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  • 1. The World Since1945: An Overview(1945–Present)
  • 2. The World Since 1945:An Overview(1945–present)Section 1: The Changing PoliticalClimateSection 2: Global Economic TrendsSection 3: Changing Patterns ofLife
  • 3. The Changing Political Climate• How did the end of colonialism and the ColdWar shape the world?• How did new nations try to form stablegovernments?• What role have world organizations played?• What enduring issues face the world today?1
  • 4. The Cold War and the End ofColonialismIn the postwar decades, the colonial empires built by thewestern powers crumbled.In Asia and Africa, people demanded and won freedoms.Between 1950 and 1980, more than 50 new nations emerged inAfrica alone.The new nations emerged in a world dominated and divided bythe Cold War. Each of the superpowers, the United States andthe Soviet Union, wanted new countries to adopt its ideology, orsystem of thought or belief—either capitalism or socialism.
  • 5. The Great Liberation and the ColdWar, 1945 – 19901
  • 6. After winning independence, new nations had high hopes for thefuture. Still, they faced immense problems.New nations wrote constitutions modeled on westerndemocracies.Most were unable to sustain democratic rule.As problems multiplied, military or authoritarian leaders oftentook control. They imposed order by building one-partydictatorships.Despite setbacks, in the 1980s and 1990s democracy did makeprogress in some African, Asian, and Latin American nations.1How Did New Nations Seek Stability?
  • 7. The Role of World OrganizationsInternational organizations deal with issues of global concern.The UN was set up as a forum for settling world disputes. Itsresponsibilities have expanded greatly since 1945. UN agenciesprovide services for millions of people worldwide.Many nations formed regional groups to promote trade or meetcommon needs. Examples include the European Union (EU) and theNorth American Free Trade Association (NAFTA).The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) play alarge role in the world economy. WHO is the World HealthOrganization. NGOs swoop in to help in many crisis areas.Other types of nongovernmental organizations have forged valuableglobal networks. Examples include the International OlympicCommittee and the International Red Cross.1
  • 8. A family in Indonesia tries to make their way to shelter after tsunamis destroyedtheir village in 2004.Aid organizations like CARE (logo above) worked to bring relief to the devastatedregion.NGO’s= non-government organizations, like Greenpeace, Oxfam, AmnestyInternational, International Red Cross/Red Crescent, Doctors Without Borders, etc.
  • 9. G-20majoreconomiesHaves vs. Have-NotsThird World=DevelopingCountriesLDC’s=LesserDevelopedCountries
  • 10. •Loss and weakening of state/governmental sovereignty•Pressure to conform to global norms (business, law, culture, etc..)•Increased demands for autonomy (freedom?) within state borders•More vulnerable to actions/choices of other nations•Need to be more sensitive to decisions within the state•Problems once containable now spread to other nations more easily(crime, drugs, disease, pollution, terrorism, economic crisis)•Resources (land, capital, people) more easily exploited in developingstates•More pressure to compete globally•Rapid raise in costs of urbanization and industrialization(pollution, crime, economic stratification, erosion of traditionalculture)•"Americanization" or "Westernization" of culture and politics;emphasis on homogeneity (McWorld)Costs of Globalization
  • 11. •Interdependence leads to more cooperation on largerproblems•Reduction in barriers to trade, investment, and capital(human and physical) makes economic transactionseasier, more efficient and more profitable•Rapid economic growth•Consumers gain more access to wider array of products andreduced costs•Creation of regional and global institutions to cope withregional or global issues•Spread of democracy and human rights•Empowerment of non-state actors•New avenues for political access, redress and voice•Creating a sense of global citizenshipBenefits of Globalization
  • 12. Global IssuesMany issues pose a challenge to world peace.DEADLY WEAPONSSince the United States explodedtwo atomic bombs in1945, nations have pouredresources into building nuclearweapons.Weapons of Mass Destruction--WMDsHUMAN RIGHTSHuman rights include “the rightto life, liberty, and security ofperson.” Human rightsabuses, including torture andarbitrary arrest, occur around theworld.THE QUESTION OF INTERVENTIONDoes the world community have aduty to step in to end human rightsabuses? How can it intervene whenthe UN Charter forbids any actionthat violates the independence of amember nation?TERRORISMSince the1960s, incidents ofterrorism have increasedaround the world.
  • 13. An Illegal CrossingEach year tens of thousands of illegalimmigrants, like this family, risk their lives tocross the border between Mexico and theUnited States. What factors lead people torisk their lives in illegal border crossing?Why do signs like the one above fail to determany migrants?Immigration Issues
  • 14. ReligiousDifferences
  • 15. Section AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end ofa) World War II.b) European colonial empires.c) the Cold War.d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created topromote trade and meet common needs?a) the European Unionb) the International Red Crossc) the International Olympic Committeed) the UN1
  • 16. 1Section AssessmentThe Great Liberation refers to the end ofa) World War II.b) European colonial empires.c) the Cold War.d) terrorism.Which of the following was a regional group created topromote trade and meet common needs?a) the European Unionb) the International Red Crossc) the International Olympic Committeed) the UN
  • 17. Global Economic Trends• In what ways are the global North and Southeconomically interdependent?• Why have developing nations had troublereaching their goals?• How is economic development linked to theenvironment?2
  • 18. The Global North and SouthIt includes the industrial nations ofEurope and North America, as wellas Japan and Australia.Although pockets of povertyexist, the standard of living isgenerally high.Most people are literate, earnadequate wages, and have basichealth services.Most nations have basicallycapitalist economies.It refers to the developing world.The South has 75 percent of theworld’s population and much ofits natural resources.While some nations have enjoyedstrong growth, overall the globalSouth remains underdevelopedand poor.For most people, life is a dailystruggle for survival.An economic gulf divides the world into two spheres — therelatively rich nations of the global North and the relatively poornations of the global South.GLOBAL NORTH GLOBAL SOUTH2
  • 19. Economic InterdependenceRich and poor nations are linked by many economic ties.•The nations of the global North control much of the world’scapital, trade, and technology.•The global North depends on low-paid workers in developingstates to produce manufactured goods as inexpensively as possible.In an interdependent world, events in one country can affectpeople everywhere.EXAMPLE: In 1973, a political crisis led the oil-rich nations of theMiddle East to halt oil exports and raise oil prices. OPEC Theseactions sent economic shock waves around the world.2OPEC
  • 20. Obstacles to DevelopmentPOPULATION AND POVERTYIn the developing world, rapid population growth is linked to poverty.ECONOMIC DEPENDENCEMost new nations remained dependent on their former colonial rulers.POLITICAL INSTABILITYPolitical unrest often hindered economic development.ECONOMIC POLICIESMany new nations saw socialism, rather than capitalism, as a way tomodernize quickly. In the long run, socialism blocked economic growth.Why have many developing nations been unable to makeprogress toward modernization?GEOGRAPHYLack of natural resources, difficult climates, uncertain rainfall, and lackof good farmland have been obstacles for some nations.2
  • 21. Health Statistics of Selected Countries, 19992
  • 22. Now, across the developing world, many people are caught in a cycle of poverty. The UNestimates that 35,000 children die each day from starvation, disease, and other effects ofpoverty. Because of malnutrition and the lack of good schools, millions of people are proneto disease and unable to earn a good living. They and their children remain poor andcannot escape this tragic cycle.Rising Populations Strain Resources
  • 23. Development and theEnvironmentEconomic development has taken a heavy toll on theenvironment. Modern industry and agriculture havegobbled up natural resources and polluted much of theworld’s water, air, and soil.•Strip mining destroyed much land.•Chemical pesticides and fertilizers harmed the soil and water.•Gases from factories produced acid rain.•The emission of gases into the upper atmosphere has causedglobal warming, the increase in world temperatures.2Rich nations consume most of the world’s resources and producemuch of its pollution. At the same time, they have led thecampaign to protect the environment.
  • 24. A Risky SituationVials of the bacteria that cause plague were left improperly secured inKazakhstan by Soviet scientists.Nukes or plutonium for sale???
  • 25. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is aninternational organization designed by itsfounders to supervise and liberalizeinternational trade. The organization officiallycommenced on January 1, 1995 under theMarrakech Agreement, replacing the GeneralAgreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), whichcommenced in 1947.
  • 26. Ending Child Labor RUGMARK, an organizationthat works to end child labor, sponsors theeducation of South Asian students like this girl.The RUGMARK label on her sleeve also appearson carpets and rugs that were made withoutchild labor. What effect might labels like thisone have on people’s buying habits?Often it is slave labor/children who pick thebeans for your chocolate--and for minimalwages, if they are paid at all.Human Trafficking, debt slavery, childsoldiers, prostitution, sexploitation, smuggling, and body parts…are all BIG issues.Nike sweatshopin China.
  • 27. Which of the following is true?a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.c) Most nations in the Global North have basicallysocialist economies.d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a highstandard of living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 wasa) Angola. c) the United States.b) Japan. d) Guatemala.Section Assessment2
  • 28. Section Assessment2Which of the following is true?a) The Global South has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.b) The Global North has 75 percent of the world’spopulation.c) Most nations in the Global North have basicallysocialist economies.d) Most people in the Global South enjoy a high standardof living.The country with the lowest infant mortality rate in 1999 wasa) Angola. c) the United States.b) Japan. d) Guatemala.
  • 29. Antarctica is the coldest inhabited place on Earth. From September to March—the summermonths—temperatures are about 50 degrees below zero with a wind chill of 80 below. Wintermonths are 50 degrees colder than that. There is continuous daylight in the summer anddarkness in winter. Visitors only see sunrises and sunsets for a few weeks between the seasons.Scientists work year-round in the harsh conditions of the South Pole. It is a forbiddingenvironment that not everyone is ready to face
  • 30. Quiz on Antarctica
  • 31. Chapter 18: The Colonies BecomeNew NationsChapter ObjectiveTrace independence movements and political conflicts in Africaand Asia as colonialism gave way after World War II.SECTION 1 The Indian Subcontinent Achieves FreedomTrace the struggles for freedom on the Indian subcontinent.SECTION 2 Southeast Asian Nations Gain IndependenceTrace the independence movements in thePhilippines, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia.SECTION 3 New Nations in AfricaExplain the independence movements and struggles inGhana, Kenya, Congo, and Angola.**SECTION 4 Conflicts in the Middle EastDescribe the formation of Israel and the conflicts in theMiddle East.SECTION 5 Central Asia StrugglesSummarize the struggles for independence in Central Asia.
  • 32. PartitionofIndia, 19471
  • 33. In an effort to end Indias religiousstrife, he resorted to fasts and visits tothe troubled areas. He was on one suchvigil in New Delhi when NathuramGodse, a Hindu extremist who objectedto Gandhis tolerance for theMuslims, fatally shot him. Knownas Mahatma, or "the great soul," duringhis lifetime, Gandhis persuasive methodsof civil disobedience influenced leadersof civil rights movements around theworld, especially Martin LutherKing, Jr. in the United States.On 30 January1948, Gandhi was shotand killed while havinghis nightly public walkon the grounds…
  • 34. Why Was India Partitioned?After World War II, Britain finally agreed to Indian demand forindependence.Muslims insisted on their own state, Pakistan.Riots between Hindus and Muslims persuaded Britain topartition, or divide, the subcontinent.In 1947, British officials created Hindu India and MuslimPakistan.As Hindus and Muslims crossed the borders, violence eruptedin Northern India.Ten million refugees fled their homes. At least a millionpeople, including Mohandas Gandhi, were killed.Even after the worst violence ended, Hindu-Muslim tensionspersisted.1
  • 35. Muslims leave India, 1947
  • 36. Hat worn by Indian border guards along theborder with PakistanRefugees Flee Amid ViolenceHowever, Hindus and Muslims still livedside by side in many cities and rural areas.As soon as the new borders becameknown, millions of Hindus on the Pakistaniside of the borders packed up theirbelongings and fled to the new India. Atthe same time, millions of Muslims fledinto newly created Pakistan. An estimated10 million people fled their homes, mostof them on foot.Muslims fleeing along the crowded roadsinto Pakistan were slaughtered by Hindusand Sikhs , members of an Indian religiousminority. Muslims massacred Hindu andSikh neighbors. Around one million peopledied in these massacres. Others died ofstarvation and exposure on the road.
  • 37. India’s population boom and the labor-savingmethods of the Green Revolution resulted inmillions of rural families migrating to cities.But overcrowded cities like Kolkata (orCalcutta) and Mumbai (or Bombay) could notprovide jobs and basic services for everyone.To help the urban poor, Mother Teresa, aRoman Catholic nun, founded the Missionariesof Charity in Calcutta. This group provides foodand medical care to thousands. Still, millionsmore remained in desperate need.The Indian government backed familyplanning, but did not adopt the harsh policiesthat China did. Efforts to slow populationgrowth had limited success. PoorerIndians, especially in rural areas, still seechildren as an economic resource who helpwork the land and care for parents in old age.Combating PovertyMother Teresa worked withthe poor in Calcutta, India.
  • 38. Cities Rapidly GrowIn African, Asian, and Latin American nations, people have flooded into cities such as SãoPaulo, Brazil, and Mumbai, India, to find jobs and escape rural poverty. Besides economicopportunities, cities offer attractions such as stores, concerts, and sports. However, with nomoney and few jobs, newcomers must often settle in shantytowns. These slums of flimsyshacks are as crowded and dangerous as the slums of Europe and North America were in the1800s and early 1900s. They lack basic services, such as running water, electricity, or sewers.Drugs and crime are constant threats.Mumbai, India, a poor slum contrasts sharply with an affluent suburb.
  • 39. Bangalore: A Customer Support CenterWorkers in Bangalore, India, serve as customer service operators for Americanand European companies. To make callers feel more comfortable, the operatorsare trained in English and American slang.How do you expect the customer service industry to change as more countriesdevelop?Outsourcing of American jobs gains India money,employment and infrastructure, but costs America bigtime!
  • 40. “Vivisection” of India (Gandhi)• Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League• Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party• 1947 partition– 500,000 killed– 10 million refugees• India moves towardnonalignment position– The “third path”
  • 41. The Two Pakistans Grow ApartFrom the beginning, West Pakistan tended to dominate the nation’sgovernment, even though East Pakistan had a larger population. Thegovernment concentrated most economic development programs inWest Pakistan, while East Pakistan remained mired in poverty. Mostpeople in East Pakistan were Bengalis, while West Pakistanis came fromother ethnic groups. Many Bengalis resented the central government’sneglect of their region.Bangladesh Breaks AwayIn 1971, Bengalis declared independence for East Pakistan under thenew name of Bangladesh, or “Bengali Nation.” Pakistan’s military rulerordered the army to crush the rebels. India supported the rebels byattacking and defeating the Pakistani army in Bangladesh. Pakistan waseventually compelled to recognize the independence of Bangladesh.
  • 42. Cause and Effect: Partition of India1Muslim conquestof northern Indiain 1100sBritish imperialismin IndiaNationalistsorganize theIndian NationalCongress in 1885Muslimnationalists formseparate MuslimLeague in 1906Long-TermCausesWorld War IIweakens Europeancolonial empiresPressure from IndiannationalistsincreasesInsistence byMuhammad AliJinnah and theMuslim League thatMuslims have theirown stateRioting betweenHindus and Muslimsthroughout northernIndiaShort-TermCausesViolence erupts asmillions of Hindusand Muslims crossthe borderbetween Indiaand PakistanGandhi isassassinated byHindu extremistsIndia and Pakistanbecome centersof Cold WarrivalryEstablishment ofthe state ofBangladeshEffectsContinuing clashbetween India andPakistan over KashmirNuclear arms race asboth India andPakistan refuse tosign Non-ProliferationTreatyOh, yeah--That’s whereOsama was“hiding”Connections toToday
  • 43. OSAMA BIN LADENS KILLING SPARKS CELEBRATIONS
  • 44. Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin LadenArabic: (March 10, 1957 – May 1, 2011)was a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leader ofthe terrorist organization a l-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attacks on theUnited States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian targets.Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigations list of FBI Ten MostWanted Fugitives.Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization had been major targets of theUnited States War on Terror. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders were believedto be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistans Federally AdministeredTribal Areas. Navy SEALs took him out.Gothim!
