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Imperialism Imperialism= One country’s domination of the political, economic, and social life of another country Imperialism in the 1800’s resulted from 3 key factors: 1. Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quests for power. 2. . The industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expended markets, which prompted industrialized nations to seek new territories. 3. . Both religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands.
Political Rivalries In the mid-1800’s European countries saw themselves as actors on the world stage, and each country wanted to play a starring role. Great Britain The key players were: Austria-Hungary, England, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire/Turkey. France
Desire for New Markets
Factories ranging from The United States to Europe consumed raw materials and churned out thousands of manufactured goods.
The Colonies provided new markets for the finished products of the industrial Revolution such as Tools, Weapons, and Clothing.
Seeking New Opportunities
Throughout the 1800’s European leaders urged their citizens to move to far-off colonies.
The British for example emigrated to the far corners of the globe in search of new jobs not available at home, like Australia, and New Zealand.
Cecil Rhodes , most successful emigrant during this time, made a fortune from gold and diamond mining in southern Africa, where he then went on to find a colony that bore his name Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
Cecil Rhodes and De Beers Continue to Dominate Diamond Industry
Growing numbers of missionaries were constructed to the most remote corners of Africa and Asia by the Catholic and Protestants.
The main aspect of these missionaries was thought that Christianity and Western civilization could benefit and transform the world.
These missionaries were not military based but did set out to change the people’s beliefs and practices, as by building schools and hospitals.
Causes of Imperialism Many westerners viewed European races as superior to all others. They saw imperial conquest as nature’s way of improving the human species. Many westerners felt concern for their “little brothers” overseas. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials believed they had a duty to spread western civilization. Merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world. Western leaders were motivated by nationalism. Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources. Manufacturers hoped for new markets for factory goods. Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population. ECONOMIC INTERESTS POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTS HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISM 1
Forms of Imperialism
Colony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials.
Protectorate: Had its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power.
Sphere of Influence: was a region of a country in which the imperial power had exclusive investment or trading rights.
Forms of Imperial Rule SPHERES OF INFLUENCE PROTECTORATES COLONIES In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisers. A protectorate cost less to run than a colony and usually did not require a large military presence. A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. The United States claimed Latin America as its sphere of influence. The French practiced direct rule, sending officials to administer their colonies. The British practiced on indirect rule, using local rulers to govern their colonies.
The New Imperialism
Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
Between 1500 and 1800, European states won empires around the world. However, Europe had little influence on the lives of the people of these conquered lands.
By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power. Encouraged by their new economic and military strength, Europeans embarked on a path of aggressive expansion that today’s historians call the “new imperialism.”
The Successes of Imperialism
In just a few decades, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons:
1. While European nations had grown stronger in the 1800s, several older civilizations were in decline.
2. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies.
3. Europeans had superior technology and medical knowledge.
Africa in the Early 1800s Islam had long influenced the coast, where a profitable slave trade was carried on. Zulu aggression caused mass migrations and wars and created chaos across much of the region. On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify Islam. In the forest regions, the Asante controlled smaller states. These smaller tributary states were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. Since long before 1800, the region had close ties to the Muslim world. In the early 1800s, much of the region remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman empire. To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early 1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA 2
European Contacts Increased
From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease prevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa. Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s.
Explorers were fascinated by African geography but had little understanding of the people they met. Catholic and Protestant missionaries sought to win people to Christianity. Most took a paternalistic view of Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIES 2
A Scramble for Colonies King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders. King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scramble among other European nations. Before long, Britain, France, and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region. European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent. At the Berlin Conference, European powers agreed on how they could claim African territory without fighting amongst themselves. 2
Imperialism in Africa to 1914 2
Europeans met armed resistance across the continent.
Algerians battled the French for years.
The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British.
East Africans fought wars against the Germans.
In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.
