kabilas own autocratic style emerged, and he seemeddevoid of a clear plan for reconstructing the country. In Aug. 1998, Congolese rebelforces, backed by Kabilas former allies, Rwanda and Uganda, gained control of alarge portion of the country until Angolan, Namibian, and Zimbabwean troopscame to Kabilas aid. In 1999, the Lusaka Accord was signed by all six of thecountries involved, as well as by most, but not all, of the various rebel groups.Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuing violence.• In Jan. 2001, Kabila was assassinated, allegedly by one of his bodyguards. Hisyoung and inexperienced son Joseph became the new president.• In August 2007, a rebel general, Laurent Nkunda, led battles between hismilitia, made up of fellow Tutsis, and the Congolese Army. The fighting continuedthroughout the year, driving hundreds of thousands of people from their homes ineastern Congo and threatening to spiral the already fragile country back into civilwar. Nkunda claimed he was protecting Tutsis from extremist Rwandan Hutus.• A report released in January 2008 by the International Rescue Committee foundthat despite billions in aid, the deployment of the worlds largest peacekeepingforce, and successful democratic elections, some 45,000 people continue die eachmonth in Congo, mostly from starvation and disease.• Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga resigned in September 2008, citing health reasons.He was succeeded by Adolphe Muzito.
  122. 122. Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, sought to improve rural life,build a classless society, and create a self-reliant economy.To carry out his programs, Nyerere embraced “African socialism.” Nyerereclaimed that this system was based on African village traditions ofcooperation and shared responsibility.Under African socialism, rural farmers were encouraged to live in largevillages and farm the land collectively. Under this arrangement, Nyererebelieved farm output would increase.Nyerere’s experiment did not work as planned. Many families had to beforcibly moved to the village collectives, farm output did not rise, and highoil prices, inflation, and a bloated bureaucracy plunged Tanzania into debt.Nyerere’s successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi moved Tanzania toward a marketeconomy. These moves brought some improvement.Tanzania’s Experiment in Socialism3
  123. 123. Tanzania: A Closer LookTanzania has been very poor since it gained independence in the early1960s. Fifty percent of its population lives below the poverty line. Thismeans that half of Tanzanians do not make enough money to meet theirbasic needs. In 2003, the per capita income was estimated at $290 per year.When the country gained independence, most Tanzanians were farmers orherders. To improve life, the new government embraced what was called“African socialism.” This was based on African village traditions ofcooperation and shared responsibility. The government took over banksand businesses. Farmers were encouraged to move to large villages andfarm the land collectively. The goal was to increase output and sell surpluscrops to towns or for export.The government’s experiment failed, partly because farmers refused toleave their land. Farm output did not rise. This experiment also resulted ina huge and inefficient government bureaucracy. The expense of this hugebureaucracy and high oil prices plunged Tanzania into debt. In 1985, newleaders introduced economic reforms, including cutting the size ofgovernment, promoting a market economy, and encouraging foreigninvestment.
  124. 124. Today, Tanzania remainsoverwhelmingly agricultural.About nine tenths of Tanzanianworkers work in agriculture. Overhalf of Tanzania’s GDP comesfrom agriculture. Thegovernment continues to makeattempts to develop a moreprofitable, mixed economy.However, the country has had torely on loans from internationallenders to avoid economic crisis.Although Tanzania remainspoor, its economy also received aboost in the early 2000s fromthe opening of a huge new goldmine. The government plannedto use profits from gold, alongwith foreign aid, to reducepoverty and improve servicessuch as clean water, schools, andhealthcare.Wangari MaathaiWhile working with a women’s rights group, Kenyan activistWangari Maathai (born in 1940) came up with the idea of gettingordinary women involved in tree-planting projects. In 1977, shelaunched the Green Belt Movement (GBM). This grassrootsorganization promotes reforestation and controlled wood cuttingto ensure a sustainable supply of wood fuel. The group alsosought jobs for women in Kenya, Tanzania, and other East Africancountries. In 2004, Maathai became the first African woman tobe awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Today, Maathai continues towork with the GBM. She is also a member of Kenya’sgovernment.In what ways might planting trees help improve women’s lives?