  • 45. The assassination of Benazir Bhuttooccurred on 27 December 2007in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Bhutto, twice PrimeMinister of Pakistan (1988–1990; 1993–1996) and then-leader of the oppositionPakistan Peoples Party, had beencampaigning ahead of elections due inJanuary 2008. Shots were fired at her aftera political rally and a suicide bomb wasdetonated immediately following theshooting. She was declared dead at 18:16local time, at Rawalpindi General Hospital.24 other people were killed by the bombing.Bhutto had previously survived a similarattempt on her life that killed at least 139people, after her return from exile twomonths earlier.Though early reports indicated that she hadbeen hit by shrapnel or the gunshots, thePakistani Interior Ministry initially statedthat Bhutto died of a skull fracture sustainedwhen the force of the explosion caused herhead to strike the sunroof of the vehicle.The War on Terrorism had a major impact onPakistan, when terrorism inside Pakistan increasedtwofold. The country was already gripped withsectarian violence, but after 9/11, it also had thedirect threat of Al-Qaeda and Taliban, which usuallytargeted high-profile political figures.
  • 46. The Kashmir QuestionIn 1947, British India was partitioned intoHindu-majority India and Muslim-majorityPakistan. Kashmir is claimed by both India andPakistan and has been a battleground betweenthe two countries. The documents below helpto show why the “Kashmir problem” remainsworrisome today.
  • 47. Struggles OverKashmirFollowing independence, Indiaand Pakistan fought a warover Kashmir, a state in theHimalayas with Muslim andHindu populations. Its Hinduruler sought to join India eventhough much of the state’sMuslim majority wanted to bepart of Pakistan. In 1949, Indiaand Pakistan agreed to stopfighting.The peace between the two nations was short-lived. In 1965, Pakistanand India fought another war over Kashmir and have had several briefclashes since then. Over the years, Muslim Kashmiriseparatists, supported by militants from neighboring Pakistan, havefought Indian troops. Indian forces, in turn, have attacked MuslimKashmiris.
  • 48. Democracy: The GlobalSpread of DemocracyThis chapter describesthe spread of democracyto West Germany andJapan and later toEastern Europe. Using anencyclopedia, researchthe move to democracyin an Eastern Europeancountry. Then research amove to democracy in acountry in LatinAmerica, East Asia, orAfrica. How was thetransition to democracysimilar or different inthese two countries?
  • 49. 71Indian Democracy• Indian democracy flourishesunder Indira Ghandi (1917-1984)– Daughter of Nehru, no relationshipto Mohandas– “Green Revolution” increasesagricultural yields– Repressive policies to slowpopulation growth, includingforced sterilization• Assassinated by Sikh bodyguardsafter attack on Sikh extremists inAmritsar, 1984
  • 50. Sikhs RebelSome Indian Sikhs wanted independence forthe prosperous and largely Sikh stateof Punjab. In 1984, armed Sikh separatists tookdramatic action. They occupied the GoldenTemple, the Sikh religion’s holiest shrine.When talks failed to oust them, Indira Gandhisent troops. Thousands of Sikhs died in thefighting, and the Golden Temple was damaged.A few months later, Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguardsassassinated her, igniting more religiousviolence.Prime Minister IndiraGandhi led India from 1966to 1977 and again from1980 to 1984.
  • 51. Urbanizationundermined sometraditions, but mostIndians continued tolive in villages.The government triedto end discriminationbased on caste.However, deepprejudice continued.India adopted a socialistmodel to expand agricultureand industry.Rapid population growthhurt efforts to improveliving conditions.An economic slowdownforced India to privatizesome industries and makeforeign investment easier.India’s constitution set up afederal system.For 40 years afterindependence, the Nehrufamily led India.India’s size and diversityhave contributed toreligious and regionaldivisions.Today, India is the world’slargest democratic nation.SOCIALECONOMICPOLITICALIndia: Political, Economic, and Social Change1
  • 52. Pakistan and BangladeshAfter independence, military leadersseized power and ruled as dictators.When civilian leaders were finallyelected, the military continued tointervene.The country lacked naturalresources for industry.Ethnic rivalries fueled conflicts.Severe economic problems andcorruption plagued the government.Forty percent of the nation’s budgetIn 1971, Bengalis declaredindependence for Bangladesh.Geography has made it difficult torise out of poverty.Explosive population growth hasfurther strained resources.Since the early 1990s, civiliangovernments have worked toencourage foreign investments.PAKISTAN BANGLADESH1
  • 53. Bangladeshi Laily Begum used tosleep in a cow shed and spend herdays begging. Then she got a loanfor $119 from Grameen Bank, aBangladesh-based organizationthat lends money to the poor. Shebought a cow and began to buildher own business selling milk.Today she and her husband ownseveral shops and a restaurant.“People now come to me for help. . . I can feed myself and myfamily, and now other people lookat me and they treat me withrespect.”—Laily Begum, February 12, 1998A loan recipient poses with thecows she bought to help generateincome.Micro-loans allowpeople to helpthemselves.
  • 54. Conflict Divides Sri LankaThe British colony of Ceylon, an island just south of India, gained independence in 1948. Itchanged its name to Sri Lanka in 1972. A majority of Sri Lankans are Buddhists who speakSinhalese. However, a large Tamil-speaking Hindu minority lives in the north and east. SriLanka adopted policies that favored the Sinhalese majority. These policies angered manyTamils. In the late 1970s, Tamil rebels began a military struggle for a separate Tamil nation.After years of fighting, Sri Lanka’s government and the Tamil rebels signed a peaceagreement in 2002. The rebels agreed to stop fighting, and the government agreed to givethe Tamil region some freedoms. However, it was uncertain whether this agreementwould hold.
  • 55. Bangladesh Breaks AwayIn 1971, Bengalis declaredindependence for East Pakistanunder the new nameof Bangladesh, or “BengaliNation.” Pakistan’s military rulerordered the army to crush therebels. India supported therebels by attacking anddefeating the Pakistani army inBangladesh. Pakistan waseventually compelled torecognize the independence ofBangladesh.Floods Ravage Bangladesh Devastating floodsoften occur in Bangladesh after the summerrains. In this photo, relief workers aredelivering supplies to a family trapped on theirroof. How might frequent floods make it moredifficult to improve the economy ofBangladesh?
  • 56. Which of the following was an effect of the partition of India?a) British imperialism in Indiab) World War IIc) establishment of the state of Bangladeshd) the organization of the Indian National CongressWhich of the following was not a challenge facing Pakistan afterindependence?a) lack of natural resourcesb) government corruptionc) ethnic tensionsd) failed socialist economic policiesSection Assessment1
  • 57. Section Assessment1Which of the following was an effect of the partition of India?a) British imperialism in Indiab) World War IIc) establishment of the state of Bangladeshd) the organization of the Indian National CongressWhich of the following was not a challenge facing Pakistan afterindependence?a) lack of natural resourcesb) government corruptionc) ethnic tensionsd) failed socialist economic policies
  • 58. How is South Asia Linkedto World Affairs?• India and Pakistan achieved their independence asthe Cold War began.• Pakistan accepted military aid from the UnitedStates, while India signed a treaty of friendship withthe Soviet Union.• When the Cold War ended, both India and Pakistansought aid from the western powers.• Regional conflicts bred global concern after bothIndia and Pakistan acquired nuclear weapons.• Non-aligned countries Like India, Pakistan, & LatinAmerica were referred to as the Third World.1
  • 59. Developing Nations of Southeast AsiaSoutheast Asian nations faced many problems after independence.They lacked experience in self-government.They faced complex ethnic and religious conflicts.Demands for political freedom and social justice were frequent.For years, repressive military rulersbattled rebel ethnic minorities.They isolated the country andimposed state socialism.In 1990, the government heldelections. The opposition partywon, but the military rejected theelection results.Geography posed an obstacle tounity in Indonesia.Under authoritarian rule,Indonesia made great economicprogress.The 1997 Asian financial crisis led toriots against the government.A new government was elected andfaced many problems.MYANMAR INDONESIA4
  • 60. Myanmar SuffersBritain granted independence to its former colony of Burma in 1948. Burma was renamedMyanmar in 1989. Ethnic tensions have plagued Myanmar. The majority, Burmans, havedominated other ethnic groups. The military government has limited foreign trade, andliving standards remain low.Under mounting foreign pressure, elections were held in 1990. A party opposed tomilitary rule won. It was led by Aung San Suu Kyi, whose father had helped Burma winindependence. The military rejected the election results and jailed, killed, or exiled manyopponents. Suu Kyi was held under house arrest. In 1995, Suu Kyi won the Nobel PeacePrize for her “nonviolent struggle for democracy and human rights,” but she remained aprisoner in her own country.Aung San Suu Kyi 1945–,is a Burmese political leader; grad.Oxford Univ. The daughter ofassassinated (1947) nationalist generalU Aung San, who is regarded as thefounder of modern Myanmar,Aung San Suu Kyi was released inNovember after spending most ofthe past 20 years under housearrest in Myanmar (AFP/File, SoeThan Win)
  • 61. Sukarno, Indonesia’s first president, who won their independence from the Dutch, wasremoved by Suharto, whose “New Order” got population growth and food production undercontrol.Flag of the Southeast Asiannation of MalaysiaYang di-Pertuan Agong of MalaysiaWas elected for the second time as king.The title is mostly ceremonial.The Prime Ministerreally runs the show:Najib Razak
  • 62. Southeast Asia’s Oil WealthOil and gas reserves have been an importantsource of wealth for Indonesia and itsneighbors. This oil well is in the oil-richmonarchy of Brunei. Brunei is on the island ofBorneo, which is divided amongBrunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia.Ethnic Conflicts and Natural DisastersReligious and ethnic conflicts fueled violence in parts of Indonesia. In the Moluccas, agroup of eastern islands, fighting between Muslims and Christians claimed thousands oflives. Discrimination against Chinese on the island of Java led to vicious attacks on theirbusinesses. Rebels in Papua, on the island of New Guinea at the eastern end ofIndonesia, sought independence from Indonesia, as did conservative Muslim rebels inAceh), at the northwestern end of Indonesia.Natural disasters have added to Indonesia’stroubles. In 2004, an earthquake caused atsunami, or giant wave, that devastated thecoast of Aceh and left over 100,000 dead.Related tsunamis ravaged Thailand, SriLanka, and other countries around the IndianOcean.
  • 63. The Pacific Rim• By the 1990s, the volume of trade across the Pacific Rim wasgreater than that across the Atlantic. The region has potentialfor further growth.• Countries on the Pacific Rim formed a huge market thatlured investors, especially multinational corporations.• The development of the Pacific Rim promises to bring theAmericas and Asia closer together.In the modern global economy, Southeast Asia and East Asiaare part of a vast region known as the Pacific Rim. It includescountries in Asia and the Americas that border the PacificOcean.4
  • 64. Pacific Powerhouse The countries of the Pacific Rim have geographic, cultural, andeconomic ties. The region is a major center of ocean trade routes, shown on the map above.
  • 65. Section AssessmentAfter the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War,a) the North Vietnamese united the country.b) South Vietnam invaded North Vietnam.c) Vietnam remained divided.d) the Soviet Union occupied the country.The Pacific Rim refers to countries ina) Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.b) East Asia and India that border the Pacific Ocean.c) North and South America that border the Pacific Ocean.d) East Asia and South Asia that border the Pacific Ocean.4
  • 66. Section Assessment4After the United States withdrew from the Vietnam War,a) the North Vietnamese united the country.b) South Vietnam invaded North Vietnam.c) Vietnam remained divided.d) the Soviet Union occupied the country.The Pacific Rim refers to countries ina) Asia and the Americas that border the Pacific Ocean.b) East Asia and India that border the Pacific Ocean.c) North and South America that border the Pacific Ocean.d) East Asia and South Asia that border the Pacific Ocean.
  • 67. Japan Becomes anEconomic Superpower• What factors made Japan’s recovery an economic miracle?• How did Japan interact economically and politically withother nations?• How are patterns of life changing in Japan?1
  • 68. Recovery and Economic MiracleIn 1945, Japan lay in ruins. What factors allowed Japanto recover and produce an economic miracle?• Japan’s success was based on producing goods for export. At first, thenation manufactured textiles. Later, it shifted to making steel, and then to hightechnology.• While Japan had to rebuild from scratch, the nation had successfullyindustrialized in the past. Thus, it was able to quickly buildefficient, modern factories and adapt the latest technology.• Japan benefited from an educated, highly skilled work force.• Japanese workers saved much of their money. These savings gave banks thecapital to invest in industrial growth.• Japan did not have to spend money on maintaining alarge military force.1
  • 69. Peace Comes to JapanA 1945 poster printed by a Japanesebank encourages people to “make abright future for Japan.”Land Reform Benefits Japanese FarmersJapan’s postwar land reform redistributed land from wealthy landlords to smallfarmers such as the ones in this photo.How would ownership of land benefit farmers?
  • 70. In 1952, the United States ended theoccupation and signed a peacetreaty with Japan. Still, the twonations kept close ties.American military forces maintainedbases in Japan, which in turn wasprotected by American nuclearweapons.The two countries were also tradingpartners, eventually competing witheach other in the global economy.Japan’s Economic MiracleBy the 1970s and 1980s, Japan prospered by manufacturing products to be soldoverseas, such as the televisions being assembled in this photo.
  • 71. JapaneseMotorVehicleExports, 19971
  • 72. Economic and Political Interaction• The oil crisis of the 1970s brought home Japan’s dependence onthe world market. In response to the economic challenge the oilcrisis presented, Japan sought better relations with oil-producingnations of the Middle East.• Japan has had to deal with nations that still held bitter memoriesof World War II. Japan was slow to apologize for its wartimeactions. In the 1990s, Japanese leaders offered some publicregrets for the destruction of the war years.• For many years, Japan took a back seat in international politics.More recently, it has taken on a larger world role. Today, Japanranks as the world’s largest donor of foreign aid. Well….1
  • 73. Changing Patterns of Life• In the 1990s, Japan faced a terrible economic depression. Many workerslost the security of guaranteed lifetime employment, and confidence wasundermined.• In the 1990s, charges of corruption greatly weakened Japan’s dominantpolitical party, the LDP. Some younger, reform-minded politicians brokewith the LDP, threatening its monopoly on power.• Today, most Japanese live in crowded cities in tiny, cramped apartments.• While women have legal equality, traditional attitudes keep them insubordinate positions in the workplace.• For decades, Japanese sacrificed family life to work long hours. Manyyounger Japanese, however, want more time to enjoy themselves. Someolder Japanese worry that the old work ethic is weakening.1
  • 74. The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Hokusai
  • 75. TsunamiA deadly 8.9 earthquake struckJapan, one of the largestearthquakes in the history ofJapan.A massive 23-foot tsunami alsohit the coast killinghundreds, leveling homes, andsweeping away cars and boats.200 to 300 bodies were foundin the northeastern coastal cityof Sendai, according to the AP.Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko
  • 76. Section Assessment1Which of the following contributed to Japan’s economicrecovery?a) Japan was industrializing for the first time.b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize theeconomy.c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force.d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motorvehicles it produced to a) Britain.b) Germany.c) Saudi Arabia.d) the United States.
  • 77. Section Assessment1Which of the following contributed to Japan’s economicrecovery?a) Japan was industrializing for the first time.b) Japan’s large military helped revitalize theeconomy.c) Japan had an educated, highly skilled work force.d) Japanese people spent most of their earnings.In 1997, Japan exported the vast majority of the motorvehicles it produced to a) Britain.b) Germany.c) Saudi Arabia.d) the United States.