David Livingstone is a famous Scottish explorer , who first went to Africa in 1840. He was a doctor and missionary. While he explored central and east Africa he set up missions and sent back reports of his findings. He was the first recorded European to see the Victoria Falls , to which he gave the English name in honor of his monarch, Queen Victoria. Believing he had a spiritual calling for exploration rather than mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to his discoveries and support for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned from the London Missionary Society after they demanded that he do more evangelizing and less exploring. The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as an explorer were that he usually traveled lightly, and he had an ability to reassure chiefs that he was not a threat. He lost touch in 1860 and Henry M. Stanley was sent to find him .
Henry M. Stanley
Henry Morton Stanley was the British journalist and explorer , hired to find Livingstone . He is best remembered for his quote when he met Livingstone,"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?", although there is some question as to authenticity of this now famous greeting. Stanley also explored on his own. He was tricked by the Belgium King into getting Congo for him but, remained on the kings pay roll even after he found out.
Publicity around the explorations of Africa caused a mad European scramble for Africa between 1880-1914 , and by 1914 90 percent of Africa was under European control.
North Africa is the northern most of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Northern Africa includes the following seven countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Western Sahara . Most people in North Africa live on a fertile and mild strip of land north of the Sahara along the Mediterranean coast.
The French In North Africa
In 1830 King Charles X of France ordered an invasion of Algiers , in order to colonize it. This was the true beginning of he second French colonial empire. After about ten years the 100,000 French soldiers beat the Algerians and their leader Abd al -Qadir. They established a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). In 1904 France secured special trading rights in Morocco . During the Agadir Crisis in 1911 , Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate .
Britain and Egypt
In the 1880s Ottoman Egypt was almost independent under Governor Muhammad Ali . Egypt was a power in the eastern Mediterranean under Ali. Ali reformed tax and land systems, encouraged industry and supported irrigation projects , but unfortunately the rulers after him increased debt and European influence. Ferdinand de Lesseps was a French entrepreneur who set up a company to build the Suez Canal (it would become a vital short cut).In 1875 GB gains control of canal and, in 1882 Egypt becomes a British protectorate after British forces put down a nationalist revolt.
The Sudan In the Sudan there was a Muslim revival that stirred nationalist feelings . The Sudanese had challenged British exploration since the 1880s . At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi. Around 10,000 Ansar were killed, 13,000 were wounded, and 5,000 were taken prisoner. Kitchener's force lost 48 men with 382 wounded. Soon after the British confronted the French at Fashoda, bringing the two countries to the brink of war . War was avoided when the French withdrew from Sudan and Britain recognized French control of Morocco.
Italy Seizes Libya
Libya was known as Tripoli in the 1800s and had almost no economic value but Italy, the closest European nation wanted it because, they were starting late in the race to build an African empire. In 1911 after the other European nations promised neutrality Italy declared war on the ruling Ottoman Empire and easily won. Libya was the last North African country to be conquered by Europeans.
West, Central and East Africa
During the 1800s there many territories with v aried landscapes, histories and traditions . Europeans swallowed up the lands in the late 1800s.
West Africa -In the1500s and 1600s there was European slave trade on the coast . Salt, gold and iron wares were also traded. When European countries stopped trading slaves in the 1800s west African countries traded natural products for manufactured goods . European countries push inland in 1870s to expand coastal holdings and control trade . Steam ships allowed for easier travel over difficult terrain and quinine provided protection from malaria. By 1900 European powers had acquired vast new territories. Leaders in the 1890s, such as Samory Toure and Behanzin, fought against the expansion but were defeated by well armed European forces.
The only independent state in West Africa by 1900 was Liberia , founded as a colony by the American Colonization Society in 1821-22, it was created as a place for slaves freed in the United States to emigrate to in Africa , on the premise they would have greater freedom and equality there. Slaves freed from slave ships also were sent there instead of being repatriated to their countries of origin. These freed slaves formed an elite group in Liberian society, and, in 1847, they founded the Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that of the United States. Liberia's ties to the US made it off limits for expansion.