  125. 125. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi• Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi Mu‘ammaral-Qaḏḏāfī; also known simply as Colonel Gaddafi; born1942) has been the dictator of Libya since a coup in 1969.• With respect to Libyas neighbors, Gaddafi followed Gamal AbdelNassers ideas of pan-Arabism and became a fervent advocate ofthe unity of all Arab states into one Arab nation. He alsosupported pan-Islamism, the notion of a loose union of all Islamiccountries and peoples.• Gaddafi sought closer relations with the Soviet Union. Libya became the firstcountry outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG-25 combat fighters.Throughout the 1970s, his regime was implicated in subversion and terroristactivities in both Arab and non-Arab countries. By the mid-1980s, he was widelyregarded in the West as the principal financier of international terrorism. Reaganhimself dubbed Gaddafi the "mad dog of the Middle East". On 15 April 1986, RonaldReagan ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, againstTripoli and Benghazi killing Libyan military and government personnel. October 20 ,2011 marked the death of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. The politician died a horribledeath: Gaddafi was first tortured and then executed. Initially, it was claimed that theColonel had been killed in a shootout. However, after the video of the terrible torturesspread around the world, the version of death in the shootout ceased to exist.
  126. 126. Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda….• Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnicgroups, associated political rebels, armedgangs, and various government forces continuefighting in Great Lakes region, transcending theboundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic ofthe Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain controlover populated areas and natural resources -government heads pledge to end conflicts, butlocalized violence continues despite UNpeacekeeping efforts .
  127. 127. The neighboring nation of Burundi has a similar population and history. As inRwanda, tensions between Tutsis and Hutus led to civil war during the 1990s. While thefighting did not lead to a genocide like that in Rwanda, guerrilla groups fought for muchlonger in Burundi. Although several guerrilla groups signed a peace treaty in 2000, fightingcontinued in the years that followed.Rwanda and Burundi Face Deadly DivisionsThe small nation of Rwanda, in Central Africa, faced one of Africa’s deadliest civil wars. TheRwandan people included two main groups. Hutus were the majority group, but theminority Tutsis had long dominated Rwanda. Both groups spoke the same language, butthey had different traditions. After independence, tensions between these two groupssimmered.
  128. 128. Since 1994, peace has returned to Rwanda.This recent photo shows Rwandan boysrunning home after school.Although other African nationssuffered brutal ethnic conflicts andcivil wars, Rwanda’s 1994 genocidewas one of the most deadly.However, as UN Secretary General KofiAnnan points out, Rwanda’s recoveryin the years since offers hope that thecontinent’s conflicts can be resolved.“Rwanda has much to show the worldabout confronting the legacy of thepast and is demonstrating that it ispossible to reach beyond tragedy andre-­kindle hope.”— Tribute by Kofi Annan on the tenthanniversary of genocide in Rwanda
  129. 129. After independence, Sudan’s Arab Muslim northdominated the non-Muslim, non-Arab south.Arab-led governments enacted laws and policiesthat discriminated against non-Muslims andagainst other ethnic groups. For example, thegovernment tried to impose Islamic law even innon-Muslim areas. For decades, rebel groups inthe south battled northern domination.War, drought, and famine caused millions ofdeaths and forced many more to flee theirhomes. However, in 2004, southern rebels signeda peace agreement with Sudan’s government.The southern rebels agreed to stop fighting, andthe government agreed to give the south limitedself-government, power in Sudan’s nationalgovernment, and freedom from Islamic law.Sudan’s Ethnic StrifeHowever, by 2004, ethnic conflict had also spread to Sudan’s western region of Darfur. Thisconflict raised fears of a new genocide. Arab militias, backed by the government, unleashedterror on the non-Arab Muslim people of Darfur. They burned villages and drove hundreds ofthousands of farmers off the land that fed them and into refugee camps, where they facedthe threat of starvation. The UN, the United States, and other nations organized a huge aideffort to help refugees.