  • 78. Africa(1945–Present)
  • 79. http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/wh_modern05/secured/resources/applications/ebook/swf/animations/whs05_034_1014.html
  • 80. Achieving Independence• How did colonialism contribute to a growingspirit of nationalism?• What routes to freedom did Ghana, Kenya, andAlgeria follow?• How did the Cold War affect Africa?1
  • 81. Nelson Mandela, who led a struggle against racial discrimination, wasimprisoned for 27 years, but eventually became president of SouthAfrica.in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, a policy or system ofsegregation or discrimination on grounds of race.The white supremacist governmentsegregated education, medical care, beaches, and other publicservices, and provided black people with services inferior tothose of white people.
  • 82. Eritreans celebrateindependence in1993 at the end oftheir long war forfreedom.
  • 83. Decolonizationin Africa
  • 84. Decolonization in Africa• 19th century “scramble for Africa”• Legacy of colonial competition• Internal divisions– Tribal– Ethnic– Linguistic– Religious
  • 85. France and North Africa• Abandonment of most territories– 1956 Morocco and Tunisia gain independence, 13other colonies in 1960• But determination to retain Algeria– Longer period of French colonization– 2 million French citizens born or settled in Algeriaby WW II
  • 86. 122Négritude: “Blackness”• Influence of “black is beautiful” from USA• Revolt against white colonialvalues, reaffirmation of African civilization• Connection with socialism, Communism• Geopolitical implicationsAfrican needs unity. OAU Organization of African Unity states goals as:1. To educate Africans about Africa.2. To foster pride in African culture.3. To encourage actions that will improve the standard of living in Africa.But strong leaders who value the welfare of their people are the foremost andmain ingredient.
  • 87. Post-Independence Difficulties• Pax Romana of European colonists• Civil wars in Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Sudan• Economic hardships• Instability of democratic regimes
  • 88. Afrocentrism • KwameNkrumah, leader of Ghana• Celebrated visitof QueenElizabeth II in1961, affirmation of Ghaneseindependenceand equality.Kwame Nkrumah leading IndependenceCelebrations
  • 89. The Colonial Legacy• After liberation, the pattern of economic dependence established during thecolonial period continued.• During the colonial period, Europeans undermined Africa’s traditionalpolitical system.• Colonial doctors addressed some diseases, such as yellowfever, smallpox, and malaria. Colonial governments did not emphasizegeneral health care, however.• At independence, African nations inherited borders drawn by colonialpowers. These borders often caused immense problems.Western imperialism had a complex and contradictory impacton Africa. Some changes brought real gains. Others had adestructive effect on African life that is felt down to the present.1
  • 90. A Growing Spirit of NationalismMost were westerneducated.Leaders organizedpolitical parties, whichpublishednewspapers, heldrallies, and mobilizedsupport forindependence.After the war, mostEuropeans had had their fillof fighting.In response to growingdemands forindependence, Britain andFrance introduced politicalreforms that would lead toindependence.Japanese victories in Asiashattered the West’sreputation as anunbeatable force.Africans who fought forthe Allies resented thediscrimination and second-class status they returnedto at home.NationalistLeadersThe GlobalSettingImpact ofWorld War IIIn 1945, the rising tide of nationalism was sweeping over Europeancolonial empires. Around the world, liberation would follow this tide.1
  • 91. Routes to FreedomMuslim Algerian nationalistsused guerrilla warfare to winindependence from France.During eight years offighting, hundreds ofthousands of Algerians, andthousands of French, werekilled.In 1962, Algeria wonindependence.Before World War II, JomoKenyatta became a spokesmanfor the Kikuyu, who had beendisplaced by white settlers.Radical leaders turned toguerrilla warfare.The British imprisoned Kenyattaand killed or imprisonedthousands of Kikuyu.In 1963, Kenya won itsindependence.Kwame Nkrumah tried towin independence for theBritish trading colony GoldCoast. He organized strikesand boycotts.Nkrumah was imprisoned.In 1957, Gold Coast wonindependence.Nkrumah named the newcountry Ghana, after theancient West Africanempire.ALGERIAKENYAGHANADuring the great liberation, each African nation hadits own leaders and its own story.1
  • 92. Clashes With Rebels Drag OnRebel guerrillas have fought across the Philippines for decades, taking many lives. Somerebels are Communists. Others belong to Muslim separatist groups in the south. SomeMuslim rebels have ties to international terrorism. As part of its war on terrorism, theUnited States has aided the Filipino government in its fight against Muslim rebels.Britain’s Prince Philip and QueenElizabeth II congratulate Jomo Kenyattaas his nation, Kenya, gains independencein 1963.The Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom, flew over many African countriesbefore independence.
  • 93. Jomo KenyattaJomo Kenyatta (c. 1894–1978) was born in a smallKikuyu village and educated at a Christian mission.Moving to Nairobi, he was quickly drawn to thefirst stirrings of the nationalist cause. He became aprominent anticolonial organizer and waseventually elected president of the Kenya AfricaUnion. The British arrested Kenyatta in 1952 andconvicted him in 1953 on charges of inciting theMau Mau uprising against the British. Released in1961, he resumed leadership of the movement forindependence, which was finally granted inDecember 1963. When Kenya became a republicin 1964, Kenyatta was elected its first president.Under his 15-year rule, Kenya enjoyed politicalstability and economic advances. Eachyear, October 20, the date of his arrest, iscelebrated as Kenyatta Day.What role do you think national heroes play inhelping to form a nation’s identity?
  • 94. Africa’s Mineral WealthA miner in the West African countryof Sierra Leone rinses and sifts gravelfrom a pit in an effort to find roughdiamonds. Rich mineral deposits areimportant to the economies of manyAfrican nations.Many early leaders established one-partypolitical systems. Multiparty systems, theseleaders declared, encouraged disunity. Manyone-party states became dictatorships.Dictators often used their positions to enrichthemselves and a privileged few.When bad government policies led tounrest, the military often seized power. Morethan half of all African nations sufferedmilitary coups . A coup, or coup d’état , is theforcible overthrow of a government. Somemilitary rulers were brutal tyrants. Otherssought to improve conditions. Military leadersusually promised to restore civilian rule oncethey had cleaned up the government. In manycases, however, they gave up power onlywhen they were toppled by other militarycoups.
  • 95. The Cold War and Africa• By supplying arms to rival governments, the superpowers boostedthe power of the military in many countries and contributed toinstability.• Cold War rivalries affected local conflicts within Africa. The SovietUnion and the United States supported rival groups in the liberationstruggles.• Weapons supplied by the superpowers enabled rivalclans, militias, or guerrilla forces to spread violence across manylands.African nations emerged into a world dominated byrival blocs led by the United States and the SovietUnion.1
  • 96. Although African nations gained political independence, colonialpowers often retained control of businesses in their formercolonies. Many new nations thus remained dependenteconomically on their former colonizers.During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United Statescompeted for military and strategic advantage through allianceswith several African countries. For example, the United Statessupported Mobutu Seso Seko, the dictator of Zaire (now known asthe Democratic Republic of the Congo), to counter Soviet supportfor the government of neighboring Angola. Likewise, during the1970s, the United States had an alliance with the government ofSomalia, while the Soviet Union supported neighboring Ethiopia.These countries attracted superpower interest because theycontrolled access to the Red Sea, a vital shipping route connectingAsia, Europe, and Africa. Each superpower wanted to make surethat the other did not gain an advantage.Foreigners Jostle for InfluenceMobutu Sese SekoNkuku Ngbendu wa ZaBanga (14 October1930 –7 September1997), commonlyknown as Mobutuor Mobutu Sese SekoMobutu was overthrown in the First Congo War by Laurent-Kabila, who was supported by thegovernments of Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Ethnic Tutsis in Zaire, known asBanyamulenge, had long opposed Mobutu due to his open support for Rwandan Hutuextremists responsible for the Rwandan genocide in 1994. When his government issued anorder in November 1996 forcing Tutsis to leave Zaire on penalty of death, they erupted in
  • 97. The British trading colony Gold Coast was later renameda) Kenya.b) Zaire.c) Congo.d) Ghana.Which of the following was not a way that the Cold War impactedAfrica?a) The superpowers boosted the power of African militaryleaders.b) The superpowers cooperated to resolve regional conflicts.c) The superpowers provided weapons to clans and militias.d) The superpowers supported rival groups in liberationstruggles.1Section Assessment
  • 98. 1The British trading colony Gold Coast was later renameda) Kenya.b) Zaire.c) Congo.d) Ghana.Which of the following was not a way that the Cold War impacted Africa?a) The superpowers boosted the power of African militaryleaders.b) The superpowers cooperated to resolve regional conflicts.c) The superpowers provided weapons to clans and militias.d) The superpowers supported rival groups in liberation struggles.Section Assessment
  • 99. An Election CelebrationCitizens of Mauritania, in West Africa, celebrate the reelection ofthe country’s president in 2003.What signs of democracy do you see in this photograph?
  • 100. Market Women inGhanaIn West Africancountries such asGhana, many of thebusinesspeople arewomen. The womanin this photo runs agrocery stand in alocal market.Why might West African political candidates seek to win the favorof local market women?
  • 101. Programs for Development• What were barriers to unity and stability in Africa?• What economic choices did African nations make?• What critical issues affect African nations today?• How has modernization affected patterns of life?2
  • 102. Barriers to Unity and Stability• Once freedom was won, many Africans felt their firstloyalty to their own ethnic group, not to a nationalgovernment.• Civil wars, some of which were rooted in colonialhistory, erupted in many new nations.• Faced with divisions that threatened nationalunity, many early leaders turned to a one-partysystem.• When bad government led to unrest, the militaryoften seized power.2
  • 103. Economic ChoicesLenders required developing nations tomake tough economic reforms beforeextending new loans.In the short term, these reformsincreased unemployment and led tohigher prices the poor could not pay.Many governments kept food pricesartificially low to satisfy poor city people.As a result, farmers used their land forexport crops or produced only forthemselves. Many governmentsneglected rural development in favor ofindustrial projects.Governments pushed to grow morecash crops for export.As a result, countries that once fedtheir people from their own landhad to import food.Many new nations chose socialism.Some nations set up mixedeconomies, with both private andstate-run enterprises.SOCIALISM OR CAPITALISM CASH CROPS OR FOODURBAN OR RURAL NEEDS THE DEBT CRISIS2
  • 104. Critical IssuesThe AIDS epidemic spread rapidlyacross parts of Africa. In 2007,it was estimated that more than 40million people were infectedwith the virus.Once forests were cleared,heavy rains washed nutrientsfrom the soil and destroyedits fertility.The rising population put astaggering burden on Africa’sdeveloping economies.In the 1970s and1980s, prolonged droughtcontributed to famine in partsof Africa.POPULATION EXPLOSION DROUGHT AND FAMINEDEFORESTATION AIDS2
  • 105. Displaced by Drought A Sudanese motherand children escape famine caused byyears of drought.How can geography affect migrationpatterns?Drought Brings Starvation:Desertification is a real threat.AIDS Kills MillionsSince the 1980s, the devastating disease AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) hastaken a heavy toll on Africas people. AIDS iscaused by a deadly virus commonly called HIV.HIV damages the body’s ability to fight offinfections.AIDS spread rapidly across Africa. In nationssuch as South Africa and Botswana, up to onethird of adults were infected with HIV. In theearly 2000s, the UN estimated that more than2 million Africans died of the disease eachyear. Their deaths left millions of orphanedchildren. The loss of so many skilled andproductive workers also damaged manycountries’ economies.
  • 106. Desertificationin AfricaDesertification isthe spread of desertareas.Overgrazing andfarming removetopsoil and speed upthe process ofdesertification.2
  • 107. Old and New PatternsMessages of reform based on Islamictraditions and the call for social justicewere welcomed by many IslamicAfricans.In some areas, it stimulated deeperreligious commitment.Christianity has grown since itsintroduction to Africa centuries ago.Christian churches often combineChristian and traditional Africanbeliefs.As men moved to cities, rural womentook on the sole responsibility ofproviding for their children.Most constitutions promised womengenerous rights. In reality, most women’slives continued to be ruled by traditionallaws.Urbanization contributed to thedevelopment of a larger nationalidentity.However, it weakened traditionalcultures and undermined ethnic andkinship ties.In Africa, as elsewhere, modernization disrupted old ways.URBANIZATION WOMENCHRISTIANITY ISLAMIC REVIVAL2
  • 108. Section Assessment2What happened when governments pushed to grow more cashcrops for export?a) These countries had a surplus of food.b) These countries had to import food to feed their populations.c) These countries became increasingly wealthy.d) These countries were able to produce adequate food inaddition to the cash crops.Messages of Islamic reforma) were rejected by many Islamic Africans.b) weakened Islamic religious commitment.c) were repressed by African governments.d) were welcomed by many Islamic Africans.
  • 109. Section Assessment2What happened when governments pushed to grow more cashcrops for export?a) These countries had a surplus of food.b) These countries had to import food to feed their populations.c) These countries became increasingly wealthy.d) These countries were able to produce adequate food inaddition to the cash crops.Messages of Islamic reforma) were rejected by many Islamic Africans.b) weakened Islamic religious commitment.c) were repressed by African governments.d) were welcomed by many Islamic Africans.
  • 110. A young guerilla cradles herautomatic rifle a year beforethe end of El Salvador’s civilwar in 1992.
  • 111. Adolescent boys wearing civilian clothes walk away from the weapons theyonce carried as child soldiers after being evacuated from a combat zone inSudan. More than 2,500 former child soldiers have been airlifted out of conflictzones in Sudan and brought to safe areas where rehabilitation and family-tracing programs are now underway. Ranging in age from 8 to 18 years, thechildren were demobilized from military camps run by the rebel SudanPeoples Liberation Army (SPLA). According to the latest report from the UNSecretary-General on children and armed conflict in the Sudan (2006), thereare an still thousands of child soldiers in various armed groups throughoutSudan.
  • 112. • Around the world today, children are not only the victimsof war, but also the participants. At any one time, morethan 250,000 girls and boys under the age of 18 arefighting in armed conflicts.• These young soldiers are part of government forces andarmed opposition groups in more than 30 locationsworldwide. And while many child soldiers are betweenthe ages of 15 and 18, some are as young as 7 years old.What Should Be Done AboutChild Soldiers?”
  • 113. The Convention on the Rights ofthe ChildIn 1989, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of theChild (CRC). The CRC spells out the basic human rights that all childrenhave, no matter where they live. These basic rights include:• Survival• Protection from abuse and exploitation• Full participation in family, cultural and social life• Development of ones personality, talents and abilities to their fullest potential• World leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for thembecause they are less physically and mentally mature than adults. Childrenare easily threatened by physical force because they’re smaller, and moreeasily intimidated because they’re younger. Therefore, they need specialprotection. By creating the CRC, the United Nations made sure that the worldrecognized that children have human rights too.• Article 38 of The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) requiresgovernments to take all possible steps to ensure that children under the age of15 have no direct part in hostilities. It states that no child below 15 should berecruited into the armed forces.
  • 114. • Some 4,000 children, aged 7-17, have been recruited on both sides of the stillunresolved conflict. Children account for half of all those killed during theconflict, and of the estimated 20% of the population disabled by the fighting, themajority are children. Fewer than half eligible children attend primary school.UNICEF assistance includes support for primary health care andimmunization, basic education, rehabilitation of water and sanitationfacilities, therapeutic food supplies for malnourished children and mothers, andpsychosocial counseling for war-traumatized children. In addition, UNICEFcontinues to coordinate the demobilization of child soldiers and supports theregistration, tracing and family reunification of unaccompanied children, as well asproviding interim care.A boy soldier holding a rifle stands in a rowwith other child soldiers, members of thegovernment-allied Kamajor (civil defenseforces in the south), during a training sessionnear a centre run by the Christian Brothers, alocal NGO that works withunaccompanied, abused and streetchildren, as well as former child soldiers, inthe southern town of Bo.By late 1998, destruction of the basic infrastructure in Sierra Leone since theMay 1997 coup d tat (the elected government was restored in February 1998)has created a devastating situation, especially for children.