Central and East Africa
Belgium's King Leopold II claimed the Congo river region as his ow n as a result of Henry Stanley's explorations. He enslaved the people, forced them to cut down the forests and kill the elephants . doing that s tripped the area of many people and resources. In 1903 in exchange for a large loan Leopard gave the Congo Basin to the Belgian government and it became the Belgian Congo. The British, Italians and Germans were claiming East Africa at this time. The only independent country was Ethiopia.
In the 1880s Italy attempts to conquer Ethiopia and its Emperor Merdik II, but underestimate their determination, and loose devastatingly at the Battle of Adowa. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October 1896. The Italians defeat scares away the other European counties and protect Ethiopia.
The Dutch arrived in Southern Africa in 1652 and established a port called Cape Town and for the next 150 years the Afrikaners , what the settlers were called, conquered land around port, the lands became known as Cape Colony . The British seize Cape Colony , in the early 1880s, because of its strategic value. The Afrikaners believed that god had ordained slavery and that they were superior, and they resented the British laws that forbade slavery. In the 1830s 100,000 Afrikaners that the British called Boers left Cape Colony. They migrated north east on The Great Trek ,and established the Transvaal and the Orange Free State .
The Afrikaners fought constantly with their neighbors They fight with the Zulu for a large empire conquered by the Zulu in the early 1800s. The Boers couldn't win a victory , in 1879 the British become involved , the British win against the Zulu.
The Boers also fought with the British , when, in the 1880s, British settlers moved to Transvaal and searched for gold and diamonds . the Boers were pushed to give the British civil rights . Growing hostility erupted into the Anglo-Boer War , also known as the Second Boer War, it was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902, between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the South African Republic. The British win .
On 31 May 1910 the British unite the previously separate colonies of Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State, into the Union of South Africa. Its constitution made it almost impossible for non whites to win the right to vote.
Racial equality becomes a major issue. Many non-white South African groups tried to advance their civil rights. Mohandas K. Gandhi a lawyer from India, was one man. He worked for e quality for Indians, and he urged them to disobey laws that discriminated against them . His efforts worked.
The black majority was also went into action against racial injustices. They founded the organization of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 in Bloemfontein to increase the rights of the black South African population. In 1923 Its name was shortened to the African National Congress.
Effects of Imperialism
The effects mainly centered on economic and social life . Imperialists profit from building mines,factories and ports and starting plantations . Africans were hired at low wages and taxed . Men were housed in dormitories away from their family and disciplined brutally. European schools taught that European ways are best . Some times African traditions declined but most held on to their cultures and accepted some European ways, including Christianity . By the early 1900s there were groups that condemned imperialism as contrary to western ideas of liberty and equality. They found nationalist groups to push for self-rule and Africa's peoples were politically independent from Europe by end of 20th century.
Chapter 16-3 The Division of Asia
The Ottoman Empire
By the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges.
Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had increased their power.
As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire.
European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control.
Attempts at westernization by several Ottoman rulers increased tensions. Many officials objected to changes that were inspired by foreign cultures.
A reform group called the Young Turks overthrew the sultan.
Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians , a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.
The Modernization of Egypt
During his reign, Muhammad Ali:
improved tax collection
reorganized the landholding system
backed large irrigation projects to increase farm output
expanded cotton production and encouraged local industry, thereby increasing Egyptian participation in world trade
brought in western military experts to modernize the army
conquered Arabia, Syria, and Sudan
Called the “father of modern Egypt,” Muhammad Ali introduced political and economic reforms. Before he died in 1849, he had set Egypt on the road to becoming a major Middle Eastern power. 3
Iran and the European Powers Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India. For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence, Russia in the north and Britain in the south. The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant them concessions , or special economic rights given to foreign powers. 3
The British Take Over India
What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?
How did British rule affect India?
How did Indians view western culture?
What were the origins of Indian nationalism?
The British in India
European trade with Asia opened up in the 1500s.