  130. 130. Section AssessmentWhat kind of government did Mobutu create in Zaire?a) a limited democracyb) a dictatorshipc) a constitutional monarchyd) an oligarchyWhich African leader embraced “African socialism”?a) Mobutub) Nasserc) Babangidad) Nyerere3
  131. 131. Section Assessment3What kind of government did Mobutu create in Zaire?a) a limited democracyb) a dictatorshipc) a constitutional monarchyd) an oligarchyWhich African leader embraced “African socialism”?a) Mobutub) Nasserc) Babangidad) Nyerere
  132. 132. In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe.The new nation faced severe challenges after years of war:• International sanctions had damaged the economy.• Droughts had caused problems.• Recovery was slowed by a power struggle betweennationalist leaders, Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo.• When Mugabe prevailed and became president, he calledfor a one-party system and tolerated little opposition.• In 2000, tensions over land ownership led to renewedviolence.What Challenges Faced Zimbabwe?4
  133. 133. • President Bush joined with a chorus of world leaders whocondemned the election and the government-sponsored crackdownon the opposition. China and Russia, however, blocked the U.S.-ledeffort in the UN Security Council to impose sanctions on Zimbabwe.Bush responded in July by expanding existing U.S. sanctions againstMugabe, companies in Zimbabwe, and individuals.• As if life werent unbearable enough in Zimbabwe, with its residentsfacing hunger, empty store shelves, a nonexistent healthsystem, rampant unemployment, inflation a staggering 231 millionpercent, and the obvious political instability, a cholera epidemicbroke out in August 2008. At least 565 people died from the diseaseby the end of the year, and another 12,000 were infected.• Tsvangirai agreed in January 2009 to enter into a power-sharinggovernment with Mugabe, and he was sworn in as prime minister inFebruary. I’m just amazed he’s still alive!
  134. 134. South Africa’s LongStruggleAPARTHEID BLACKRESISTANCETOWARDREFORM4From the beginning, blackSouth Africans protestedapartheid. In 1912, theAfrican National Congress(ANC) was set up to opposewhite domination. NelsonMandela mobilized youngSouth Africans to take partin acts of civil disobedienceagainst apartheid laws. Asprotestscontinued, governmentviolence increased.In 1910, South Africawon self-rule fromBritain. Over the nextdecades, the whiteminority governmentimposed apartheid, asystem of racial lawswhich separated theraces and kept the blackmajority in a subordinateposition.In the late1980s, President F. W. deKlerk abandonedapartheid, lifted the banon the ANC, and freedMandela. In1994, Mandela waselected president inSouth Africa’s firstmultiracial elections.Mandela welcomedlongtime political foesinto his government.BishopDesmond Tutude Klerk&Mandela
  135. 135. Apartheid Divides South AfricaAfter 1948, the government expanded the existing systemof racial segregation, creating what was knownas apartheid, or the separation of the races. Underapartheid, all South Africans were registered by race:Black, White, Colored (people of mixed ancestry), andAsian. Apartheid’s supporters claimed that it would alloweach race to develop its own culture. In fact, it wasdesigned to protect white control over South Africa.The Sharpeville MassacreWhen South African policeopened fire on peacefuldemonstrators atSharpeville in 1960, manydemonstrators ran for theirlives. How might this policeaction lead anti-apartheidactivists to give up onpeaceful methods?
  136. 136. Other Nations of Southern AfricaPortugal was unwilling to relinquish itscolonies in Angola and Mozambique.In 1975,after fifteen years offighting, Angola and Mozambique wonindependence.After independence, bitter civil warsraged, fueled by Cold War rivalries.The United States and South Africa sawthe struggles in southern Africa as athreat because some of the liberationleaders were socialists.The end of the Cold War helped stop theconflict.Instead of preparing the territory forindependence, South Africa backed theoppressive regime run by the whiteminority.By the 1960s, the Southwest AfricanPeople’s Organization (SWAPO) turned toarmed struggle to win independence.The struggle became part of the ColdWar, with the Soviet Union and Cubalending their support to the independencemovement.When the Cold War ended, Namibia wasfinally able to win independence.PORTUGUESECOLONIESNAMIBIA4
  137. 137. Outlook and GainsIn literature, film, and thearts, Africans made majorcontributions to global culture.Africa has enormous potential forgrowth.With free-market reforms, countriessuch as Ghana enjoyed economicgrowth.Most African nations sought to improvehealth care and created family planningprograms.Governments recognized the profoundeffect population growth had onstandards of living.As governments set up moreschools, literacy rates rose.Universities trained a new generationof leaders.A few countries promoted highereducation for women.Despite many setbacks, African nations have made progress.EDUCATION HEALTH CAREECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY CULTURE4
  138. 138. Section AssessmentHow did Nelson Mandela resist apartheid?a) He organized violent protests against the white government.b) He tried to form a new state, separate from South Africa.c) He mobilized young South Africans to take part in acts ofcivil disobedience.d) He set up a separate government in exile.Angola and Mozambique were colonies ofa) Britain.b) Portugal.c) Spain.d) the United States.4
  139. 139. Section Assessment4How did Nelson Mandela resist apartheid?a) He organized violent protests against the white government.b) He tried to form a new state, separate from South Africa.c) He mobilized young South Africans to take part in acts ofcivil disobedience.d) He set up a separate government in exile.Angola and Mozambique were colonies ofa) Britain.b) Portugal.c) Spain.d) the United States.
