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  • 1. Effects of World War I
  • 2. Chapter 14: Revolution and Nationalism Chapter ObjectiveAnalyze the evolution of conflict between revolutionaries and nationalists before, during, and after World War I.• SECTION 3 Imperial China Collapses Summarize the collapse of Imperial China and the struggle between the Nationalists and Communists for control over China.• SECTION 4 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Trace the nationalist movement in India that resulted in limited self-rule and describe the independence movements in Southwest Asia.
  • 3. Chapter 15: Years of Crisis Chapter Objective Analyze the economic, political, social, and scientific changes that brought the world to the brink of a second world war.• SECTION 1 Postwar Uncertainty Identify the scientific, artistic, social, and technological changes that took place during the 1920s and the impact they had on the world.• SECTION 2 A Worldwide Depression Describe postwar Europe, the Weimar Republic, and the causes and effects of the Great Depression.• SECTION 3 Fascism Rises in Europe Trace the rise of fascism in Italy and Germany and describe its impact.• SECTION 4 Aggressors Invade Nations Compare the attempts by fascist nations to gain power with the efforts of democratic nations to preserve peace.
  • 4. 4 What were the key challenges to the Chinese republic? What leaders emerged in the “new” China? How did invasion by Japan affect China?Chinese currencyshowing Jiang Jieshi,the next leader ofSun Yixian’s A family of refugeesGuomindang party. flee a conflict between warlords in 1926.
  • 5. Challenges to the Chinese Republic• When Yuan Shikai tried to make himself emperor, the military objected, and opposition divided the nation.• In the provinces, warlords seized power.• During the upheaval, foreign powers were able to increase their influence over Chinese affairs.• Student protests set off a cultural and intellectual ferment known as the May Fourth Movement.• Some Chinese turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin.
  • 6. One Strong Leader Jiang Jieshi, Leader of the Guomindang,The most important point of fascism is absolute the Nationalist Partytrust in a sagely able leader. Aside from completetrust in one person, there is no other leader orism. Therefore, with the organization, althoughthere are cadre, council members, and executives,there is no conflict among them, there is only thetrust in the one leader. The leader has finaldecision in all matters.—Jiang Jieshi, 1933 Mao Zedong, Leader of the Communists Peasant Masses The broad peasant masses have risen to fulfill their historic mission . . . the democratic forces in the rural areas have risen to overthrow the rural feudal power. . . . To overthrow this feudal power is the real objective of the national revolution. What Dr. Sun Yat-sen [Yixian] wanted to do . . . but failed to accomplish, the peasants have accomplished in a few months. —Mao Zedong, 1927
  • 7. 4Jiang Jieshi Mao Zedong Revolutionary of peasantTook over the Guomindang, or origins.Nationalist party, after Sun’sdeath. Believed the CommunistsLed the Guomindang in a series of should seek support among“extermination campaigns” the large peasant masses.against the Communists. Leaders for a New China
  • 8. 4 Civil War in China, 1925 – 1935
  • 9. 4 Japanese InvasionIn 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, adding it to the growingJapanese empire.In the face of Japanese aggression, Jiang was forced to form aunited front with the Communists against Japan.In 1937, Japanese troops attacked again, overrunning easternChina, including Beijing and Guangzhou.Jiang retreated to the interior and set up his capital at Chongqing.Japanese troops marched into Nanjing.After the city’s surrender, the Japanese killed hundreds ofthousands of soldiers and civilians in what came to be known asthe “rape of Nanjing.”
  • 10. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWho led a series of extermination marches against the Communists? a) Mao Zedong b) Jiang Jieshi c) Sun Yixian d) the JapaneseDuring the 1930s, Japan invaded and overran all of the following except a) Beijing. b) Nanjing. c) Chongqing. d) Manchuria.
  • 11. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWho led a series of extermination marches against the Communists? a) Mao Zedong b) Jiang Jieshi c) Sun Yixian d) the JapaneseDuring the 1930s, Japan invaded and overran all of the following except a) Beijing. b) Nanjing. c) Chongqing. d) Manchuria.