In 1600 some English traders formed the East India Company
Which later became the richest and most powerful trading companies the world has ever known
Built trading post and forts throughout India
French tried to challenge the British
They were later crushed by Robert Clive, a East India Company Agent, along with an army of British and Indian troops at the Battle of Plessey
The East Indian Company quickly controlled most of India in 1857
Later that year sepoys rebelled against their British commanders and it began to spread across the Northern and Central India
Indians had massacred British men, children, and women
In response they killed thousands of unarmed Indians
In 1858 Parliament ended the East Indian Company they had sent a viceroy to rule as the monarch's representative
Sepoys - Indian Troops
The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects
The British East India Company:
required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, including overseas, which violated Hindu religious law
passed a law allowing Hindu widows to marry, which undermined Hindu beliefs
ordered the sepoys to bite off cartridges made of animal fat when loading their rifles, which violated both Hindu and Muslim religious law
The sepoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children.
The British took terrible revenge, slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.
Both sides were left with a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust.
The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to India, and taxed Indians to pay for the cost of the occupying forces.
CAUSES EFFECTS 4
British built paved roads and an extensive railroad; installed telegraph lines and dug irrigation canals; and established schools and universities
They forced Indians to grow cotton instead of wheat which led to the lack of wheat and resulted in severe food shortages that killed millions of Indians during 1800s
In 1885 a group of Indian business and professional leaders formed the Indian National congress who tried to peacefully protest to urge British to grant more power to the Indians
Also the group that led the long struggle for complete independence
British Colonial Rule
After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.
The British built roads and an impressive railroad network.
The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.
Britain transformed Indian agriculture.
Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines.
The British revised the Indian legal system.
British rule brought peace and order to the countryside.
Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.
Imperialism in India to 1858 4
Different Views on Culture
Some educated Indians were impressed by British power and technology and urged India to follow a western model of progress.
Other Indians felt the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim cultures.
Most British knew little about Indian achievements and dismissed Indian culture with contempt.
A few British admired Indian theology and philosophy and respected India’s ancient heritage.
During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN ATTITUDES BRITISH ATTITUDES 4
The British believed that western-educated Indians would form an elite class which would bolster British rule.
As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the opposite effect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians were spearheading a nationalist movement.
In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, but supported western-style modernization.
In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their own goals, including a separate Muslim state.
China Faces the West
During the 1500s, Chinese civilization had been highly advanced and had little interest in European goods
China's political, economic, and military position weakened under the Qing dynasty who ruled from 1644-1912
The Unequal Treaties
In early 1800s, British merchants found a way to break China's trade barriers and earned huge profits. In exchange of tea, silk, and porcelain, the merchants smuggled a drug called opium, which they obtained from India
and Turkey, into China
In 1839 Chinese troops tried to stop the smuggling and war broke out and was fought for three years.
In 1842 British won the Opium War, which led to the Treaty of Nanking which forced China to yield many of its rights to western powers and Hong Kong was given to Great Britain.
Over the next 60 years the unequal treaties increased foreign influence in China and weakened the Qing dynasty. Civil war, such as the Taiping rebellion(1850-1964), also eroded the dynasty's power, and in 1890s, European powers as well as Japan claimed large sections as Spheres of Influence -areas where they had exclusive trading rights
During late 1800s reformers began the "self-strengthening" movement involved importing both Western technology and educational methods. It also improve agriculture, strengthen the armed forces, and ended the European practice of extraterritoriality
Chinese weakness was furthered by modernizing Japan that ended in China's defeat and loss of territory. (Sino-Japanese War)
Japan gained the island of Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula as well as trading benefits in Chinese territory, and also Korea.
Reformers gained influence from Emperor Guang Xu and launched the Hundred Days of Reform to modernize the government and encouraged new industries. However his mother, Ci Xi , returned to power, arrested her son, and halted the reform.
The Revolution of 1911
Ci Xi struggled to hold power. She agreed to give in to some of her people's demands for change. She established school and reorganized the government. Even in these efforts people began to believe in the modern republic.
Revolutionaries wanted China to regain its former power and influence. On of them, a doctor named Sun Yat-sen and other formed the United League.
Their goal was to modernize China on the basis of the "Three Principals of the People“:
Nationalism: freedom from Foreign control
Democracy: representative government
Livelihood: economic well-being for all Chinese control
The revolutionary cause was strengthened in 1908 when Ci Xi died, and two-year-old Prince Pu Yi became emperor.