  • 115. Control Arms Campaign is a campaign jointly run by International Action Network on SmallArms, Amnesty International, and Oxfam International to press governments to protectcivilians during conflicts and disasters and to finish the ATT (Arms Trade treaty)2000 people die each day from armed violence. 26 million people are currently displacedwithin their own countries by armed conflict. And around 30 conflicts still continue aroundthe world today. Children are often among those the most disadvantaged by the wars.The unregulated arms trade fuels conflict, poverty and serious human rights abuses. It alsolimits peoples ability to earn a living, grow crops, and benefit from education, whilstdiverting money that should be used for vital services such as health care. The Control Armscampaign has been set up to bring an end to the unregulated arms trade.
  • 116. Child Soldiers is part of the War Child International Network campaign launched tovoice disapproval of children’s abuse by armies/militant groups in the countriesaffected by conflicts. 1 in 10 soldiers in armed conflict is a child. At this momentmore than 300.000 children are being used in wars worldwide. Campaign stressesthat children should never be soldiers. Not under any circumstances. Child andsoldier should never go together. But still, it happens. It happens every day. Some ofthem are only 8 years old.
  • 117. Three Nations: A Closer Look• What were some pressures for changein Nigeria?• What effects did dictatorship have onthe Congo?• What was the outcome of Tanzania’sexperiment in socialism?3
  • 118. A Nigerian child stands in frontof the massive trunk of a felledironwood tree.Plundering Forests at GunpointIn Ivory Coast, also known as Côted’Ivoire, civil war has allowed armedgangs to log trees that have takenhundreds of years to grow. This is having adevastating effect on local economies.Village chief Kouadio Yao told a UnitedNations worker of watching a nearbygrove of valuable teak trees beingcompletely destroyed.He was helpless to save it.“If someone came with a gun, would yoube able to stop them and demand thatthey pay for the trees? What I do know isthat because of the conflict, we have losteverything.”—Integrated Regional InformationNetworks (IRIN), December 23, 2004
  • 119. Pressures for Change in NigeriaAt independence, Nigeria drew up a constitution to protect various regionalinterests.The system did not work and ethnic rivalries increased. When Ibo leadersdeclared the independent state of Biafra, civil war broke out. By the timeBiafra surrendered, almost a million people had died.During the 1970s oil boom, Nigeria set up industries and borrowed heavilyfrom the West.Between 1960 and 1985, rural people flooded to the cities. While the citiesgrew, Nigeria ignored its farmers. Once a food exporter, Nigeria beganimporting expensive grain.When oil prices fell, the economy almost collapsed.During Nigeria’s debt crisis in the 1980s, General Ibrahim Babangida imposedharsh economic reforms to restore economic stability.In 1993, elections were held, but Babangida and his military successors setaside election results and cracked down on critics.3
  • 120. Dictatorship in DemocraticRepublic of the CongoAfter World War II, Belgium was determined to keep the Congo and did nothing toprepare the colony for freedom.In 1960, Belgium suddenly rushed the Congo to independence.With some 200 ethnic groups and no sense of unity, the new nation quickly splitapart.Civil war raged for almost three years.In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko seized power and renamed the country Zaire.For the next 30 years, Mobutu built an increasingly brutal dictatorship.In the late 1990s, ethnic violence in neighboring countries spilled intoZaire.Mobutu was at last overthrown.Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuingviolence.3
  • 121. Laurent Kabila Topples Mobutu, but…• The country was renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997, whichhad been its name before Mobutu changed it to Zaire in 1971. But elation overMobutus downfall faded as Kabilas own autocratic style emerged, and he seemeddevoid of a clear plan for reconstructing the country. In Aug. 1998, Congolese rebelforces, backed by Kabilas former allies, Rwanda and Uganda, gained control of alarge portion of the country until Angolan, Namibian, and Zimbabwean troopscame to Kabilas aid. In 1999, the Lusaka Accord was signed by all six of thecountries involved, as well as by most, but not all, of the various rebel groups.Continuing power struggles within the country led to continuing violence.• In Jan. 2001, Kabila was assassinated, allegedly by one of his bodyguards. Hisyoung and inexperienced son Joseph became the new president.• In August 2007, a rebel general, Laurent Nkunda, led battles between hismilitia, made up of fellow Tutsis, and the Congolese Army. The fighting continuedthroughout the year, driving hundreds of thousands of people from their homes ineastern Congo and threatening to spiral the already fragile country back into civilwar. Nkunda claimed he was protecting Tutsis from extremist Rwandan Hutus.• A report released in January 2008 by the International Rescue Committee foundthat despite billions in aid, the deployment of the worlds largest peacekeepingforce, and successful democratic elections, some 45,000 people continue die eachmonth in Congo, mostly from starvation and disease.• Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga resigned in September 2008, citing health reasons.He was succeeded by Adolphe Muzito.
  • 122. Tanzania’s first president, Julius Nyerere, sought to improve rural life,build a classless society, and create a self-reliant economy.To carry out his programs, Nyerere embraced “African socialism.” Nyerereclaimed that this system was based on African village traditions ofcooperation and shared responsibility.Under African socialism, rural farmers were encouraged to live in largevillages and farm the land collectively. Under this arrangement, Nyererebelieved farm output would increase.Nyerere’s experiment did not work as planned. Many families had to beforcibly moved to the village collectives, farm output did not rise, and highoil prices, inflation, and a bloated bureaucracy plunged Tanzania into debt.Nyerere’s successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi moved Tanzania toward a marketeconomy. These moves brought some improvement.Tanzania’s Experiment in Socialism3
  • 123. Tanzania: A Closer LookTanzania has been very poor since it gained independence in the early1960s. Fifty percent of its population lives below the poverty line. Thismeans that half of Tanzanians do not make enough money to meet theirbasic needs. In 2003, the per capita income was estimated at $290 per year.When the country gained independence, most Tanzanians were farmers orherders. To improve life, the new government embraced what was called“African socialism.” This was based on African village traditions ofcooperation and shared responsibility. The government took over banksand businesses. Farmers were encouraged to move to large villages andfarm the land collectively. The goal was to increase output and sell surpluscrops to towns or for export.The government’s experiment failed, partly because farmers refused toleave their land. Farm output did not rise. This experiment also resulted ina huge and inefficient government bureaucracy. The expense of this hugebureaucracy and high oil prices plunged Tanzania into debt. In 1985, newleaders introduced economic reforms, including cutting the size ofgovernment, promoting a market economy, and encouraging foreigninvestment.
  • 124. Today, Tanzania remainsoverwhelmingly agricultural.About nine tenths of Tanzanianworkers work in agriculture. Overhalf of Tanzania’s GDP comesfrom agriculture. Thegovernment continues to makeattempts to develop a moreprofitable, mixed economy.However, the country has had torely on loans from internationallenders to avoid economic crisis.Although Tanzania remainspoor, its economy also received aboost in the early 2000s fromthe opening of a huge new goldmine. The government plannedto use profits from gold, alongwith foreign aid, to reducepoverty and improve servicessuch as clean water, schools, andhealthcare.Wangari MaathaiWhile working with a women’s rights group, Kenyan activistWangari Maathai (born in 1940) came up with the idea of gettingordinary women involved in tree-planting projects. In 1977, shelaunched the Green Belt Movement (GBM). This grassrootsorganization promotes reforestation and controlled wood cuttingto ensure a sustainable supply of wood fuel. The group alsosought jobs for women in Kenya, Tanzania, and other East Africancountries. In 2004, Maathai became the first African woman tobe awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Today, Maathai continues towork with the GBM. She is also a member of Kenya’sgovernment.In what ways might planting trees help improve women’s lives?
  • 125. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi• Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi Mu‘ammaral-Qaḏḏāfī; also known simply as Colonel Gaddafi; born1942) has been the dictator of Libya since a coup in 1969.• With respect to Libyas neighbors, Gaddafi followed Gamal AbdelNassers ideas of pan-Arabism and became a fervent advocate ofthe unity of all Arab states into one Arab nation. He alsosupported pan-Islamism, the notion of a loose union of all Islamiccountries and peoples.• Gaddafi sought closer relations with the Soviet Union. Libya became the firstcountry outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG-25 combat fighters.Throughout the 1970s, his regime was implicated in subversion and terroristactivities in both Arab and non-Arab countries. By the mid-1980s, he was widelyregarded in the West as the principal financier of international terrorism. Reaganhimself dubbed Gaddafi the "mad dog of the Middle East". On 15 April 1986, RonaldReagan ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon, againstTripoli and Benghazi killing Libyan military and government personnel. October 20 ,2011 marked the death of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. The politician died a horribledeath: Gaddafi was first tortured and then executed. Initially, it was claimed that theColonel had been killed in a shootout. However, after the video of the terrible torturesspread around the world, the version of death in the shootout ceased to exist.
  • 126. Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda….• Tutsi, Hutu, and other conflicting ethnicgroups, associated political rebels, armedgangs, and various government forces continuefighting in Great Lakes region, transcending theboundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic ofthe Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain controlover populated areas and natural resources -government heads pledge to end conflicts, butlocalized violence continues despite UNpeacekeeping efforts .
  • 127. The neighboring nation of Burundi has a similar population and history. As inRwanda, tensions between Tutsis and Hutus led to civil war during the 1990s. While thefighting did not lead to a genocide like that in Rwanda, guerrilla groups fought for muchlonger in Burundi. Although several guerrilla groups signed a peace treaty in 2000, fightingcontinued in the years that followed.Rwanda and Burundi Face Deadly DivisionsThe small nation of Rwanda, in Central Africa, faced one of Africa’s deadliest civil wars. TheRwandan people included two main groups. Hutus were the majority group, but theminority Tutsis had long dominated Rwanda. Both groups spoke the same language, butthey had different traditions. After independence, tensions between these two groupssimmered.
  • 128. Since 1994, peace has returned to Rwanda.This recent photo shows Rwandan boysrunning home after school.Although other African nationssuffered brutal ethnic conflicts andcivil wars, Rwanda’s 1994 genocidewas one of the most deadly.However, as UN Secretary General KofiAnnan points out, Rwanda’s recoveryin the years since offers hope that thecontinent’s conflicts can be resolved.“Rwanda has much to show the worldabout confronting the legacy of thepast and is demonstrating that it ispossible to reach beyond tragedy andre-­kindle hope.”— Tribute by Kofi Annan on the tenthanniversary of genocide in Rwanda
  • 129. After independence, Sudan’s Arab Muslim northdominated the non-Muslim, non-Arab south.Arab-led governments enacted laws and policiesthat discriminated against non-Muslims andagainst other ethnic groups. For example, thegovernment tried to impose Islamic law even innon-Muslim areas. For decades, rebel groups inthe south battled northern domination.War, drought, and famine caused millions ofdeaths and forced many more to flee theirhomes. However, in 2004, southern rebels signeda peace agreement with Sudan’s government.The southern rebels agreed to stop fighting, andthe government agreed to give the south limitedself-government, power in Sudan’s nationalgovernment, and freedom from Islamic law.Sudan’s Ethnic StrifeHowever, by 2004, ethnic conflict had also spread to Sudan’s western region of Darfur. Thisconflict raised fears of a new genocide. Arab militias, backed by the government, unleashedterror on the non-Arab Muslim people of Darfur. They burned villages and drove hundreds ofthousands of farmers off the land that fed them and into refugee camps, where they facedthe threat of starvation. The UN, the United States, and other nations organized a huge aideffort to help refugees.
  • 130. Section AssessmentWhat kind of government did Mobutu create in Zaire?a) a limited democracyb) a dictatorshipc) a constitutional monarchyd) an oligarchyWhich African leader embraced “African socialism”?a) Mobutub) Nasserc) Babangidad) Nyerere3
  • 131. Section Assessment3What kind of government did Mobutu create in Zaire?a) a limited democracyb) a dictatorshipc) a constitutional monarchyd) an oligarchyWhich African leader embraced “African socialism”?a) Mobutub) Nasserc) Babangidad) Nyerere
  • 132. In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe.The new nation faced severe challenges after years of war:• International sanctions had damaged the economy.• Droughts had caused problems.• Recovery was slowed by a power struggle betweennationalist leaders, Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo.• When Mugabe prevailed and became president, he calledfor a one-party system and tolerated little opposition.• In 2000, tensions over land ownership led to renewedviolence.What Challenges Faced Zimbabwe?4
  • 133. • President Bush joined with a chorus of world leaders whocondemned the election and the government-sponsored crackdownon the opposition. China and Russia, however, blocked the U.S.-ledeffort in the UN Security Council to impose sanctions on Zimbabwe.Bush responded in July by expanding existing U.S. sanctions againstMugabe, companies in Zimbabwe, and individuals.• As if life werent unbearable enough in Zimbabwe, with its residentsfacing hunger, empty store shelves, a nonexistent healthsystem, rampant unemployment, inflation a staggering 231 millionpercent, and the obvious political instability, a cholera epidemicbroke out in August 2008. At least 565 people died from the diseaseby the end of the year, and another 12,000 were infected.• Tsvangirai agreed in January 2009 to enter into a power-sharinggovernment with Mugabe, and he was sworn in as prime minister inFebruary. I’m just amazed he’s still alive!
  • 134. South Africa’s LongStruggleAPARTHEID BLACKRESISTANCETOWARDREFORM4From the beginning, blackSouth Africans protestedapartheid. In 1912, theAfrican National Congress(ANC) was set up to opposewhite domination. NelsonMandela mobilized youngSouth Africans to take partin acts of civil disobedienceagainst apartheid laws. Asprotestscontinued, governmentviolence increased.In 1910, South Africawon self-rule fromBritain. Over the nextdecades, the whiteminority governmentimposed apartheid, asystem of racial lawswhich separated theraces and kept the blackmajority in a subordinateposition.In the late1980s, President F. W. deKlerk abandonedapartheid, lifted the banon the ANC, and freedMandela. In1994, Mandela waselected president inSouth Africa’s firstmultiracial elections.Mandela welcomedlongtime political foesinto his government.BishopDesmond Tutude Klerk&Mandela
  • 135. Apartheid Divides South AfricaAfter 1948, the government expanded the existing systemof racial segregation, creating what was knownas apartheid, or the separation of the races. Underapartheid, all South Africans were registered by race:Black, White, Colored (people of mixed ancestry), andAsian. Apartheid’s supporters claimed that it would alloweach race to develop its own culture. In fact, it wasdesigned to protect white control over South Africa.The Sharpeville MassacreWhen South African policeopened fire on peacefuldemonstrators atSharpeville in 1960, manydemonstrators ran for theirlives. How might this policeaction lead anti-apartheidactivists to give up onpeaceful methods?
  • 136. Other Nations of Southern AfricaPortugal was unwilling to relinquish itscolonies in Angola and Mozambique.In 1975,after fifteen years offighting, Angola and Mozambique wonindependence.After independence, bitter civil warsraged, fueled by Cold War rivalries.The United States and South Africa sawthe struggles in southern Africa as athreat because some of the liberationleaders were socialists.The end of the Cold War helped stop theconflict.Instead of preparing the territory forindependence, South Africa backed theoppressive regime run by the whiteminority.By the 1960s, the Southwest AfricanPeople’s Organization (SWAPO) turned toarmed struggle to win independence.The struggle became part of the ColdWar, with the Soviet Union and Cubalending their support to the independencemovement.When the Cold War ended, Namibia wasfinally able to win independence.PORTUGUESECOLONIESNAMIBIA4
  • 137. Outlook and GainsIn literature, film, and thearts, Africans made majorcontributions to global culture.Africa has enormous potential forgrowth.With free-market reforms, countriessuch as Ghana enjoyed economicgrowth.Most African nations sought to improvehealth care and created family planningprograms.Governments recognized the profoundeffect population growth had onstandards of living.As governments set up moreschools, literacy rates rose.Universities trained a new generationof leaders.A few countries promoted highereducation for women.Despite many setbacks, African nations have made progress.EDUCATION HEALTH CAREECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY CULTURE4
  • 138. Section AssessmentHow did Nelson Mandela resist apartheid?a) He organized violent protests against the white government.b) He tried to form a new state, separate from South Africa.c) He mobilized young South Africans to take part in acts ofcivil disobedience.d) He set up a separate government in exile.Angola and Mozambique were colonies ofa) Britain.b) Portugal.c) Spain.d) the United States.4
  • 139. Section Assessment4How did Nelson Mandela resist apartheid?a) He organized violent protests against the white government.b) He tried to form a new state, separate from South Africa.c) He mobilized young South Africans to take part in acts ofcivil disobedience.d) He set up a separate government in exile.Angola and Mozambique were colonies ofa) Britain.b) Portugal.c) Spain.d) the United States.