  • 12. Nationalism and Revolution Around the World (1910–1939) India Seeks Self-Rule Mohandas Gandhi and the Congress party led the drive for independence in India. Summary The postwar years from 1919 to 1939 saw a surge of hope around the world. They also brought great turmoil as a desire for democracy and self- determination sparked explosive struggles in many regions. In Africa, Latin America, and Asia, new leaders forged liberation movements that would change the face of the world.
  • 13. What Sparked the Indian Independence Movement After World War I?• The Amritsar massacre was a turning point for many Indians. It convinced them of the evils of British rule. In 1919, in Amritsar, Indias holy city of the Sikh religion, British and Gurkha troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, a city park. Most of those killed were Indian nationalists meeting to protest the British governments forced conscription of Indian soldiers and the heavy war tax imposed against the Indian people.• The British had promised India greater self-rule in exchange for sending more than a million troops to fight in World War I.• However, after the war, Britain proposed only a few minor changes.• In the 1920s, a new leader, Mohandas Gandhi, emerged and united all Indians.
  • 14. 3 Mohandas GandhiGandhi adopted the weapon of nonviolent(passive) resistance and embraced Hindu traditions.During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series ofnonviolent actions against British rule.• He called for boycotts of British goods, especially textiles.• He urged Indians to wear only cotton grown and woven in India.• He worked to restore pride in India’s traditional industries.• He inspired Indians to “get rid of helplessness.”•Satyagraha = Truth Force•He earned the title of Mahatma = Great Soul
  • 15. Gandhi’s ideas inspired Indians of all religious and ethnic backgrounds. Hisnonviolent protests caught the attention of the British government and theworld.Gandhi’s theories embraced Hindu traditions. He preached the ancientdoctrine of ahimsa, or nonviolence and reverence for all life. By using thepower of love, he believed, people could convert even the worst wrongdoerto the right course of action. To fight against injustice, he advocated the useof nonviolent resistance.Gandhi’s philosophy reflected Western as well as Indian influences. Headmired Christian teachings about love. He believed in the Americanphilosopher Henry David Thoreau’s ideas about civil disobedience, the refusalto obey unjust laws. Gandhi was also influenced by Western ideas ofdemocracy and nationalism. He urged equal rights for all Indians, women aswell as men. He fought hard to end the harsh treatment of untouchables,who were members of the lowest caste, or class.Gandhi Sets an ExampleDuring the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actionsagainst British rule. He called for Indians to boycott, or refuse to buy, Britishgoods, especially cotton textiles. He worked to restore pride in India’straditional industries, making the spinning wheel a symbol of the nationalistmovement. Gandhi’s campaigns of civil disobedience attracted wide support.
  • 16. 3 The Salt MarchWhile natural salt was available in thesea, Indians were forced by the Britishto buy salt sold by the Britishgovernment.To Gandhi, the British salt monopolywas a symbol of British oppression. Tomobilize mass support, Gandhi set outto end the British salt monopoly.During the Salt March, Gandhi pickedup a lump of the forbidden salt anddeclared, “With this, I am shaking thefoundations of the British empire.”
  • 17. The Salt March Gandhi’s march to the sea to collect forbidden salt started out with Gandhi and 78 followers, but gathered strength as it progressed. As he picked up the first lump of salt, he declared, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British empire.” How do you think people in other countries would have reacted to British authorities using violence against this group?Gandhi picking up salt at the coastal village of Dandi in India, April 6, 1930
  • 18. Since 1885, the Indian National Breaking the LawCongress party, called the Congress On March 12, 1930, Gandhiparty, had pressed for self-rule within set out with 78 followers on athe British empire. After Amritsar, it 240-mile march to the sea. Asbegan to call for full independence. the tiny band passed throughBut party members were mostly villages, crowds responded to Gandhi’smiddle-class, Western-educated elite message. By the time they reached the sea, thewho had little in common with the marchers numbered in the thousands. On Aprilmasses of Indian peasants. In the 6, Gandhi waded into the surf and picked up a1920s, a new leader named Mohandas lump of sea salt. He was soon arrested andGandhi emerged and united Indians jailed. Still, Indians followed his lead. Coastalacross class lines. villages started collecting salt. Indians sold saltGandhi came from a middle-class on city streets. As Gandhi’s campaign gainedHindu family. At age 19, he went to force, tens of thousands of Indians wereEngland to study law. Then, like many imprisoned.Indians, Gandhi went to South Africa. Steps Toward FreedomFor 20 years, Gandhi fought laws All around the world, newspapers criticizedthat discriminated against Indians in Britain’s harsh reaction to the protests. StoriesSouth Africa. In 1914, Gandhi returned revealed how police brutally clubbed peacefulto India. Soon, he became the leader marchers who tried to occupy a governmentof the Congress party. saltworks. Slowly, Gandhi’s campaign forced Britain to hand over some power to Indians. Britain also agreed to meet other demands of Satyagraha the Congress party.