Revolution swept china as peasants, soldiers, workers, and court officials turned against the weak dynasty and on January 1912, Sun Yat-sen became the first president of the new Chinese republic
The Trade Issue
Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders.
China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported.
Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than they sold to them.
In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers.
China paid a huge indemnity to Britain.
The British gained the island of Hong Kong.
China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality .
Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley.
The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants.
An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden.
The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals.
Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.
By the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. 5
In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengthening movement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China.
The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it.
After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform.
Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and the emperor was imprisoned.
Imperialism in China to 1914 5
Fall of the Qing Dynasty As the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China. In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. In response, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers. Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms. Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic. When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos. In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled. Sun Yixian was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sun wanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism, democracy, and economic security for all Chinese. 5
Japan didn't trade until 1853, when four American warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into the bay at Edo(present-day Tokyo).He wanted to trade with Japan and so they signed a treaty with Perry in 1854.
First five years after Perry, shogun signed treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States. Unhappiness of the treaties led to the overthrow of the shogun in 1868. A group of Samurai gave its allegiance to the new emperor, Mutsuhito, but kept the real power to themselves.
Mutsuhito was known as the Meiji, or Enlightened emperor, Japan's new rulers were called Meiji leaders. They Strengthened the Military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.
They established a system of universal education designed to produce loyal, skilled citizens who worked for Japan's modernization.
Japan’s Rising Power
In late 1870s Japan began to industrialize in an effort to strengthen its economy.
Japanese government revised tax structure to raise money for investment. It also developed a modern currency system, supported the building of postal, and telegraph networks, railroads. and port facilities.
Beginning in the late 1880s, Japan's economy grew rapidly. Growing population also provided a continual supply of cheap labor
By 1914 Japan had become one of the world's leading industrial nations
Japan as a World Power
Japan had acquired an efficient government, a vigorous economy, and a strong Military.
People of Korea had revolted against Chinese rule in 1894. So Japan decided to intervene and defeated the Chinese army in the Sino-Japanese war. Although Korea became independent they were partially owned by Japan.
In 1904 the Japanese navy launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur, a Russian port. This was a major victory, because so few expected Japan to win the Russo-Japanese War.
Japan had victory after victory and eventually had Russia sign a treaty in 1905 that granted control of Korea and other nearby areas. It annexed Korea as a colony in 1910 and continued to expand its empire for the next 35 years.
The East Indies and the Philippines are the two distinct geographic areas that France, Spain, Great Britain, United State, and the Netherlands had set up colonies in that region.
The Islands of Southeast Asia
At the beginning of the 1800s, the Dutch controlled most of the East Indies and Spain controlled the Philippines.
The East Indies, present-day Indonesia, had many natural resources, including rich soil were farmers grew, indigo, and tea, coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar; miners dug for tin and copper; loggers cut down ebony, teak, and other hardwood trees. Dutch Government used a method of forced labor called the culture system to gather all these materials.
Diponegoro, a Native prince from the East Indian island of Java, started a revolt against the Dutch in 1825
Though it lasted 10 years, it failed, and the Dutch encountered little opposition for the next 80 years.
In the early 1900s, Dutch won control of the entire archipelago.
Spanish ruled the Philippines which resembled the Dutch rule of the Dutch east Indies. During 1800s, the Filipinos' resentment grew until it finally exploded into revolution in 1896.
When the United States declared won on Spain, they promised if they helped that the Philippines would be free. They broke the promise when they won the Spanish-American War and ruled them as a colony. They also tried to revolt against the United States two years later, but the United States defeated them.
Spanish ruled the Philippines which resembled the Dutch rule of the Dutch east Indies. During 1800s, the Filipinos' resentment grew until it finally exploded into revolution in 1896.
When the United States declared won on Spain, (Spanish-American War), they promised if they helped that the Philippines would be free.
They broke the promise when they won the Spanish-American War and ruled them as a colony. They also tried to revolt against the United States two years later, but the United States defeated them.