  • 140. Independence did not end the fighting, however. Bitter civil wars, fueled by Cold Warrivalries, raged for years. South Africa and the United States saw the new nations asthreats because some liberation leaders had ties to the Soviet Union or the ANC. TheUnited States and South Africa aided a rebel group fighting the new government ofAngola. South Africa aided a rebel group in Mozambique.The fighting did not stop until 1992 in Mozambique and 2002 in Angola, where tensionsremained even after a ceasefire. Decades of war had ravaged both countries.Slowly, however, they have begun to rebuild.Most African nations achieved independence throughpeaceful means during the 1950s and 1960s. Insouthern Africa, however, the road to freedom waslonger and more violent. For many years, theapartheid government of South Africa supportedwhite minority rule in neighboring Namibia andZimbabwe.Meanwhile, as Britain and France gave up theirAfrican possessions, Portugal clung fiercely to itscolonies in Angola and Mozambique. Inresponse, nationalist movements turned to guerrillawarfare. Fighting dragged on for 15 years, untilPortugal agreed to withdraw from Africa. In1975, Angola and Mozambique celebratedindependence.
  • 141. Arggggh! And real pirates! Mainly dealingwith nations on the east andwest sides of Africa —Nigeria and Somalia
  • 142. Libyanvolunteersundergotraining inthe rebelstronghold ofBenghazibeforeheading outto the frontline toconfront theforces ofLibyan leaderColMuammarGaddafi.
  • 143. Forces Shaping the ModernMiddle East• How have diversity and nationalism shaped the MiddleEast?• What political and economic patterns have emerged?• Why has an Islamic revival spread across the region?• How do women’s lives vary in the Middle East?2
  • 144. Most people in the Middle Easttoday are Muslims, but Jews andChristians still live there.Middle Eastern people speak morethan 30 different languages.Every country is home to minoritygroups.Muslims share the same faith butbelong to different national groups.Often, such differences have createddivisions.After World War I, Arabnationalists opposed themandate system that placedArab territories under Europeancontrol.The Pan-Arab dream of a unitedArab state foundered, but theArab League continued topromote Arab solidarity.DIVERSITY NATIONALISM2
  • 145. Political and Economic PatternsSome nations turned to socialism to endforeign economic control and modernizerapidly.To get capital, governments took foreignloans.Heavy borrowing left many nations deeplyin debt.Most of the region has limited rainfall.Oil-rich countries have builtdesalinization plants.Individual nations have built dams tosupply water.Nations must seek ways to use watercooperatively.Oil-rich nations builtroads, hospitals, andschools. Poorer countrieslacked the capital neededfor development.Most Middle Easternnations developedauthoritariangovernments.GOVERNMENTWATEROILECONOMICS2
  • 146. WorldCrude OilProduction2
  • 147. WaterResourcesin theMiddleEast2
  • 148. Islamic RevivalFor more than 1,300 years, the Quran and Sharia providedguidance on all aspects of life.During the Age of Imperialism, westerners urged Muslimnations to modernize and to adopt western forms of seculargovernment and law.Some Middle Eastern leaders adopted western models ofdevelopment, promising economic progress and social justice.By the 1970s, in the face of failed development and repressiveregimes, many Muslim leaders called for a return to Sharia.Islamic reformers, called fundamentalists by the West, did notreject modernization, but they did reject westernization.2
  • 149. Women in the Muslim WorldConditions for women vary greatly from countryto country in the modern Middle East.Since the 1950s, women in most countries havewon voting rights and equality before the law. Inother countries, though, laws and traditionsemerged that limited women’s right tovote, work, or even drive cars.The changes have taken place at different rates indifferent places:• In Turkey, Syria, and Egypt, many urbanwomen gave up long-held practices such aswearing hejab, or burqa cover.• Conservative countries like Saudi Arabia andIran have opposed the spread of western secularinfluences among women.•France has banned this fashion claiming securityreasons.2
  • 150. Section Assessment2In 1995, what percentage of crude oil was produced byOPEC nations? a) 10 percentb) 100 percentc) 61 percentd) 59 percentIslamic fundamentalists largely rejecteda) modernization.b) westernization.c) desalinization.d) Pan-Arabism.
  • 151. Section Assessment2In 1995, what percentage of crude oil was produced byOPEC nations? a) 10 percentb) 100 percentc) 61 percentd) 59 percentIslamic fundamentalists largely rejecteda) modernization.b) westernization.c) desalinization.d) Pan-Arabism.
  • 152. What Issues Has Turkey Faced?• At the beginning of the Cold War, the Soviets tried to expandsouthward into Turkey.• Turkey struggled to build a stable government.• Modernization and urbanization brought social turmoil.• In 1999, a series of powerful earthquakes shook westernTurkey, including major industrial areas.• Kurdish nationalists fought for autonomy.• Turkey waged a long struggle over Cyprus.• Turkey was divided politically, with secular politicians on oneside and Islamic reformers on the other.3
  • 153. Turkish people hold red andblue balloons, symbolizingEurope and Turkey, tocelebrate Turkey’s decision toapply to the EU.
  • 154. A yurtwith asatellitedish.Homesweethome
  • 155. Egypt: A Leader in the Arab WorldIn the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser set out tomodernize Egypt and end western domination. He:• nationalized the Suez Canal• led two wars against Israel• employed socialist economic policies, which had limitedsuccess built the Aswan High DamAnwar Sadat came to power in the 1970s. He:• opened Egypt to foreign investment and private business• became the first Arab leader to make peace with IsraelSadat’s successor, Hosni Mubarak:• reaffirmed the peace with Israel• mended fences with his Arab neighbors• faced serious domestic problems3Oops! Morsi is in…
  • 156. Iran’s Ongoing RevolutionBecause of its vast oil fields, Iran became a focus of western interests.In 1945, western powers backed Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, despiteopposition from Iranian nationalists.In the 1970s, the shah’s enemies rallied behind Ayatollah RuhollahKhomeini, who condemned western influences and accused the shah ofviolating Islamic law.The shah was forced into exile and Khomeini’s supporters proclaimed anIslamic Republic.Revolutionaries bitterly denounced the West. They attackedcorruption, replaced secular courts with religious ones, dismantledwomen’s rights, and banned everything western. While, at first, theyallowed some open discussion, before long they were suppressing3
  • 157. An Islamist GovernmentIran’s political leaders, who are Muslim clergymen, gather in 2003 to commemorate thedeath of Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious leader and the founder of Iran’s Islamistgovernment. The leaders are seated beneath a giant portrait of Khomeini.How does promoting the memory of Khomeini help to justify rule by religious leaders?In the 1970s, the shah’s foes rallied behind one of theseexiles, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The ayatollah, areligious leader, condemned Western influences andaccused the shah of violating Islamic law. In1979, massive protests finally drove the shah into exile.Khomeini returned to Iran, and his supporters proclaimedan Islamic republic.The new government was a theocracy, or governmentruled by religious leaders. They replaced secular courtswith religious ones and abolished women’s rights. Theyalso brutalized opponents, just as the shah had. Thegovernment allowed Islamists to seize the Americanembassy in 1979 and hold 52 hostages for more than ayear. In the early 2000s, concern grew that Iran might tryto develop nuclear weapons.
  • 158. Section Assessment3Which nation fought a long struggle over Cyprus?a) Turkeyb) Iranc) Iraqd) EgyptWho nationalized the Suez Canal?a) Hosni Mubarakb) Anwar Sadatc) Gamal Abdel Nasserd) Ayatollah Khomeini
  • 159. Section Assessment3Which nation fought a long struggle over Cyprus?a) Turkeyb) Iranc) Iraqd) EgyptWho nationalized the Suez Canal?a) Hosni Mubarakb) Anwar Sadatc) Gamal Abdel Nasserd) Ayatollah Khomeini
  • 160. The Middle East and the World• How did the Cold War increase tensions in theMiddle East?• Why has the Arab-Israeli conflict been difficultto resolve?• Why did conflicts arise in Lebanon and thePersian Gulf?4
  • 161. Kurds Seek FreedomAn ethnic group called the Kurds lives in the northern Middle East.Borders drawn by Europeans and others divided their homeland amongIran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. In each country, the Kurds are a minority andhave faced discrimination, particularly in Iraq and Turkey.During the decades after World War II, the Turkish government harshlyruled the Kurdish minority in the east. For example, it became illegal forKurds to speak their language in public. Beginning in the 1970s, Kurdishrebels fought Turkish forces. During the 1980s and 1990s, thousands ofKurds died in the fighting. In 1991, however, Turkey legalized the use ofthe Kurdish language, and in 1999 the main Kurdish rebel force gave upthe use of violence, though tensions continue.Kurds also faced brutal treatment in Iraq. After Iraq’s defeat in the 1991Gulf War, Kurds in northern Iraq rebelled and set up their owngovernments with British and American military support.
  • 162. Islam Confronts ModernizationSome Middle Eastern nations adopted Western forms of secular, ornonreligious, government and law, keeping religion and governmentseparate. Many Middle Eastern leaders also adopted Westerneconomic models in a quest for progress. In the growingcities, people wore Western-style clothing, watched Americantelevision programs, and bought foreign products. Yet life improvedvery little for many people.By the 1970s, some Muslim leaders were calling for a return toSharia, or Islamic law. These conservative reformers, often calledIslamists, blame social and economic ills on the following of Westernmodels. Islamists argue that a renewed commitment toIslamic doctrine is the only way to solve the region’s problems. TheIslamist movement appeals to many Muslims. Some have usedviolence to pursue their goals. However, many Muslims oppose theextremism of the Islamists.
  • 163. It is the product of centuries of social, political and economicinequality, imposed by repression and prejudice and frequentlyreinforced by bloodshed. The hatred is not principally about religion.Sunnis and Shiites may disagree on some matters of dogma and somedetails of Islams early history, but these differences are small--theyagree on most of the important tenets of the faith, like the infallibilityof the Koran, and they venerate the Prophet Muhammad. Sunnis andShiites are fighting for a secular prize: political domination.Shiites soon formed the majority in the areas that would become themodern states of Iraq, Iran, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. There are alsosignificant Shiite minorities in other Muslim states, including SaudiArabia, Lebanon and Pakistan. Crucially, Shiites outnumber Sunnis inthe Middle Easts major oil-producing regions--not only Iran and Iraqbut also eastern Saudi Arabia. But outside Iran, Sunnis havehistorically had a lock on political power, even where Shiites have thenumerical advantage.ISLAMS SCHISM BEGAN IN A.D. 632, immediately after the Prophet Muhammad diedwithout naming a successor as leader of the new Muslim flock. Some of his followersbelieved the role of Caliph, or viceroy of God, should be passed down Muhammadsbloodline, starting with his cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. But the majority backedthe Prophets friend Abu Bakr, who duly became Caliph.Sunni vs.Shiites: WhyThey HateEach Other
  • 164. Oil, Religion, and Threats to StabilitySaudi Arabia, a vast desert land, has the world’s largest oil reserves. It also includesIslam’s holy land. Since the 1920s, kings from the Sa’ud family have ruled Saudi Arabia.They justify their rule by their commitment to the strict Wahhabi sect of Sunni Islam.However, Saudi Arabia’s economic development after World War II depended on massiveoil exports to the Western world. In return, Saudi leaders relied on the military supportof the United States. Although Saudi Arabia joined the OPEC oil embargo in 1973, thenation’s rulers quickly returned to their cooperative relationship with the West.To build support within the country, the royal family backed fundamentalist religiousleaders. However, some of these leaders and their followers criticized the kingdom’sclose ties to the West. They also charged that Western influence in the kingdom violatedIslamic principles.Increasingly, opponents of the kingdom’s Western ties adopted violent or terroristtactics. Attacks on western targets included an attack on a U.S. military compound in1996 and another on a U.S. consulate in 2004. These attacks threatened to disrupt theSaudi oil industry, which depends on Western expertise. Some feared that growingunrest could threaten the country’s ability to supply oil vital to the world’s economy.Other oil-rich monarchies along the Persian Gulf, such as Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, andthe United Arab Emirates, face similar threats. In Kuwait, Qatar, and the UAE, foreigncitizens are a majority of the population. In Bahrain, there has been growing oppositionamong the majority of the people, who follow Shiite Islam, toward Bahrain’s royalfamily, who follow the Sunni branch of Islam.
  • 165. Wars in the Persian GulfBorder disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitiousrulers fed tensions along the Persian Gulf.In 1980, Iraqi dictator, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran.• The resulting war dragged on for eight years, ending in astalemate. For both nations, the human and economictoll was enormous.In 1990, Iraqi troops invaded the oil-rich nation of Kuwait.• In the Gulf War, the United States organized a coalition ofAmerican, European, and Arab powers to drive Iraqi forcesout of Kuwait.4
  • 166. Wars inthePersianGulf, 1980 – 19914
  • 167. Conflicts in Iraq
  • 168. Saddam Hussein’s DictatorshipSaddam Hussein, shown here in a propaganda posterin 1982, turned Iraq into a brutal police state, in whichcritics were tortured and killed.Iraq Has an ElectionIraqis line up to vote in the election of January2005, the country’s first free election in morethan 35 years. The barbed wire in theforeground is a sign of security concerns. Therewas widespread concern about possible attacksby Sunni Arabs, many of whom boycotted theelection.
  • 169. A fallen statue of Saddam Hussein, thedictator of Iraq, who was overthrown byAmerican troops
  • 170. It would be wrong look upon Yemen as being not ofgreat importanceIt sits in a key location overlooking important sea lanesIt is a homeland for a vigorous al Qaeda affiliateThe U.S. realizes that a descent into chaos there wouldbring a multitude of problemsWhy we should care about YemenBy Tim Lister, CNN
  • 171. Why we should care about YemenBy Tim Lister, CNN
  • 172. Soviets Have Their Own “Vietnam” in AfghanistanIn 1979, the Soviet Union became involved in a long war in Afghanistan, an Islamiccountry just south of the Soviet Union. A Soviet-supported Afghan government had triedto modernize the nation. Its policies included social reforms and land redistribution thatwould reduce the power of regional landlords. Afghan landlords—who commandedarmed men as warlords—and Muslim conservatives charged that both policiesthreatened Islamic tradition. When these warlords took up arms against thegovernment, Soviet troops moved in.Battling mujahedin or Muslim religious warriors, in the mountains ofAfghanistan, however, proved as difficult as fighting guerrillas in the jungles of Vietnamhad been for Americans. By the mid-1980s, the American government began to smugglemodern weaponry to the mujahedin. The Soviets had years of heavy casualties, highcosts, and few successes. Like America’s Vietnam War, the struggle in Afghanistanprovoked a crisis in morale for the Soviets at home.And now we are there andthe enemy has weapons supplied by USCharlie Wilsons War is a 2007 American biographicalcomedy drama film recounting the true story of U.S.Congressman Charlie Wilson (D-TX) who partnered with "bareknuckle attitude" CIA operative Gust Avrakotos tolaunch Operation Cyclone, a program to organize and supporttheAfghan mujahideen in their resistance to the Sovietoccupation of Afghanistan.
  • 173. Chapter 19: Struggles for DemocracyChapter ObjectiveUnderstand struggles for change in Latin America, Africa, the former Sovietbloc, and China.SECTION 1 Democracy: Case Study—Latin American DemocraciesSummarize Brazils, Mexicos, and Argentinas efforts to build democracy.SECTION 2 The Challenge of Democracy in AfricaDescribe the struggles to establish democracies in Africa.**SECTION 3 The Collapse of the Soviet UnionExplain the breakup of the Soviet Union.**SECTION 4 Changes in Central and Eastern EuropeSummarize the reforms and changes in Europe.**SECTION 5 China: Reform and ReactionAnalyze Chinas policies toward capitalism and democracy.