  • 19. “The odd thing about assassins,Dr. King, is that they think they’vekilled you”
  • 20. 3 Section 3 AssessmentWhy was the Amritsar massacre a turning point? a) It gave the British more power in India. b) It convinced many Indians of the evil of British rule. c) It resulted in the expulsion of the British from India. d) It cemented good relations between Britain and India.What did the British salt monopoly symbolize to Gandhi? a) poor health b) British oppression c) big business d) Indian weakness
  • 21. 3 Section 3 AssessmentWhy was the Amritsar massacre a turning point? a) It gave the British more power in India. b) It convinced many Indians of the evil of British rule. c) It resulted in the expulsion of the British from India. d) It cemented good relations between Britain and India.What did the British salt monopoly symbolize to Gandhi? a) poor health b) British oppression c) big business d) Indian weakness
  • 22. 2
  • 23. Modernization in Turkey and Iran TURKEY IRAN/PERSIA(Mustafa Kemal) Atatürk forced throughan ambitious program of radical reforms. Shah Reza Khan rushed to modernizeHis goals were to modernize Turkey along Iran and make it fully independent. He:western lines and separate religion from built factories, roads, and railroads andgovernment. strengthened the armyHe: adopted the western alphabetreplaced Islamic law with a forced Iranians to wear western clothingEuropean-style law code set up modern, secular schools.replaced the Muslim calendar with thewestern calendar replaced Islamic law with secular lawforced people to wear western dress—no encouraged women tomore fez take part in public lifeopened state schoolsencouraged industrialexpansionoutlawed polygamy and gave rights towomen
  • 24. Atatürk (1881–1938)“Atatürk” is the name that Mustafa Kemal gave himself when he ordered allTurkish people to take on surnames, or last names. It means “Father of the Turks.”In 1920, he led Turkish nationalists in the fight against Greek forces trying toenforce the Treaty of Sèvres, establishing the borders of the modern Republic ofTurkey. Once in power, he passed many reforms to modernize, Westernize, andsecularize Turkey. Atatürk is still honored throughout Turkey today—his portraitappears on postage and all currency.Why is Atatürk considered the “Father of the Turks”?Atatürk’s Reforms in TurkeyReplaced Islamic law with European modelReplaced Muslim calendar with Western (Christian)calendarMoved day of rest from Friday to SundayClosed religious schools and opened state schoolsForced people to wear Western-style clothesReplaced Arabic alphabet with Latin alphabetGave women the right to vote and to work outsidethe home.
  • 25. 2 European Mandates and Arab NationalismDuring World War I, Arabs had been promised independence inexchange for helping the Allies against the Central Powers.Instead, the Paris Peace Conference had set up mandates —territories administered by European nations, which outraged theArabs.In 1917, the British issued the Balfour Declaration, whichsupported the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine.Palestine was already the home to many Arab communities. Thisset the stage for conflict between Arab and Jewish nationalists.Arabs felt betrayed by the West — a feeling that has endured tothis day. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted infrequent protests and revolts against western imperialism.
  • 26.