Mainland Southeast Asia
In early 1880s, there consisted on a mainland region that included Burma, and Malaya in the west, Vietnam in the east, and Siam, Cambodia, and Laos in the Middle. All though the 1800s, Great Britain and France struggled for domination of the area
The British swept in from India in the 1820s. Over the next 60 years, they took full control of Burma and Neighboring Malaya.
Slowly, France was conquering Indochina, the region that includes:
They established complete control in the 1880s.
European rivalries for control of resources brought much disturbance to mainland Southeast Asia. Western influences changed traditional ways of life. Colonial landowners and trading companies forced local farmers and workers to grow cash crops, mine coal, and cut teak trees.
Thailand, whose name means "Land of the Free People," is the only Southeast Asian country that has never been a colony of a European power.
Thailand has borrowed freely from the West without losing its special Asian identity. Thailand's exquisite beauty and rich culture, a culture built on more than 5,000 years of tradition.
It also established contact with European trading powers such as Holland, Portugal, and Great Britain.
In the late 1700s, Burma (now Myanmar) overwhelmed the kingdom. However, Rama I, founder of the present ruling dynasty, routed them, changed the country's name to Siam, and established Bangkok as the nation's capital. Successive rulers became preoccupied with European colonialism.
That Thailand was never a colony is a source of great pride, and it can be attributed to the efforts of two kings who ruled during the mid-1800s.
Thailand King Mongkut, or Rama IV (popularized in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I ), and Chulalongkorn, or Rama V, are most responsible for introducing extensive reforms. Slavery was abolished, outmoded royal customs were ended, and the power of the aristocracy was limited. For the most part, however, only the top level of Thai society was changed. Life for most Thais remained the same.
Senator Albert J.Beveridge
Oct 6, 1862- April 27, 1927
Orator, Senator, and historian
1898, Gave speech on America’s growing as a world power
“ Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world must and shall be ours. We will establish trading-posts throughout the world as distributing-points for American products…Great colonies governing themselves, flying our flag and trading with us, will grow about our posts of trade.”
U.S. and Britain opposed Spain’s plan to regain former colonies
Monroe Doctrine-In 1823, James Monroe and John Quincy Adams issued warning to European powers that an attempt to gain land in Latin America would be considered a threat to the United States.
The British navy helped to enforce the Doctrine.
Writer and political activist
Considered father of modernist poetry
Writings sparked Cuban revolution against Spain
Died in battle against Spaniards
Remember the Maine!
To show support for the Cubans, U.S. President William McKinley sent the battleship the Maine to Havana, the capital of Cuba.
The ship exploded in a harbor near Havana.
Newspapers blamed Spain for the explosion.
The battle cry “Remember the Maine!” swept across the United States.
1898, Congress declared war on Spain.
The Spanish-American War lasted four months and resulted in an American victory. It was a “Splendid Little War!”
During late 1800’s and early 1900’s ,U.S. made many territorial gains.
1867- purchased Alaska from Russia
1898- annexed Hawaii
Gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico in victory in Spanish-American War.
1917- US purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark
Isthmus of Panama
U.S. wanted quick access across the Isthmus of Panama for trade and military reasons.
Isthmus of Panama connects Central and South America
Separates Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Columbia had rights to the isthmus.
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt tried to sign treaty with them to gain the land, but Columbia refused.
A man, a plan, a canal, Panama
The Influence of the United States
In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the American continents were no longer open to colonization by any European powers.
In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt
Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this
policy, the United States claimed
“ international police power” in the
In the next decade, the United States frequently intervened militarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives and investments.
In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians
in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to
build the Panama Canal.
“ A man, a plan, a canal, Panama”
To people in Latin America, the canal was an
example of “Yankee Imperialism.”
A man, a plan, a canal,Panama!
Roosevelt developed plan to obtain the isthmus.
American agents encouraged the people of Panama to rebel against Columbia.
The U.S. navy helped the rebels.
The new Republic of Panama signed the land over to the United States.