  • 174. Arggggh! And real pirates! Mainly dealingwith nations on the east andwest sides of Africa —Nigeria and Somalia
  • 175. Latin America(1945–Present)US Invasion ofPanama 1989MessiMurals in Rio FavelasUS plane spraysherbicides overcoca field inColombia
  • 176. Section 1: Forces Shaping Modern LatinAmericaSection 2: Latin America, the United States,and the WorldSection 3: Mexico, Central America, and theCaribbeanSection 4: Focus on Argentina and Brazil
  • 177. Forces Shaping Modern Latin America• Why is Latin America a culturally diverse region?• What conditions contributed to unrest in Latin Americancountries?• What forces shaped political, economic, and social patternsin Latin America?1• There have been commie coups and druglords, death squads and civil wars, especiallyin Guatemala, El Salvador, andNicaragua…Then there are the Disappearedin Argentina
  • 178. A woman at a municipal dump in Mexicocollects garbage to sell.Carolina Maria de Jesus faced a life ofhardship in the slums of São PauloBrazil. Like millions of otherpoor, rural people, she came to thecity hoping to improve her life.Instead, to buy food, she spent herdays combing through garbage forpaper, cans, and other scraps to sell.In her diary, de Jesus described herdaily struggle against poverty:“July 16. . . . I went to SenhorManuel, carrying some cans to sell. . .. He gave me 13 [coins]. I keptthinking that I had to buybread, soap, and milk. . . . The 13*coins+ wouldn’t make it. I returned . .. to my shack, nervous and exhausted.I thought of the worrisome life that Iled. Carrying paper, washing clothesfor children, staying in the street allday long.”—Carolina Maria de Jesus, Child ofthe Dark
  • 179. Latin America(1945–Present)US Invasion ofPanama 1989MessiMurals in Rio FavelasUS plane spraysherbicides overcoca field inColombia
  • 180. Throughout LatinAmerica—there have beencountlessincidents of revolution,civil wars, commietakeovers, drug lords,death squads,oppressive militarycoups,rigged elections,Murders, kidnappings,disappearings,near bankruptcies,and general violence—most of this stemmingfrom abject povertyand inequality.
  • 181. Why Is Latin America a Diverse Region?Conquest• After 1492, Europeans imposed their civilization on NativeAmericans.Immigration• Since the late 1800s, immigrants from Europe and Asia havecontributed to the diversity.Intermarriage• As Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans mingled, theycreated new cultures.1
  • 182. Ethnic Diversity in Latin America1
  • 183. Sources of Unrest• A growing gulf between the rich and the poor fueleddiscontent in the postwar era.• A population explosion contributed to poverty.• Pressure on the land contributed to a great migration thatsent millions of peasants to the cities.1
  • 184. Political Forces in Latin AmericaMost Latin American states had constitutions modeled on those of France and theUnited States. Yet, real democracy seemed difficult to achieve in nations plaguedby poverty and inequality.• Conflict between conservatives and reformers contributed to politicalinstability in many nations.• Military leaders held power in many Latin American nations.• During the 1960s and 1970s, guerrillas and urban terrorists battledrepressive governments in many Latin American countries.• By the mid-1980s, inflation, debt, and growing protests led repressiveleaders to step aside.• A number of countries held elections to replace military governmentswith civilian governments.• Heavy debt burden and economic slowdowns have threatened thesuccess of elected rulers, putting the stability of democraticgovernments in the region in doubt.•Drug lords and related violence have caused death and destruction.1
  • 185. Economic DevelopmentBy the 1960s, Latin America faced growing competition from African andAsian nations.To reduce dependence on imported goods, many governmentsencouraged the development of local industries. This policy, calledimport substitution, had mixed success.Over the past 60 years, large areas of land were opened up to farming.Much of the best farmland belonged to agribusiness. Commercialagriculture increased the need to import food.In the 1980s, the region was rocked by economic crisis.In the 1990s, free trade organizations, such as NAFTA, opened LatinAmerican economies to larger markets. The mutual support andexpanded markets of these organizations did bring some economicgrowth in the years around 2000.1
  • 186. Changing Social PatternsThe Catholic Church hasremained a powerfulforce.During the 1960s and1970s, the Churchcrusaded for social justiceand an end to poverty.This movement becameknown as liberationtheology.Upper-class women hadaccess to education andcareers.Rural women often facedhardship and poverty.Women struggled to winchange.Equality is still faraway, although with womenleaders of government greatstrides are being made.City life weakened theextended family.The struggle to make aliving caused somefamilies to fall apart.In large cities, thousandsof abandoned or runawaychildren roamed thestreets.RELIGIONWOMENURBANIZATIONIn Latin America, as elsewhere, urbanization brought social upheaval.1
  • 187. Latin America, the United States, and the World• How did communist rule affect Cuba?• What policies did the United Statesfollow in Latin America?• What global issues have linked LatinAmerica to other regions in the world?2
  • 188. Communism in CubaIn the late 1950s, Fidel Castro turned Cuba into a communiststate.Castro:• nationalized foreign-owned sugar plantations and otherbusinesses• put most land under government control• distributed land to peasantsEffects of communist rule:Castro imposed harsh authoritarian rule.Conditions for the poor improved, basic health care was providedfor all, the literacy rate increased, and equality for women waspromoted.Critics were jailed or silenced and hundreds of thousands fled tothe United States.When the Cold War ended, Soviet aid disappeared, and Cuba’seconomy collapsed.
  • 189. An end to classic cars rumbling across Cuba?By Shasta Darlington, CNN
  • 190. The United States and Latin America• The United States was the leading investor and trading partnerfor most nations in Latin America. And now with NAFTA, evenmore.• During the Cold War, the United States intervened repeatedly inLatin America to protect its interests and to prevent the spread ofcommunism.• The United States saw itself as the defender of democracy andcapitalism and the source of humanitarian aid. Many LatinAmericans, however, resented living under the shadow of the“colossus of the north.”• Latin American nations and the United States worked together inthe Organization of American States (OAS). The organization wasformed in 1948 to promote democracy, economiccooperation, and human rights.2
  • 191. Regional and Global IssuesPoverty, civil war, and repressivegovernments caused Latin Americanimmigration to the United States to increaserapidly after the 1970s.Pressure increased in the United States tohalt illegal immigration.Developing nations insisted that theyneeded to exploit their land and otherresources if they wanted economicgrowth.This came at the expense of theenvironment: air and waterpollution, strip mining, etc…Drug cartels in Latin America beganexporting ever-larger quantities of cocaineand other drugs.In the 1980s, the United States declared a“war on drugs,” pressing Latin Americangovernments to cooperate with theseefforts.Regional trading blocs gainedimportance in the 1990s. Suchgroups created larger markets bylowering trade barriers amongneighboring countries.Examples: NAFTA, MercosurREGIONAL TIES THE DRUG WARSMIGRATIONDEVELOPMENT VERSUSENVIRONMENT2
  • 192. Mexico, Central America, and theCaribbean• What conditions have changed and whatconditions have remained the same in Mexico?• Why did Central American countries suffer civilwars?• What were the causes of Haiti’s political andeconomic struggles?3
  • 193. Continuity and Change in MexicoAfter the Mexican Revolution, government officials becamecommitted to improving conditions for the poor. At the end of the1900s, however, Mexico remained a disturbing mix of poverty andprosperity.Since the Mexican Revolution, a single party — the InstitutionalRevolutionary Party (PRI) — dominated Mexican politics. In the1990s, the PRI began to lose its monopoly on power.In the 1930s, the Mexican government distributed millions of acresof land to peasants. Over the years, as economic conditionsworsened, many peasants migrated to towns and cities. Thepopulation of Mexico City mushroomed from 1.5 million in 1940 toabout 20 million in 1995.3
  • 194. A Vote for DemocracyVicente Fox, standing with hisdaughter, is inaugurated as president in2000 (right). A boy stands next to ananti-PRI sign in Chiapas, Mexico (top).What effect might Fox’s election have onthe participation of young people inMexican politics?
  • 195. Hurricane AlleyOh, yeah…and epicenter forearthquakes
  • 196. The Impact of HurricanesHurricane Mitch dealt a devastating social and economic blow to CentralAmerica, whose nations were just recovering from decades of civil war.3
  • 197. Struggles in HaitiHaiti is the poorest state in theWestern Hemisphere, lackingadequate roads, electricity, andother services.The weakness of the governmentdiscouraged foreign investment.A skewed distribution of wealthput most of the productive land inthe hands of one or two percentof the citizens.Devastation of an earthquake inJan 2010Haiti endured brutal dictatorialrule from 1957 until 1986.A succession of military leadersthen ruled the nation until 1990.In 1990, in its first freeelections, Jean-Bertrand Aristidewas chosen as president.Aristide was overthrown by amilitary coup, but restored topower by the United States.ECONOMICSTRUGGLESPOLITICALSTRUGGLES3
  • 198. War and Peace in Central AmericaDuring a vicious civilwar, right-wing deathsquads slaughteredanyone thought tosympathize with theleftists.The United Statespressed for reform, butat the same timeprovided weapons andother aid to help themilitary battle rebelFearing communistinfluence, the UnitedStates helped oustGuatemala’s reformistgovernment in 1954.While the military regainedpower, decades of civil warensued, during which thegovernment routinelytortured and murderedcritics.In 1979, revolutionariescalled Sandinistas oustedthe ruling Somoza family.Fearing that Nicaraguawould becomesocialist, the UnitedStates secretly backedthe “contras” in a longcivil war against theSandinistas.EL SALVADORGUATEMALANICARAGUAIn Central America, unrest threatened and discontent grew. Fearing the spread ofcommunism, the United States intervened repeatedly in the region.
  • 199. Focus on Argentina and Brazil• What challenges has democracy faced inArgentina?• How did Brazil’s government change inrecent times?• Why did Brazil’s “economicmiracle” have limited success?4
  • 200. From Dictatorship to Democracy in Argentina•From 1946 to 1955, the authoritarian government of Juan Perón stifled opposition.•In 1955, Perón was ousted by a military coup.•For two decades, the military was in and out of power.•In 1973, Perón returned to power. When he died the next year, his second wife, IsabelPerón, became president. When she faced economic and political crises, the military tookover. (EVITA was his first wife)•To combat leftist guerrillas, the army waged a “dirty war,” torturing and murdering asmany as 20,000 people.•In 1983, an elected government restored democracy. Despite some setbacks, democraticrule survived.•But by the end of 2001, Argentina was on the verge of economic collapse. Riotersprotesting government austerity measures forced De la Rua to resign in Dec. 2001.Argentina then defaulted on its $155 billion foreign debt payments, the largest such defaultin history.•After more instability, Congress named Eduardo Duhalde president on Jan. 1, 2002.Duhalde soon announced an economic plan devaluing the Argentine peso, which had beenpegged to the dollar for a decade.•The devaluation plunged the banking industry into crisis and wiped out much of thesavings of the middle class, plunging millions of Argentinians into poverty.4
  • 201. The Mothers of the Plaza de MayoPolitical unrest followed the death ofJuan Peron, so the military againseized control in 1976. Opposed byleftist guerrillas, the military wageda “dirty war” of torture and murderagainst its own citizens. As many as20,000 people were kidnapped bythe government and disappeared.Week after week, in the Plaza deMayo, a central plaza in BuenosAires, the Argentine capital, womenmarched silently holding pictures oftheir missing sons and daughters.These women became known asthe Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo.They are representing theirchildren who are among“The Disappeared”Protesting theMilitary--TheMothers protestgovernment policiesin 1985 (above) and2002 (left).
  • 202. EconomicActivity inArgentina4
  • 203. Argentine Economyon the Rebound• Peronist Néstor Kirchner became Argentinaspresident in May 2003, after former president CarlosMenem abandoned the race. Kirchner vowed toaggressively reform the courts, police, and armedservices and to prosecute perpetrators of the dirtywar. Argentinas economy has been rebounding sinceits near collapse in 2001, with an impressive growthrate of about 8% since Kirchner took office. In March2005, Kirchner announced that the countrys debthad been successfully restructured. In Jan.2006, Argentina paid off its remaining multi-millionIMF debt early, a dramatic move that not alleconomists thought was beneficial.• In October 2007, First Lady Cristina Fernández de Kirchner was elected president.• On December 10, 2007, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took over the presidency from herhusband, Néstor Kirchner, in a ceremony at Argentinas Congress. She kept many of her husbandsministers, but implied that she will introduce changes to the country during presidency. Fernandez saidshe will create a new ministry for science and technology to boost innovation, and stated that she wouldmake "necessary corrections" to help the inflation problem in Argentina. Although she is as much anationalist as her husband and refuses to get involved with the IMF, Fernández has shown interest inforging closer ties with the United States, Europe, and Brazil.
  • 204. • On April 2, 2008, farmers called for a temporary halt to the 21-day-long strike in order to enter into negotiations with the government.The strike, which began in response to increased taxes on exportgoods, has caused highways to be shut down and severe foodshortages nationwide. On July 17, 2008, the government, led byVice President Cobos, sided with the farmers and voted against thepresidents proposed increase on the agricultural export tax. OnOctober 3, 2008, farmers resumed the nationwide strike against thegovernment, claiming they had not received adequate support.• In November 2008, the lower house of Parliament approvedPresident Fernandezs controversial plan to nationalize more than$25 billion in private pension funds. President Fernandez assertedthe move would protect pensioners assets during the globalfinancial crisis, while Vice President Cobos continued todisagree, stating it would create doubts among investors aboutArgentinas investment market stability.
  • 205. Government in BrazilBetween 1930 and 1945, dictator GetúlioVargas allied himself with the working poor.In 1945, the military overthrew Vargas.The military allowed elected presidents torule for the next 20 years.In 1964, economic problems and fear ofcommunism led the military to take over again.In the mid-1980s, the military eased their gripon power. Brazilians voted directly for apresident for the first time in 29 years.4
  • 206. Urbanization in Brazil4
  • 207. The term “slum” is defined by the United Nations as “a run-down area of a citycharacterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security.” InBrazil, the term used for slum is “favela,” where these communities are often overrun bycrime and drug. Drug lords control these parts of town and very few outsiders ever dareto venture through these streets.Rio Offers a NewTourist Attraction– A Tour of theSlums
  • 208. Brazil’s Economic MiracleBeginning in the 1930s, Brazil diversified its economy and, fora time, chalked up impressive growth. Brazil’s prosperityenriched only a few. To most Brazilians, it brought little or nobenefit.In the 1980s, Brazil faced a host of economic problems —from inflation to a staggering debt. One of the greatesteconomic problems was the unequal distribution of land.In the 1990s, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, providedstrong leadership for Brazil. His policies promoted rapideconomic growth and helped limit inflation. He promised todistribute land to 300,000 families.4
  • 209. Dilma Vana Rousseff36th President of BrazilAssumed office1 January 2011
  • 210. • In Jan. 2003, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, a former trade union leader andfactory worker widely known by the name Lula, became Brazils firstworking-class president. As leader of Brazils only Socialist party, theWorkers Party, Lula pledged to increase social services and improvethe lot of the poor. But he also recognized that a distinctly non-socialist program of fiscal austerity was needed to rescue theeconomy.• Lula has been indicted on corruption scandal charges at leasttwice, and barely won re-election in 2006.• A new oil field, called Tupi, was discovered 16,000 feet below theoceans floor in November 2007. Tupi will yield five to eight billionbarrels of crude oil and natural gas, making it the largest oil fielddiscovered since Kashagan Field in Kazakhstan in 2000.• After a three-year decline, the National Institute for Space Researchreported that the deforestation rate in Brazil during 2008 increased228% over 2007.• In October 2009, Rio de Janeiro won the bid to host the 2016 SummerOlympics, becoming the first South American city to host the Games.Tokyo, Madrid, and Chicago, Ill. were the other finalists in the running.