  • 27. After 1900, the efforts of the Zionist movement, underpressure from the effects of anti-Semitism in Europe,increased Jewish emigration to Palestine. Despite greathardships, Jewish settlers set up factories, built newtowns, and established farming communities. The Jewishpopulation, which was less than 60,000 in 1919, grew toabout 400,000 in 1936. Meanwhile, the Muslimpopulation had almost doubled, from about 568,000 in1919 to about 1 million in 1940.At first, some Arabs welcomed the money and moderntechnical skills that the newcomers brought with them.But as more Jews moved to Palestine, tensions betweenthe two groups developed. Jewish organizations tried topurchase as much land as they could, while Arabs soughtto slow down or stop Jewish immigration. Religiousdifferences between Jews and Arabs heightenedtensions. Arabs attacked Jewish settlements, hoping todiscourage settlers. The Jewish settlers established theirown military defense force. For the rest of the century,Arab and Jews fought over the land that Arabs calledPalestine and Jews called Israel.
  • 28. Betrayal at the Peace ConferenceArabs were outraged by the European-controlled mandates set up atthe Paris Peace Conference. During World War I, Arabs had helped theAllies against the Central Powers, especially the Ottoman empire. Inreturn for their help, the Allies led the Arabs to believe that theywould gain independence after the war. Instead, the Allies carved upthe Ottoman lands, giving France mandates in Syria and Lebanon andBritain mandates in Palestine and Iraq. Later, Trans-Jordan was addedto the British mandate.Arabs felt betrayed by the West—a feeling that has endured to thisday. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted in frequentprotests and revolts against Western imperialism. A major center ofturmoil was the British mandate of Palestine. There, Arab nationalistsfaced European Zionists, or Jewish nationalists, with dreams of ahomeland of their own.During World War I, the Allies made two conflicting sets of promises. First, they promisedArabs their own kingdoms in former Ottoman lands, including Palestine. Then, in 1917, theBritish attempted to win the support of European Jews by issuing the Balfour Declaration.In it, the British advocated the idea of setting up “a national home for the Jewish people” inPalestine. The declaration noted, however, that “nothing shall be done which mayprejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.”Those communities were Arab. The stage was thus set for conflict between Arab and Jewishnationalists.
  • 29. Japanese soldiersoccupying a Chinesecity in 1938
  • 30. Empire of the Rising Sun 5 The Nationalist ReactionIn 1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, strikingJapan with devastating force.• Economic disaster fed the discontent of the leading military officials and ultranationalists, or extreme nationalists. They condemned politicians for agreeing to western demands to stop overseas expansion.• Japanese nationalists were further outraged by racial policies in the United States, Canada, and Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.• As the economic crisis worsened, nationalists demanded renewed expansion in search of raw resources.• In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would provide an excuse to seize Manchuria from China.
  • 31. 5 Liberal Changes of the 1920sDuring the 1920s, Japan moved toward greaterdemocracy:• Political parties grew stronger.• Elected members of the Diet — the Japaneseparliament — exerted their power.• All adult men won the right to vote.• Western ideas about women’s rights had brought few changes.• Japan signed agreement with western powers to limitthe size of its navy.• The government reduced military spending.
  • 32. 5 Serious Problems Behind the seeming well-being, Japan faced some grave problems.• The economy grew more slowly in the 1920s than at any time since Japan modernized.• Rural peasants enjoyed none of the prosperity of city dwellers.• Factory workers earning low wages were attracted to the socialist ideas of Marx and Lenin.• Members of the younger generation were in revolt against tradition.• Tension between the government and the military simmered below the surface.
  • 33. A Combination of the Old and the NewJapan on the Rise in the 1920s Hirohito reigned from 1926 to 1989—an astonishing 63 years. During those decades, Japan experienced remarkable successes and appalling tragedies. In this section, we will focus on the 1920s and 1930s, when the pressures of extreme nationalism and economic upheaval set Japan on a militaristic and expansionist path that would engulf all of Asia. Although the economy grew throughout the 1920s, it experienced many highs and lows. One low point occurred when a devastating earthquake, one of the most destructive quakes in history, struck the Tokyo area in 1923. The earthquake and the widespread fires it caused resulted in the deaths of over 100,000 people and damaged more than 650,000 buildings. As many as 45 percent of surviving workers lost their jobs because so many businesses were destroyed. With help from the government, the Tokyo area gradually recovered—just as Japan faced a worldwide economic crisis.