  140. 140. Independence did not end the fighting, however. Bitter civil wars, fueled by Cold Warrivalries, raged for years. South Africa and the United States saw the new nations asthreats because some liberation leaders had ties to the Soviet Union or the ANC. TheUnited States and South Africa aided a rebel group fighting the new government ofAngola. South Africa aided a rebel group in Mozambique.The fighting did not stop until 1992 in Mozambique and 2002 in Angola, where tensionsremained even after a ceasefire. Decades of war had ravaged both countries.Slowly, however, they have begun to rebuild.Most African nations achieved independence throughpeaceful means during the 1950s and 1960s. Insouthern Africa, however, the road to freedom waslonger and more violent. For many years, theapartheid government of South Africa supportedwhite minority rule in neighboring Namibia andZimbabwe.Meanwhile, as Britain and France gave up theirAfrican possessions, Portugal clung fiercely to itscolonies in Angola and Mozambique. Inresponse, nationalist movements turned to guerrillawarfare. Fighting dragged on for 15 years, untilPortugal agreed to withdraw from Africa. In1975, Angola and Mozambique celebratedindependence.
  141. 141. Arggggh! And real pirates! Mainly dealingwith nations on the east andwest sides of Africa —Nigeria and Somalia
  142. 142. Libyanvolunteersundergotraining inthe rebelstronghold ofBenghazibeforeheading outto the frontline toconfront theforces ofLibyan leaderColMuammarGaddafi.
  143. 143. Forces Shaping the ModernMiddle East• How have diversity and nationalism shaped the MiddleEast?• What political and economic patterns have emerged?• Why has an Islamic revival spread across the region?• How do women’s lives vary in the Middle East?2
  144. 144. Most people in the Middle Easttoday are Muslims, but Jews andChristians still live there.Middle Eastern people speak morethan 30 different languages.Every country is home to minoritygroups.Muslims share the same faith butbelong to different national groups.Often, such differences have createddivisions.After World War I, Arabnationalists opposed themandate system that placedArab territories under Europeancontrol.The Pan-Arab dream of a unitedArab state foundered, but theArab League continued topromote Arab solidarity.DIVERSITY NATIONALISM2
  145. 145. Political and Economic PatternsSome nations turned to socialism to endforeign economic control and modernizerapidly.To get capital, governments took foreignloans.Heavy borrowing left many nations deeplyin debt.Most of the region has limited rainfall.Oil-rich countries have builtdesalinization plants.Individual nations have built dams tosupply water.Nations must seek ways to use watercooperatively.Oil-rich nations builtroads, hospitals, andschools. Poorer countrieslacked the capital neededfor development.Most Middle Easternnations developedauthoritariangovernments.GOVERNMENTWATEROILECONOMICS2
  146. 146. WorldCrude OilProduction2
  147. 147. WaterResourcesin theMiddleEast2
  148. 148. Islamic RevivalFor more than 1,300 years, the Quran and Sharia providedguidance on all aspects of life.During the Age of Imperialism, westerners urged Muslimnations to modernize and to adopt western forms of seculargovernment and law.Some Middle Eastern leaders adopted western models ofdevelopment, promising economic progress and social justice.By the 1970s, in the face of failed development and repressiveregimes, many Muslim leaders called for a return to Sharia.Islamic reformers, called fundamentalists by the West, did notreject modernization, but they did reject westernization.2
  149. 149. Women in the Muslim WorldConditions for women vary greatly from countryto country in the modern Middle East.Since the 1950s, women in most countries havewon voting rights and equality before the law. Inother countries, though, laws and traditionsemerged that limited women’s right tovote, work, or even drive cars.The changes have taken place at different rates indifferent places:• In Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, many urbanwomen gave up long-held practices such aswearing hejab, or burqa cover.• Conservative countries like Saudi Arabia andIran have opposed the spread of western secularinfluences among women.•France has banned this fashion claiming securityreasons.2
  150. 150. Section Assessment2In 1995, what percentage of crude oil was produced byOPEC nations? a) 10 percentb) 100 percentc) 61 percentd) 59 percentIslamic fundamentalists largely rejecteda) modernization.b) westernization.c) desalinization.d) Pan-Arabism.