  • 211. Former Yugoslavia in 2005
  • 212. However, NATO air strikes eventually forced Yugoslavia to withdraw itsforces from Kosovo. UN and NATO forces restored peace. As Kosovorebuilt, tensions remained high between ethnic Albanians and Serbs livingthere. Although Kosovo remained part of Serbia in theory, the region wasunder UN control after 1999. The majority ethnic Albanians soughtindependence, while ethnic Serbs wantedThe Fight for KosovoAs Bosnia reached a tense peace, a crisisbroke out in the Serbian province ofKosovo. Ethnic Albanians made up about 90percent of Kosovo’s population. The rest of thepopulation was mostly Serbian.In 1989, Serbian president SlobodanMilosevic (an extreme Serbian nationalist, hadbegun oppressing Kosovar Albanians.Peaceful protests led to more repression. In the mid-1990s, a smallguerrilla army of ethnic Albanians began to respond with armed attackson Serbian targets. Milosevic, however, rejected international peaceefforts. In 1999, NATO launched air strikes against Serbia. Yugoslav forcesattempted ethnic cleansing of Albanian civilians.
  • 213. Conflicts in Former Yugoslavia
  • 214. Section Assessment5What happened when Hungary withdrew from the WarsawPact?a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’sindependence.b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising.c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew.d) Hungary was permitted to install a democraticgovernment.Which of the following was not a former territory ofYugoslavia?a) Slovenia c) Bulgariab) Croatia d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • 215. Section Assessment5What happened when Hungary withdrew from the WarsawPact?a) The Soviet Union granted Hungary’sindependence.b) Soviet troops crushed the Hungarian uprising.c) Other Eastern European countries also withdrew.d) Hungary was permitted to install a democraticgovernment.Which of the following was not a former territory ofYugoslavia?a) Slovenia c) Bulgariab) Croatia d) Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • 216. DengXiaoping邓小平 or鄧小平Economic wizard of China:led his country towards a market economy.
  • 217. Deng Xiaoping邓小平 or鄧小平Economic wizard of China:led his country towards a market economy.
  • 218. Communism and Democracy in China• Massive, pervasive policies of economic andcultural engineering– Great Leap Forward (1958-1961)– Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)• Both huge failures• Deng Xiaopeng (1904-1997) comes to powerin 1981, moderates Maoism• Tiananmen Square pro-democracy ralliesruthlessly subdued, 1989
  • 219. Tiananmen SquareBy the late 1980s, some Chinesewere demanding greater politicalfreedom and economic reform.The crackdown showed that China’s Communist leaders weredetermined to maintain control. To them, order was more importantthan political freedom.In 1989, thousands ofdemonstrators occupied TiananmenSquare and called for democracy.The government sent in troops andtanks. Thousands of demonstratorswere killed or wounded.2Tank Man
  • 220. Challenges China Faces TodayChina’s human rights abuses have brought strong pressure fromtrading partners such as the United States. Copyright laws, Internetstuff…Population growth strained the economy and posed a challenge forthe future. Male children preferred under one child law.Hong Kong’s fate in ten years…China still claims Taiwan. Usingmore and more energy and resources in industrialization.Many state-run industries were inefficient, but could not be closedwithout risking high unemployment and economic chaos.Inequalities between rich and poor urban and rural Chinesecontinued to grow.As communist ideology weakened, government corruption becamea growing problem.Hu Jintao is ruler now.2
  • 221. China Builds on Deng’s ReformsGorbachev had urged the leaders of other communist states to consider both political andeconomic changes. Leaders of the People’s Republic of China accelerated the compromiseswith capitalism that Deng Xiaoping had introduced in the 1980s. The result was anamazing economic boom, including double-digit growth rates for more than a decade.China’s Communist Party, however, undertook no political reforms. Watching communistpower unravel in Eastern Europe, China’s leaders worked to preserve one-party Communistrule—and their own power.Chinese workers assemble electronic parts.Often factories have two signs— one side saysFACTORY, the other says PRISON.
  • 222. Children of migrant workers wait for their performance to start during InternationalChildrens Day celebrations at a kindergarten in Kunming, Yunnan province, China
  • 223. Limiting a Huge PopulationChina’s population, now more than1.3 billion, is the largest in the world.In the 1980s, the government’s one-child policy, which limited urbanfamilies to a single child, aimed tokeep population growth from hurtingeconomic development. Ruralfamilies were allowed two children.However, these measures workedbetter in urban areas than in ruralareas. Rural families who wantedmore than two children to help onthe farm often just paid fines. Evenso, population growth slowed overallafter 1980.
  • 224. The Asian Tigers• How has China influenced Taiwan andHong Kong?• How did Singaporemodernize?• Why has Korearemained dividedfor more than50 years?3
  • 225. The Asian Tigers and JapanFor decades, Japan dominated the Asian Pacific Rim. This small island nationrebuilt itself after World War II to become an economicpowerhouse, modernizing and excelling at Western economics while at thesame time preserving its own traditions. By the 1990s, however, Japan beganto suffer from a long economic downturn.In the meantime, Japan’s neighbors—including Taiwan, HongKong, Singapore, and South Korea—surged ahead. Although they differ interms of culture and history, all had quickly modernized and industrialized bythe 1980s. All four were influenced to some degree by China and itsConfucian traditions of education, loyalty, and consensus. Each stressededucation as a means to increase worker productivity.Because of their economic success, they earned nicknames such as the“Asian tigers” or the “four tigers.” The Asian tigers first focused on lightindustries such as textiles. As their economies grew, the tigers concentratedon making higher-priced exports, such as electronics, for developed nations.Their extraordinary growth was due in part to low wages, long hours, andother worker sacrifices.
  • 226. Asian TigersThe term “Asian tigers” refers to Taiwan, HongKong, Singapore, and South Korea. Only 3200 are left.• All four are small Asian lands that became“newly industrialized countries” by the 1980s.• They are known for their aggressive economic growth.• Although they differ in important ways, all followed similarroads to modernization after 1945.• All four were influenced by China.• In each, the Confucian ethic shaped attitudes about work.• All four had stable governments that invested in education.3Only3200are left.
  • 227. Taiwan and Hong KongTaiwan was ruled by China until1895, when it fell to Japan. NationalistChinese moved there when Mao tookover.The Japanese built someindustry, providing a foundation forlater growth. US helped by trading withthem.Taiwan first set up light industries andlater, developed heavy industry.After the Cold War, Taiwanesebusinesses invested in companies onthe Chinese mainland.Britain won Hong Kong from Chinaafter the Opium War.Hong Kong’s prosperity was basedlargely on trade and light industry.Hong Kong also became a worldfinancial center. Safe and stable—global banking makes money!Hong Kong’s amazing growth was duein part to its location on China’sdoorstep.In 1997, Britain returned Hong Kongto China.Both Taiwan and Hong Kong have deep cultural and historical links toChina, but practice capitalism BIGTIME!.TAIWAN HONG KONG3
  • 228. How Did Singapore Modernize?During his 30 years in power, Prime MinisterLee Kwan Yew:• supported a free-market economy• attracted foreign capital by keeping laborcosts low• expanded Singapore’s seaport into one ofthe world’s busiest harbors• welcomed skilled immigrants• insisted on education for all of Singapore’speople3• encouraged high-tech industries, manufacturing, finance, andtourism• followed a Confucian model of development, emphasizing hardwork and saving moneyHe recently retired.
  • 229. Section Assessment2When did the United States set up formaldiplomatic relations with China?a) 1945b) 1995c) 1979d) 1950The demonstrators who occupied Tiananmen Squarewere calling fora) increased farm output.b) the strengthening of communism.c) a purging of bourgeois tendencies.d) democracy.
  • 230. Section Assessment2When did the United States set up formaldiplomatic relations with China?a) 1945b) 1995c) 1979d) 1950The demonstrators who occupied Tiananmen Squarewere calling fora) increased farm output.b) the strengthening of communism.c) a purging of bourgeois tendencies.d) democracy.
  • 231. ReligiousDiversity--Lots ofCompetitionMuslim—Shi’aor SunniBuddhistChristianHinduOther
  • 232. War in Vietnam and CambodiaCommunists fought against non-communists supported by theUnited States for control ofVietnam.After the United States withdrewfrom the war, the NorthVietnamese reunited the countryunder communist rule.The communist victors imposedharsh rule in the south.Vietnam had to rebuild a landdestroyed by war.During the Vietnam War, fightingspilled over into neighboringCambodia. In 1970, the United Statesbombed and then invaded Cambodia.When the United Statesleft, communist guerrillas calledKhmer Rouge, led by PolPot, slaughtered more than a millionCambodians.In 1979, Vietnam invaded andoccupied Cambodia. They left in1992, but troubles still abound:• King: Norodom Sihamoni (2004) balletdancer and choreographer• Prime Minister: Hun Sen (1998) whoIn mainland Southeast Asia, an agonizing liberation struggle toreapart the region once known as French Indochina.VIETNAM CAMBODIA4
  • 233. Tragedy in CambodiaDuring the Vietnam War, fighting had spilled over intoneighboring Cambodia. In 1970, the United Statesbombed North Vietnamese supply routes in Cambodiaand then briefly invaded the country.Afterwards, the Khmer Rouge ,a force of Cambodiancommunist guerrillas, gained ground in Cambodia.Finally, in 1975, the Khmer Rouge overthrew theCambodian government.Led by the brutal dictator Pol Pot the Khmer Rougeunleashed a reign of terror. To destroy all Westerninfluences, they drove people from the cities and forcedthem to work in the fields. They slaughtered, starved, orworked to death more than a million Cambodians, about athird of the population.In the end, it took a Vietnamese invasion in 1979 to drivePol Pot and his Khmer Rouge back into the jungle.Vietnam imposed an authoritarian government onCambodia, but they at least ended the genocide.Haing S. Ngor won his Supporting Oscar in 1984 for playing Dith Pran, a journalistsassistant trapped in Cambodia during the civil war. His real life was even scarier than that."Haing Ngor:A CambodianOdyssey.
  • 234. On February 25, 1996, Ngor was shot to deathoutside his home in Los Angeles. Threemembers of an Asian street gang were laterarrested and convicted of Ngors murder. Afterthe release of ‘The Killing Fields, Ngor told theNew York Times, "If I die from now on, okay!This film will go on for a hundred years."Murdered!
  • 235. Fleeing Communist ControlThese South Vietnamese refugees arefleeing their country after communistforces took control in April 1975. Refugeeswho fled in small boats like this one wereknown as “boat people.”Vietnam Under the CommunistsIn the newly reunited Vietnam, thecommunist victors imposed a harsh rule oftheir own on the south. Hundreds ofthousands of Vietnamese fled theircountry, most in small boats. Many of these“boat people” drowned. Survivors landed inrefugee camps in neighboring countries.Eventually, some settled in the UnitedStates. Meanwhile, Vietnam had to rebuilda land destroyed by war. Recovery was slowdue to a lack of resources and an American-led embargo, or blockage of trade. Foryears, the country remained mired inpoverty.Why might people choose to flee across theopen ocean in a small boat like this one?
  • 236. The PhilippinesIn 1946, the Philippines gained freedom after almost 50 years of American rule.In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. Marcos promised reform butbecame a dictator.In 1986, the people of the Philippines forced Marcos to leave in what was calledthe “people power” revolution.Corazón Aquino became president and restored the fragile democracy.Currently, Benigno (Noynoy) Aquino III, her son, is president.4Benigno S. Aquino IIIImelda
  • 237. Like Indonesia, the Philippines is a group of islands with a diversity of ethnic groups.Catholics are the predominant religious group, but there is a Muslim minority in the south.In 1946, the Philippines gained freedom peacefully after almost 50 years of American rule.The United States, however, continued to influence the country through military andeconomic aid.Marcos Becomes a DictatorAlthough the Filipino constitution set up a democratic government, a wealthy elitecontrolled politics and the economy. The peasant majority was poor. For a time, thegovernment battled Huks , local Communists with strong peasant support. FerdinandMarcos, elected president in 1965, abandoned democracy. He became a dictator andcracked down on basic freedoms. He even had Benigno Aquino, a popular rival, murdered.Filipinos Demand DemocracyWhen Marcos finally held elections in 1986, voters elected Corazon Aquino, widow of theslain Benigno. Marcos tried to deny the results, but the people of Manila helddemonstrations that forced him to resign during the “people power” revolution. UnderAquino and her successors, this fragile democracy struggled to survive. The economy grewduring the 1990s but then slowed. Poverty persisted. Another corrupt president, JosephEstrada, tried to cling to power. Once again, in 2001, popular protests forced him fromoffice. As urbanization increased, unrest grew in crowded slum neighborhoods.
  • 238. Clashes With Rebels Drag OnRebel guerrillas have fought across the Philippines for decades, taking many lives. Somerebels are Communists. Others belong to Muslim separatist groups in the south. SomeMuslim rebels have ties to international terrorism. As part of its war on terrorism, theUnited States has aided the Filipino government in its fight against Muslim rebels.Challenges:• The country enjoyed economic growth during the 1990s,but many people remained poor.• Government corruption and guerrilla wars threatened thenation’s stability.• The Philippines experienced rapid urbanization.• Natural disasters caused setbacks.• Many enterprising Filipinos left the country.
  • 239. Chapter 20: Global InterdependenceChapter ObjectiveExplain the variety of ways in which global interdependence affectspeoples lives.SECTION 1 The Impact of Science and TechnologyIdentify recent advances and their effects.SECTION 2 Global Economic DevelopmentDescribe the development of the global economy and its effects.SECTION 3 Global Security IssuesSummarize security, human rights, and health issues.SECTION 4 Terrorism: Case Study–September 11, 2001Describe the September 11 attacks and the U.S. response.SECTION 5 Cultures Blend in a Global AgeAnalyze the increase in worldwide cultural interaction.
  • 240. Changing Patterns of Life• How are new ways of life replacing old ways?• How has modernization affected the lives of women?• What are the benefits and limits of modern science andtechnology?• What forces have shaped a new global culture?3
  • 241. How Are New Ways of Life ReplacingOld Ways?UrbanizationSince 1945, people in the developing world have flockedto the cities to find jobs and escape rural poverty.In the cities, the extended family of rural villages is giving way tothe nuclear family. If we actually ever get to eat together!WesternizationIn cities, people frequently adopt western fashionsand ideas. US & EU—fashion, music, films, etc. This threatenstraditional cultures, although it’s our main export!Village LifeWesternization and technology are transforming villages.Changes such as roads, clinics, and television can enrich life, butthey also weaken traditional cultures.3
  • 242. New Rights and Rolesfor WomenBy 1950, women had won the right to vote in many countries.A small number of women won elected office.In the industrialized world, more and more women worked outsidethe home.By the 1970s, the feminist movement sought greater access forwomen to jobs and promotions, equal pay for equal work, and anend to sexual harassment on the job.In emerging nations, women worked actively in nationaliststruggles.HOWEVER……After 1945, women’s movements brought changes toboth western and developing nations.3New roles for women raised difficult social issues. Working womenhad to balance jobs with child rearing and household work.