  • 34. 5 Japan’sExpandingEmpire to 1934
  • 35. Biography: HirohitoTraditional Values RevivedCivilian government survived, but the unrest forced thegovernment to accept military domination in 1937. To pleasethe ultranationalists, the government cracked down onsocialists and suppressed most democratic freedoms.It revived ancient warrior values and built a cult aroundEmperor Hirohito, whom many believed was descended fromthe sun goddess. To spread its nationalist message, thegovernment used schools to teach students absoluteobedience to the emperor and service to the state.Hirohito (1901–1989) became emperor of Japan in 1926. Asemperor, according to Japanese tradition, he was the nation’ssupreme authority and a living god—no one could look at hisface or even mention his name. In practice, however, he merelyapproved the policies that his ministers formulated.Hirohito was a private man who preferred marine biology topower politics. As a result, his role in Japan’s move towardaggression is unclear. Some historians believe that Hirohito didnot encourage Japanese military leaders. Others assert that hewas actively involved in expansionist policies.Why was Hirohito given great respect?
  • 36. 5 How Did Militarists Use Their Power?By the early 1930s, ultranationalists were winning popularsupport for foreign conquests and a tough stand againstwestern powers.Civilian government survived, but by 1937 it had beenforced to accept military domination. To please theultranationalists, it:• cracked down on socialists• ended most democratic freedoms• revived ancient warrior values• built a cult around the emperor• focused on spreading the nationalist message in schools• renewed efforts at expansion
  • 37. 5 AssessmentWhich of the following did Japanese nationalists demand? a) increased rights for workers b) renewed expansion c) the return of Manchuria to China d) increased power for the zaibatsuBy 1934, Japan had added all of the following territory to its empire except a) Taiwan. b) Korea. c) Manchuria. d) Mongolia.
  • 38. 5 AssessmentWhich of the following did Japanese nationalists demand? a) increased rights for workers b) renewed expansion c) the return of Manchuria to China d) increased power for the zaibatsuBy 1934, Japan had added all of the following territory to its empire except a) Taiwan. b) Korea. c) Manchuria. d) Mongolia.
  • 39. 1 Postwar Issues in EuropePostwar Europe faced grave problems:• Returning veterans needed jobs.• War-ravaged lands needed to be rebuilt.• Many nations owed huge debts because they had borrowed heavily to pay for the war.• Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas more popular.• The peace settlements dissatisfied many Europeans, especially in Germany and Eastern Europe.• Europe lacked strong leaders just when they were most needed.
  • 40. The Great Depression 1 Long-Term Causes Immediate CausesWorldwide interrelationship of governments New York stock market crashand economies Farmers unable to repay loansHuge war debts Banks demand repayment of loansAmerican loans to Europe American loans to other countries dry upWidespread use of credit Without capital, businesses and factories failOverproduction of goodsIndustrial wages rise as farm earnings fall Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects Vast unemployment and misery Rise of fascism and Nazism Protective tariffs imposed Governments experiment with social Loss of faith in capitalism and democracy programs Authoritarian leaders emerge People blame scapegoats World War II begins
  • 41. 1
  • 42. 1 Britain and France in the Postwar Era BRITAIN FRANCEThe Great Depression intensified The French economy recoveredexisting economic problems. fairly quickly.Britain set up a coalition Many political parties competed for power and France was ruled bygovernment made up of leaders a series of coalition governments.from all three major parties. France created the Maginot LineThe government provided some to secure its borders againstunemployment benefits. Germany.British leaders wanted to relax the The government strengthened theVersailles treaty’s harsh treatment military and sought alliances withof Germany. other countries, including the Soviet Union.
  • 43. 1 The United States in the Postwar EraThe country emerged from World War I in excellent shape.The United States stayed out of the League of Nations. However, the nation took a leading role in international diplomacy during the 1920s.During a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920, police rounded up suspected foreign-born radicals and expelled a number of them from the United States.Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe.The 1929 stock market crash shattered American prosperity.President Franklin Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, a massive package of economic and social programs, to help combat the Great Depression.
  • 44. 2 A Culture in Conflict• How did new views revolutionize modern science and thought?• What artistic and literary trends emerged in the 1920s?• How did western society change after World War I?