  151. 151. Section Assessment2In 1995, what percentage of crude oil was produced byOPEC nations? a) 10 percentb) 100 percentc) 61 percentd) 59 percentIslamic fundamentalists largely rejecteda) modernization.b) westernization.c) desalinization.d) Pan-Arabism.
  152. 152. What Issues Has Turkey Faced?• At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to expandsouthward into Turkey.• Turkey struggled to build a stable government.• Modernization and urbanization brought social turmoil.• In 1999, a series of powerful earthquakes shook westernTurkey, including major industrial areas.• Kurdish nationalists fought for autonomy.• Turkey waged a long struggle over Cyprus.• Turkey was divided politically, with secular politicians on oneside and Islamic reformers on the other.3
  153. 153. Turkish people hold red andblue balloons, symbolizingEurope and Turkey, tocelebrate Turkey’s decision toapply to the EU.
  154. 154. A yurtwith asatellitedish.Homesweethome
  155. 155. Egypt: A Leader in the Arab WorldIn the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out tomodernize Egypt and end western domination. He:• nationalized the Suez Canal• led two wars against Israel• employed socialist economic policies, which had limitedsuccess built the Aswan High DamAnwar Sadat came to power in the 1970s. He:• opened Egypt to foreign investment and private business• became the first Arab leader to make peace with IsraelSadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak:• reaffirmed the peace with Israel• mended fences with his Arab neighbors• faced serious domestic problems3Oops! Morsi is in…
  156. 156. Iran’s Ongoing RevolutionBecause of its vast oil fields, Iran became a focus of western interests.In 1945, western powers backed Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, despiteopposition from Iranian nationalists.In the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah RuhollahKhomeini, who condemned western influences and accused the shah ofviolating Islamic law.The shah was forced into exile and Khomeini’s supporters proclaimed anIslamic Republic.Revolutionaries bitterly denounced the West. They attackedcorruption, replaced secular courts with religious ones, dismantledwomen’s rights, and banned everything western. While, at first, theyallowed some open discussion, before long they were suppressing3
  157. 157. An Islamist GovernmentIran’s political leaders, who are Muslim clergymen, gather in 2003 to commemorate thedeath of Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious leader and the founder of Iran’s Islamistgovernment. The leaders are seated beneath a giant portrait of Khomeini.How does promoting the memory of Khomeini help to justify rule by religious leaders?In the 1970s, the shah’s foes rallied behind one of theseexiles, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The ayatollah, areligious leader, condemned Western influences andaccused the shah of violating Islamic law. In1979, massive protests finally drove the shah into exile.Khomeini returned to Iran, and his supporters proclaimedan Islamic republic.The new government was a theocracy, or governmentruled by religious leaders. They replaced secular courtswith religious ones and abolished women’s rights. Theyalso brutalized opponents, just as the shah had. Thegovernment allowed Islamists to seize the Americanembassy in 1979 and hold 52 hostages for more than ayear. In the early 2000s, concern grew that Iran might tryto develop nuclear weapons.