The Construction of the Panama Canal lasted 10 year between 1904- 1914.
Involved more than 40,000 workers.
Many died of malaria and yellow fever. A sanitation program contained the mosquitoes.
The canal was hailed as one of the greatest engineering feats .
Latin American Concerns
The canal gave the U.S. great access to Latin America.
The Roosevelt Corollary was added to the Monroe Doctrine.
This said U.S. would intervene to make Latin American countries honor foreign debts
Many Latin Americans looked at the United State’s interventions as steps to turn Latin American countries into colonies.
Many Mexicans unhappy with dictator-like rule of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
1835- Mexicans and Americans in Texas revolt
1845- Texas becomes a state of the United States
This sparks Mexican War which United States wins
U.S. gains much Mexican land through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
La Reforma and French Conflict
La Reforma was a Mexican period of change
Benito Juarez was elected president in 1855
He reduced power of the military, separated the church and state, and improved the lot of impoverished farmers
1863-French troops came to collect money owed to France
1864-Austrian Archduke Maximilian named emperor of Mexico
1867-French troops withdrew under American pressure and Juarez returned to power
Juarez died mysteriously and Porfirio Diaz seized power
He limited individual rights, but the economy grew
1910-1920: many Mexicans fought authorities, and many immigrated to U.S.
Armies were made up of farmers, workers, ranchers, and soldaderas (women soldiers)
Revolution started in 1910 when Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz in 1910
Madero killed by one of his followers, Victoriano Huerta
Huerta overthrown by Mexican revolts
Three revolutionary leader emerged: Emiliano Zapata, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and Venustiano Carranza
The Zimmerman Telegram
The German ambassador Zimmerman telegraphs the Mexican ambassador with a proposition. The British intercept it and decode it for US.
The Kaiser is offering Mexico choice parts of the US (CA, TX, NM) if they attack US and keep US off balance during The Great War.
This angers US so much that we will join the Allies against Germany.
Villa was unhappy with the result, crosses the border of New Mexico, and kills 18 Americans
Pres. Woodrow Wilson sent American troops to Mexico to capture Villa
The troops were withdrawn because of the start of World War I in 1917
General Pancho Villa
Villa looked for the recognition of the United States, for his government, and as he did not obtain it, he visited the border population of Columbus, where he take weapons. North American general Pershing entered Mexican territory, persecuting it, without never reaching it. Carranza was dead in 1917, apparently by its same
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 12,000 troops, under Gen. John J. Pershing into Mexico on March 15 to pursue Villa. In the U.S., this was known as the Pancho Villa Expedition During the search, the United States launched its first air combat mission when eight aeroplanes lifted off on March 19. The expedition to capture Villa was called off as a failure on January 28, 1917.
Modern historians debate whether Villa was involved with the Germans and how much aid and information passed through them. Some contend that the Germans encouraged Villa's actions against U.S. interests and incursions into Texas and New Mexico in order to create instability on the southern border of a power they definitely did not want interfering in World War I. Other actions by the Germans such as the Zimmermann Telegram correspond with Germany's wish to destabilize the United States. The extent of Villa's role as an abettor of German interests and receiver of German aid is still very much in question, but the idea would not seem to be in contradiction with his opportunistic tendencies.
Quotes "Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something." (Last words.)
J. J. Pershing
“ Black Jack” Pershing had spent years looking for Poncho Villa with his Buffalo soldiers, but he gets to be the leader of the AEF—American Expeditionary Forces—our army in Europe during WWI.
He is the Supreme Commander for all of our forces—highest honor and only Washington held this rank before him.
And the Winner is…..
Zapata used battle cry, “Tierra y Liberdad” meaning “Land and Liberty”
He fought for the impoverished farmers
Villa proposed radical reforms
Carranza was more conservative
1915- with the help of American support,
Carranza became president
Carranza reluctantly introduced a liberal constitution
He was slow in carrying out reforms
Force was used to fight opposition
1920- Carranza was killed in a revolt
Revolt brought Alvaro Obregon to power
Tensions cooled between Mexico and the United States