  • 45. New Views of the Universe 2New ideas and scientific discoveries challenged long-held ideas about the natureof the world. RADIOACTIVITY RELATIVITY PSYCHOLOGYEnrico Fermi was an Italian Sigmund FreudNobel Prize winning Albert Einstein advanced suggested that thephysicist who is known as his theories of relativity: subconscious mindthe Father of Nuclear Measurements of space drives much humanEnergy. He immigrated and time are not behavior.to the US and was absolute. Freud pioneeredthe first to produce psychoanalysis, aA nuclear reactor, method of studying howproduced the first the mind works andcontrolled nuclear chain treating mentalreaction, which is fission. disorders.Without him, the atomicbomb would not have beenmade in US.
  • 46. 2 Artistic and Literary Trends ART ARCHITECTURE LITERATUREIn the early 1900s, many Architects rejected Writers exposed the grim horrors classical traditions and of modern warfare.western artists rejected To many postwar writers, the wartraditional styles. developed new styles to symbolized the breakdown of match an industrial, western civilization.Instead of trying to urbanized world. Some writers experimented withreproduce the real world, The Bauhaus school stream of consciousness,they explored other which reveals the blended science anddimensions of color, line, character’s technology with design. innermost thought processesand shape. Frank Lloyd Wright’s workCubism, abstract art, and reflected the belief thatsurrealism were some of the function of a buildingthe styles that developed. should determine its form.
  • 47. Surrealism
  • 48. 2 A Changing Society After World War I, many people yearned to return to life as it had been before 1914. But rapid social changes would make it hard to turn back the clock. New technologies helped create a mass culture shared by millions in the world’s developed countries. Affordable cars gave middle- The war changed social values and class people greater mobility. the class system itself. Rebellious young people rejected the moral values of the Victorian age and chased excitement.Labor-saving devices freed women from Radios brought news, music, and sportsmany time-consuming household chores. into homes throughout the westernWomen pursued careers in many arenas. world.
  • 49. Salvador Dali
  • 50. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhat scientist experimented with radioactivity? a) Albert Einstein b) Sigmund Freud c) Salvador Dali d) Enrico FermiTo many postwar writers, the war symbolized a) the inner strength of mankind. b) the breakdown of civilization. c) the power and strength of nations and individuals. d) hard work and dedication.
  • 51. 2 Section 2 AssessmentWhat scientist experimented with radioactivity? a) Albert Einstein b) Sigmund Freud c) Salvador Dali d) Enrico FermiTo many postwar writers, the war symbolized a) the inner strength of mankind. b) the breakdown of civilization. c) the power and strength of nations and individuals. d) hard work and dedication.
  • 52. 4Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany • What problems did the Weimar Republic face? • How did Hitler come to power? • What political, social, economic, and cultural policies did Hitler pursue? • How did Hitler take action against German Jews?
  • 53. 4Hitler fought in the German army in World War I.In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wingextremists. AdolfWithin a year, he was the leader of the NationalSocialist German Workers, or Nazi, party. Hitler’s RiseIn 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in to PowerMunich. He was imprisoned for treason.In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). Itwould later become the basic book of Nazi goals andideology.Nazi membership grew to almost a million.In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany.Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He madeGermany a one-party state and purged his own party.
  • 54. 4 The Third Reich POLITICAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICIES Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the Hitler launched a large public works hated Treaty of Versailles. program. Hitler organized a system of terror, repression, and totalitarian rule. Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty. SOCIAL POLICIES CULTURAL POLICIESThe Nazis indoctrinated young School courses and textbooks werepeople with their ideology. written to reflect Nazi racial views. The Nazis sought to purge, or purify,Hitler spread his message of racism. German culture.The Nazis sought to limit women’s Hitler sought to replace religion withroles. his racial creed.
  • 55. 4 Hitler’s Campaign Against the JewsHitler set out to drive Jews from Germany.In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews.Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in othercountries.The Secret police or Gestapo ferreted out “enemies of the State”.In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all overGermany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, or the “Night ofBroken Glass.”Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps,detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state.Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination of all Jews.