  158. 158. Section Assessment3Which nation fought a long struggle over Cyprus?a) Turkeyb) Iranc) Iraqd) EgyptWho nationalized the Suez Canal?a) Hosni Mubarakb) Anwar Sadatc) Gamal Abdel Nasserd) Ayatollah Khomeini
  159. 159. Section Assessment3Which nation fought a long struggle over Cyprus?a) Turkeyb) Iranc) Iraqd) EgyptWho nationalized the Suez Canal?a) Hosni Mubarakb) Anwar Sadatc) Gamal Abdel Nasserd) Ayatollah Khomeini
  160. 160. The Middle East and the World• How did the Cold War increase tensions in theMiddle East?• Why has the Arab-Israeli conflict been difficultto resolve?• Why did conflicts arise in Lebanon and thePersian Gulf?4
  161. 161. Kurds Seek FreedomAn ethnic group called the Kurds lives in the northern Middle East.Borders drawn by Europeans and others divided their homeland amongIran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. In each country, the Kurds are a minority andhave faced discrimination, particularly in Iraq and Turkey.During the decades after World War II, the Turkish government harshlyruled the Kurdish minority in the east. For example, it became illegal forKurds to speak their language in public. Beginning in the 1970s, Kurdishrebels fought Turkish forces. During the 1980s and 1990s, thousands ofKurds died in the fighting. In 1991, however, Turkey legalized the use ofthe Kurdish language, and in 1999 the main Kurdish rebel force gave upthe use of violence, though tensions continue.Kurds also faced brutal treatment in Iraq. After Iraq’s defeat in the 1991Gulf War, Kurds in northern Iraq rebelled and set up their owngovernments with British and American military support.
  162. 162. Islam Confronts ModernizationSome Middle Eastern nations adopted Western forms of secular, ornonreligious, government and law, keeping religion and governmentseparate. Many Middle Eastern leaders also adopted Westerneconomic models in a quest for progress. In the growingcities, people wore Western-style clothing, watched Americantelevision programs, and bought foreign products. Yet life improvedvery little for many people.By the 1970s, some Muslim leaders were calling for a return toSharia, or Islamic law. These conservative reformers, often calledIslamists, blame social and economic ills on the following of Westernmodels. Islamists argue that a renewed commitment toIslamic doctrine is the only way to solve the region’s problems. TheIslamist movement appeals to many Muslims. Some have usedviolence to pursue their goals. However, many Muslims oppose theextremism of the Islamists.
  163. 163. It is the product of centuries of social, political and economicinequality, imposed by repression and prejudice and frequentlyreinforced by bloodshed. The hatred is not principally about religion.Sunnis and Shiites may disagree on some matters of dogma and somedetails of Islams early history, but these differences are small--theyagree on most of the important tenets of the faith, like the infallibilityof the Koran, and they venerate the Prophet Muhammad. Sunnis andShiites are fighting for a secular prize: political domination.Shiites soon formed the majority in the areas that would become themodern states of Iraq, Iran, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. There are alsosignificant Shiite minorities in other Muslim states, including SaudiArabia, Lebanon and Pakistan. Crucially, Shiites outnumber Sunnis inthe Middle Easts major oil-producing regions--not only Iran and Iraqbut also eastern Saudi Arabia. But outside Iran, Sunnis havehistorically had a lock on political power, even where Shiites have thenumerical advantage.ISLAMS SCHISM BEGAN IN A.D. 632, immediately after the Prophet Muhammad diedwithout naming a successor as leader of the new Muslim flock. Some of his followersbelieved the role of Caliph, or viceroy of God, should be passed down Muhammadsbloodline, starting with his cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. But the majority backedthe Prophets friend Abu Bakr, who duly became Caliph.Sunni vs.Shiites: WhyThey HateEach Other
  164. 164. Oil, Religion, and Threats to StabilitySaudi Arabia, a vast desert land, has the world’s largest oil reserves. It also includesIslam’s holy land. Since the 1920s, kings from the Sa’ud family have ruled Saudi Arabia.They justify their rule by their commitment to the strict Wahhabi sect of Sunni Islam.However, Saudi Arabia’s economic development after World War II depended on massiveoil exports to the Western world. In return, Saudi leaders relied on the military supportof the United States. Although Saudi Arabia joined the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, thenation’s rulers quickly returned to their cooperative relationship with the West.To build support within the country, the royal family backed fundamentalist religiousleaders. However, some of these leaders and their followers criticized the kingdom’sclose ties to the West. They also charged that Western influence in the kingdom violatedIslamic principles.Increasingly, opponents of the kingdom’s Western ties adopted violent or terroristtactics. Attacks on western targets included an attack on a U.S. military compound in1996 and another on a U.S. consulate in 2004. These attacks threatened to disrupt theSaudi oil industry, which depends on Western expertise. Some feared that growingunrest could threaten the country’s ability to supply oil vital to the world’s economy.Other oil-rich monarchies along the Persian Gulf, such as Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, andthe United Arab Emirates, face similar threats. In Kuwait, Qatar, and the UAE, foreigncitizens are a majority of the population. In Bahrain, there has been growing oppositionamong the majority of the people, who follow Shiite Islam, toward Bahrain’s royalfamily, who follow the Sunni branch of Islam.