  • 243. A loan recipient poses with the cowsshe bought to help generate income.Micro-loans allowpeople to helpthemselves.So…go teach someone how to fish…"Give a man a fish and he will eat for aday. Teach a man to fish and he will eatfor a lifetime." ~ Chinese ProverbBangladeshi Laily Begum used tosleep in a cow shed and spend herdays begging. Then she got a loanfor $119 from Grameen Bank, aBangladesh-based organizationthat lends money to the poor. Shebought a cow and began to build herown business selling milk. Today sheand her husband own several shopsand a restaurant.“People now come to me for help . . .I can feed myself and my family, andnow other people look at me andthey treat me with respect.”—Laily Begum, February 12, 1998
  • 244. Important Industrialized Regions
  • 245. Influential Technology of theTwentieth Century
  • 246. Science and TechnologyThe computer brought aninformation revolution.Technology has improved life forpeople everywhere.Medical advances have wipedout some diseases andprevented others.New technology increased foodproduction for the world’sgrowing population.Technology has not been able tosolve such basic problems ashunger or poverty.Technology widened the gapbetween the global North andSouth.Technology has threatened manykinds of jobs. For example, onecomputer can process thousandsof telephone calls that were oncehandled by human operators.Since 1945, technology has transformed humanlife and thought.BENEFITS DRAWBACKS3
  • 247. A New Global Culture• The driving force behind this global culture has beenthe United States. American fashions, products, andentertainment have captured the world’s imagination.• The western world has also been influenced bynonwestern traditions and culture.• In the last 100 years, the western world has gained anew appreciation for the arts of other civilizations.Modern communication technology has put peopleeverywhere in touch and has helped create a new globalculture.3
  • 248. Which of the following was true of women in 1950?a) Many women were elected to public office.b) Women had won the right to vote in manycountries.c) The feminist movement had ensured women equalpay for equal work.d) Women were working outside the home while menhad taken over traditional household duties.Benefits of the technology age include all of thefollowing excepta) increased food production.b) an information revolution.c) the prevention of some diseases.d) an end to hunger and poverty.Section Assessment3
  • 249. Section Assessment3And yet obesity is at epidemic proportions within our owncountry!Which of the following was true of women in 1950?a) Many women were elected to public office.b) Women had won the right to vote in manycountries.c) The feminist movement had ensured women equalpay for equal work.d) Women were working outside the home while menhad taken over traditional household duties.Benefits of the technology age include all of thefollowing excepta) increased food production.b) an information revolution.c) the prevention of some diseases.d) an end to hunger and poverty.
  • 250. A Dangerous Leader New YorkCity police stand near a “Wanted”poster in 2001. An Arab manholds up a poster supporting binLaden.How do views like the one thisman expresses threaten theUnited States’ security?
  • 251. Timeline of Terrorist Attacks(within the United States or against Americans abroad)• 1979 Nov. 4, Tehran, Iran: Iranian radical students seized the U.S.embassy, taking 66 hostages. 14 were later released. The remaining 52were freed after 444 days on the day of President Reagans inauguration.• 1982–1991 Lebanon: Thirty US and other Western hostages kidnapped inLebanon by Hezbollah. Some were killed, some died in captivity, and somewere eventually released. Terry Anderson was held for 2,454 days.• 1983 April 18, Beirut, Lebanon: U.S. embassy destroyed in suicide car-bomb attack; 63 dead, including 17 Americans. The Islamic Jihad claimedresponsibility.• Oct. 23, Beirut, Lebanon: Shiite suicide bombers exploded truck near U.S.military barracks at Beirut airport, killing 241 marines. Minutes later asecond bomb killed 58 French paratroopers in their barracks in WestBeirut.• .
  • 252. • Dec. 12, Kuwait City, Kuwait: Shiite truck bombers attacked the U.S. embassyand other targets, killing 5 and injuring 80.• 1984 Sept. 20, east Beirut, Lebanon: truck bomb exploded outside the U.S.embassy annex, killing 24, including 2 U.S. military.• Dec. 3, Beirut, Lebanon: Kuwait Airways Flight 221, from Kuwait toPakistan, hijacked and diverted to Tehran. 2 Americans killed.• 1985 April 12, Madrid, Spain: Bombing at restaurant frequented by U.S.soldiers, killed 18 Spaniards and injured 82.• June 14, Beirut, Lebanon: TWA Flight 847 en route from Athens to Romehijacked to Beirut by Hezbollah terrorists and held for 17 days. A U.S. Navydiver executed.• Oct. 7, Mediterranean Sea: gunmen attack Italian cruise ship, Achille Lauro.One U.S. tourist killed. Hijacking linked to Libya.• Dec. 18, Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria: airports in Rome and Vienna werebombed, killing 20 people, 5 of whom were Americans. Bombing linked toLibya.• 1986 April 2, Athens, Greece: A bomb exploded aboard TWA flight 840 enroute from Rome to Athens, killing 4 Americans and injuring 9.
  • 253. • April 5, West Berlin, Germany: Libyans bombed a disco frequented by U.S.servicemen, killing 2 and injuring hundreds.• 1988 Dec. 21, Lockerbie, Scotland: N.Y.-bound Pan-Am Boeing 747 exploded inflight from a terrorist bomb and crashed into Scottish village, killing all 259aboard and 11 on the ground. Passengers included 35 Syracuse Universitystudents and many U.S. military personnel. Libya formally admittedresponsibility 15 years later (Aug. 2003) and offered $2.7 billion compensationto victims families.• 1993 Feb. 26, New York City: bomb exploded in basement garage of WorldTrade Center, killing 6 and injuring at least 1,040 others. In 1995, militantIslamist Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman and 9 others were convicted of conspiracycharges, and in 1998, Ramzi Yousef, believed to have been themastermind, was convicted of the bombing. Al-Qaeda involvement issuspected.• 1995 April 19, Oklahoma City: car bomb exploded outside federal officebuilding, collapsing wall and floors. 168 people were killed, including 19children and 1 person who died in rescue effort. Over 220 buildings sustaineddamage. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols later convicted in theantigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff inWaco, Tex., exactly 2 years earlier.
  • 254. • Nov. 13, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: car bomb exploded at U.S. militaryheadquarters, killing 5 U.S. military servicemen.• 1996 June 25, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: truck bomb exploded outside KhobarTowers military complex, killing 19 American servicemen and injuringhundreds of others. 13 Saudis and a Lebanese, all alleged members ofIslamic militant group Hezbollah, were indicted on charges relating to theattack in June 2001.• 1998 Aug. 7, Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: truck bombsexploded almost simultaneously near 2 U.S. embassies, killing 224 (213 inKenya and 11 in Tanzania) and injuring about 4,500. 4 men connected withal-Qaeda 2 of whom had received training at al-Qaeda camps insideAfghanistan, were convicted of the killings in May 2001 and later sentencedto life in prison. A federal grand jury had indicted 22 men in connection withthe attacks, including Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, who remained atlarge.• 2000 Oct. 12, Aden, Yemen: U.S. Navy destroyer USS Cole heavily damagedwhen a small boat loaded with explosives blew up alongside it. 17 sailorskilled. Linked to Osama bin Laden, or members of al-Qaeda terroristnetwork.
  • 255. • 2001 Sept. 11, New York City, Arlington, VA, and Shanksville, PA: hijackerscrashed 2 commercial jets into twin towers of World Trade Center; 2 morehijacked jets were crashed into the Pentagon and a field in rural PA. Totaldead and missing numbered 2,9921: 2,749 in New York City, 184 at thePentagon, 40 in PA, and 19 hijackers. Islamic al-Qaeda terrorist groupblamed.• 2002 June 14, Karachi, Pakistan: bomb explodes outside American consulatein Karachi, Pakistan, killing 12. Linked to al-Qaeda.• 2003 1 May 12, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: suicide bombers kill 34, including 8Americans, at housing compounds for Westerners. Al-Qaeda suspected.• 2004 May 29–31, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: terrorists attack the offices of aSaudi oil company in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, take foreign oil workers hostage ina nearby residential compound, leaving 22 people dead including oneAmerican.• June 11–19, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: terrorists kidnap and execute PaulJohnson Jr., an American, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 2 other Americans and BBCcameraman killed by gun attacks.• Dec. 6, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: terrorists storm the U.S. consulate, killing 5consulate employees. 4 terrorists were killed by Saudi security.
  • 256. • 2005 Nov. 9, Amman, Jordan: suicide bombers hit 3 Americanhotels, Radisson, Grand Hyatt, and Days Inn, in Amman, Jordan, killing 57. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.• 2006 Sept. 13, Damascus, Syria: an attack by four gunman on the Americanembassy is foiled.• 2007 Jan. 12, Athens, Greece: the U.S. embassy is fired on by an anti-tankmissile causing damage but no injuries.• Dec. 11, Algeria: more than 60 people are killed, including 11 United Nationsstaff members, when Al Qaeda terrorists detonate two car bombs nearAlgerias Constitutional Council and the United Nations offices.• 2008 May 26, Iraq: a suicide bomber on a motorcycle kills six U.S. soldiers andwounds 18 others in Tarmiya.• June 24, Iraq: a suicide bomber kills at least 20 people, including three U.S.Marines, at a meeting between sheiks and Americans in Karmah, a town westof Baghdad.• June 12, Afghanistan: four American servicemen are killed when a roadsidebomb explodes near a U.S. military vehicle in Farah Province.
  • 257. • July 13, Afghanistan: nine US soldiers and at least 15 NATO troops die whenTaliban militants boldly attack an American base in Kunar Province, whichborders Pakistan. Its the most deadly against U.S. troops in three years.• Aug. 18 and 19, Afghanistan: as many as 15 suicide bombers backed byabout 30 militants attack a U.S. military base, Camp Salerno, in Bamiyan.Fighting between U.S. troops and members of the Taliban rages overnight.No U.S. troops are killed.• Sept. 16, Yemen: a car bomb and a rocket strike the U.S. embassy in Yemenas staff arrived to work, killing 16 people, including 4 civilians. At least 25suspected al-Qaeda militants are arrested for the attack. Nov. 26, India: in aseries of attacks on several of Mumbais landmarks and commercial hubs thatare popular with Americans and other foreign tourists, including at least twofive-star hotels, a hospital, a train station, and a cinema. About 300 peopleare wounded and nearly 190 people die, including at least 5 Americans.• 2009 Feb. 9, Iraq: a suicide bomber kills four American soldiers and theirIraqi translator near a police checkpoint.
  • 258. • April 10, Iraq: a suicide attack kills five American soldiers and two Iraqi policemen.• Dec. 30, Iraq: a suicide bomber kills eight Americans civilians, seven of them CIA agents, at abase in Afghanistan. Its the deadliest attack on the agency since 9/11. The attacker is reportedlya double agent from Jordan who was acting on behalf of al-Qaeda• May1, 2011: Times Square NYNY evacuated after the discovery of a car bomb.• A nearby street vendor had alerted the officer to the threat, after he spotted smoke comingfrom a vehicle. The bomb had been ignited, but failed to explode, and was disarmed before itcaused any casualties.• Two days later, federal agents arrested Faisal Shahzad, a 30-year-old Pakistani-born resident ofBridgeport, Connecticut, who had become a U.S. citizen in April 2009. He had boarded EmiratesFlight 202 to Dubai at John F. Kennedy International Airport, but was arrested before the planetaxied from the gate. He admitted his role in the attempted bombing and said that he hadtrained at a Pakistani terrorist training camp, according to U.S. officials.
  • 259. Wars in Afghanistan and IraqOsama bin Laden and other al Qaeda leaders were living in Afghanistan in 2001.The government of that country, an Islamic fundamentalist group calledthe Taliban, refused to surrender the terrorists. The United States responded byattacking Afghanistan. With the help of Afghani warlords who opposed the Talibanand the use of military bases in neighboring Pakistan, American forces quicklyoverthrew the Taliban and drove the al Qaeda operatives into hiding or flight. BinLaden, however, remained at large.Two years after the war in Afghanistan, President Bush asked Congress to declarewar on Iraq, arguing that Saddam was secretly producing WMDs. Because noWMDs were found, the war was bitterly debated among Americans and aroundthe world. However, most in the global community welcomed the holding of freedemocratic elections in Iraq in early 2005, hoping that a democratic Iraq mightpositively influence the largely authoritarian Middle East.
  • 260. Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin LadenArabic: (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011)was a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leaderof the terrorist organization a l-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attackson the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civiliantargets.Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigations list of FBI TenMost Wanted Fugitives.Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization had been major targets of theUnited States War on Terror. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders werebelieved to be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistans FederallyAdministered Tribal Areas. Navy SEALs took him out.
  • 261. Zero Dark Thirty is a 2012 film directed by KathrynBigelow and written by Mark Boal. Billed as "the story ofhistorys greatest manhunt for the worlds most dangerousman", the film dramatizes the United States operation thatfound and killed Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda.Meanwhile, the Presidents National Security Advisor tasksthe CIA with producing a plan to capture or kill bin Laden ifit can be confirmed that he is in the compound. An agencyteam devises a plan to use two top-secret stealthhelicopters (developed at Area 51) flown by theArmys 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment tosecretly enter Pakistan and insert a U.S. Navy SEAL team toraid the compound. Before briefing President BarackObama, the CIA Director holds a meeting of his topofficials, who assess only a 60–80% chance that bin Laden isliving in the compound, rather than another high-valuetarget. Maya, also in attendance, insists the chances are 95–100%.The raid is approved and is executed on May 2, 2011. Although execution is complicatedby one of the helicopters crashing, the SEALs kill a number of people within thecompound, among them a man on the compounds top floor who is revealed to be binLaden. They bring bin Ladens body back to a U.S. base in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, whereMaya visually confirms the identity of the corpse.
  • 262. New Security Measures Take ShapeOver the years that followed September 11, the United States madeincreasing security a top priority. It strengthened and reorganized itsintelligence services. The government created a new Department ofHomeland Security and instituted more rigorous security measures at airportsand public buildings. A long-term effort was launched to find out howterrorist groups were funded, with the goal of cutting off terrorists’ moneysupply and thus limiting terrorist activity.
  • 263. Zero Dark Thirty is a 2012 film directed by KathrynBigelow and written by Mark Boal. Billed as "the story ofhistorys greatest manhunt for the worlds most dangerousman", the film dramatizes the United States operation thatfound and killed Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda.Meanwhile, the Presidents National Security Advisor tasksthe CIA with producing a plan to capture or kill bin Laden ifit can be confirmed that he is in the compound. An agencyteam devises a plan to use two top-secret stealthhelicopters (developed at Area 51) flown by theArmys 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment tosecretly enter Pakistan and insert a U.S. Navy SEAL team toraid the compound. Before briefing President BarackObama, the CIA Director holds a meeting of his topofficials, who assess only a 60–80% chance that bin Laden isliving in the compound, rather than another high-valuetarget. Maya, also in attendance, insists the chances are 95–100%.The raid is approved and is executed on May 2, 2011. Although execution is complicatedby one of the helicopters crashing, the SEALs kill a number of people within thecompound, among them a man on the compounds top floor who is revealed to be binLaden. They bring bin Ladens body back to a U.S. base in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, whereMaya visually confirms the identity of the corpse.
  • 264. Epilogue: Unresolved Problems of theModern WorldChapter ObjectiveExamine issues facing the world community, including technological andenvironmental change, distribution of resources, and global security.SECTION 1 Technology Transforms LifeDescribe how computers have spurred advances in many fields and allowedpeople to communicate more quickly.List ways that recent technologies have influenced workplaces and culturesaround the world.SECTION 2 Environmental ChallengesDiscuss concerns about effects of pollution, including the greenhouseeffect and destruction of the ozone layer.Describe depletion of natural resources, including rain forests and water.Explore issues raised by energy usage.
  • 265. SECTION 3 Feeding a Growing PopulationList the natural and human-made causes of world hunger.Describe advances and difficulties in food production.Discuss solutions to population problems, including improvingeconomies, limiting population growth, and improving the status ofwomen.SECTION 4 Economic Issues in the Developing WorldList the factors that aid economic growth in less-developed countries(LDCs).Discuss ways to promote economic growth in LDCs and compare the effects offree trade and protectionism on economic growth.SECTION 5 Seeking Global SecurityAnalyze reasons for the worldwide arms trade and explain how people aretrying to restrict it.List weapons of mass destruction and identify the threats they pose topeace, security, and human survival.Explain the reasons for the U.S. involvement in Iraq.SECTION 6 Defending Human Rights and FreedomsDescribe the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and cite human rightsviolations from around the world.Explain why children are among the most vulnerable of the worlds citizens.List successes in human rights, such as womens rights.
  • 266. SteveJobs, then andnow
  • 267. A yurt with a satellite dish. Homesweethome

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