  165. 165. Wars in the Persian GulfBorder disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitiousrulers fed tensions along the Persian Gulf.In 1980, Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran.• The resulting war dragged on for eight years, ending in astalemate. For both nations, the human and economictoll was enormous.In 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil-rich nation of Kuwait.• In the Gulf War, the United States organized a coalition ofAmerican, European, and Arab powers to drive Iraqi forcesout of Kuwait.4
  166. 166. Wars inthePersianGulf, 1980 – 19914
  167. 167. Conflicts in Iraq
  168. 168. Saddam Hussein’s DictatorshipSaddam Hussein, shown here in a propaganda posterin 1982, turned Iraq into a brutal police state, in whichcritics were tortured and killed.Iraq Has an ElectionIraqis line up to vote in the election of January2005, the country’s first free election in morethan 35 years. The barbed wire in theforeground is a sign of security concerns. Therewas widespread concern about possible attacksby Sunni Arabs, many of whom boycotted theelection.
  169. 169. A fallen statue of Saddam Hussein, thedictator of Iraq, who was overthrown byAmerican troops
  170. 170. It would be wrong look upon Yemen as being not ofgreat importanceIt sits in a key location overlooking important sea lanesIt is a homeland for a vigorous al Qaeda affiliateThe U.S. realizes that a descent into chaos there wouldbring a multitude of problemsWhy we should care about YemenBy Tim Lister, CNN
  171. 171. Why we should care about YemenBy Tim Lister, CNN
  172. 172. Soviets Have Their Own “Vietnam” in AfghanistanIn 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in a long war in Afghanistan, an Islamiccountry just south of the Soviet Union. A Soviet-supported Afghan government had triedto modernize the nation. Its policies included social reforms and land redistribution thatwould reduce the power of regional landlords. Afghan landlords—who commandedarmed men as warlords—and Muslim conservatives charged that both policiesthreatened Islamic tradition. When these warlords took up arms against thegovernment, Soviet troops moved in.Battling mujahedin or Muslim religious warriors, in the mountains ofAfghanistan, however, proved as difficult as fighting guerrillas in the jungles of Vietnamhad been for Americans. By the mid-1980s, the American government began to smugglemodern weaponry to the mujahedin. The Soviets had years of heavy casualties, highcosts, and few successes. Like America’s Vietnam War, the struggle in Afghanistanprovoked a crisis in morale for the Soviets at home.And now we are there andthe enemy has weapons supplied by USCharlie Wilsons War is a 2007 American biographicalcomedy drama film recounting the true story of U.S.Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-TX) who partnered with "bareknuckle attitude" CIA operative Gust Avrakotos tolaunch Operation Cyclone, a program to organize and supporttheAfghan mujahideen in their resistance to the Sovietoccupation of Afghanistan.
  173. 173. Chapter 19: Struggles for DemocracyChapter ObjectiveUnderstand struggles for change in Latin America, Africa, the former Sovietbloc, and China.SECTION 1 Democracy: Case Study—Latin American DemocraciesSummarize Brazils, Mexicos, and Argentinas efforts to build democracy.SECTION 2 The Challenge of Democracy in AfricaDescribe the struggles to establish democracies in Africa.**SECTION 3 The Collapse of the Soviet UnionExplain the breakup of the Soviet Union.**SECTION 4 Changes in Central and Eastern EuropeSummarize the reforms and changes in Europe.**SECTION 5 China: Reform and ReactionAnalyze Chinas policies toward capitalism and democracy.
  174. 174. Arggggh! And real pirates! Mainly dealingwith nations on the east andwest sides of Africa —Nigeria and Somalia
  175. 175. Latin America(1945–Present)US Invasion ofPanama 1989MessiMurals in Rio FavelasUS plane spraysherbicides overcoca field inColombia