  • 56. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWhat was Hitler’s policy on religion? a) He tolerated all religions except Judaism. b) He sought to replace it with his racial creed. c) He believed religious piety strengthened the German nation. d) He banned all religions except Judaism.The Nuremberg laws a) called for Hitler to assume absolute power in Germany. b) authorized Hitler to rearm Germany. c) forced Germany to pay war reparations. d) placed severe restrictions on Jews.
  • 57. 4 Section 4 AssessmentWhat was Hitler’s policy on religion? a) He tolerated all religions except Judaism. b) He sought to replace it with his racial creed. c) He believed religious piety strengthened the German nation. d) He banned all religions except Judaism.The Nuremberg laws a) called for Hitler to assume absolute power in Germany. b) authorized Hitler to rearm Germany. c) forced Germany to pay war reparations. d) placed severe restrictions on Jews.
  • 58. Hitler/Soviet Pact
  • 59. Revolution in Russia (1917–1939)
  • 60. 1 Two Revolutions in Russia• Why did revolution occur in Russia in March 1917?• Why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks launch the November revolution?• How did the Communists defeat their opponents in Russia’s civil war?
  • 61. 2 The Communist State Under LeninThe Communists produced a new constitution that:• set up an elected legislature, later called the Supreme Soviet• gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote• placed all political power, resources, and means of production in the hands of the workers and peasantsThe new government united much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union.Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy, or NEP.• It allowed some capitalist ventures.• The state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries. Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit.
  • 62. 2 From Lenin to Stalin• How did the Communist state develop under Lenin?• What were the effects of Stalin’s five-year plans?• How did Soviet foreign policy affect relations with the western powers?
  • 63. 2
  • 64. In this propaganda image, children surround a On the occasion of Stalin’sgentle Stalin. sixtieth birthday, the Communist party newspaper, Pravda, or “Truth,” printed this praise of Stalin: “There is no similar name on the planet like the name of Stalin. It shines like a bright torch of freedom, it flies like a battle standard for millions of laborers around the world. . . . Stalin is today’s Lenin! Stalin is the brain and heart of the party! Stalin is the banner of millions of people in their fight for a better life.”Far from helping people fight for a better life, Stalin’s ruthless policies broughtsuffering and death to millions of Soviets.
  • 65. Food as a Weapon In 1932, when peasants failed to meet unrealistic crop quotas, Stalin retaliated by seizing all of their grain to sell on the market, leaving millions to starve. Below, a woman and her son search for food during the famine.Describe the effects of Stalin’s ruthless policies on the production of oats, wheat, &potatoes.
  • 66. 2 Stalin’s Five-Year PlansOnce in power, Stalin set out to make the Soviet Union a modern industrial power.He put into place several “five-year plans” aimed at building heavy industry,improving transportation, and increasing farm output. • Stalin brought all economic activity under government control. The Soviet Union developed a command economy, in which government officials made all basic economic decisions. • Stalin also brought agriculture under government control. He forced peasants to give up their land and live on either state-owned farms or collectives, large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group. • Overall, standards of living remained poor. Wages were low, and consumer goods were scarce.
  • 67. 2 The Great PurgeStalin harbored obsessive fears that rival party leaders wereplotting against him. In 1934, he launched the Great Purge.• At least four million people were purged during the Stalin years.• The purges increased Stalin’s power.• The victims of the purges included most of the nation’s military leadership. This loss of military leadership would weigh heavily on Stalin in 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
  • 68. Leon Trotsky was a close friend of Lenin and shared idealistic ideas about the Communist state. He can be seen with Lenin in both photos.But Trotsky was deported in1929 and declared “an enemy of the State”, as a threat to Stalin’spower, so Stalin had Trotsky airbrushed out of the pix. Many others will be “erased”. Some for real!
  • 69. The Case of the Vanishing CommissarStalin’s enemies just seem todisappear!Nikolai Yezhov, chief of theSoviet secret police knewwhere too many bodies wereburied, so he is made tovanish.
  • 70. 2Soviet Foreign Policy Between 1917 and 1939, the Soviet Union pursued two very different goals in foreign policy. As Communists, both Lenin and Stalin wanted to bring about the worldwide revolution that Marx had predicted. • Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, which aided revolutionary groups around the world. As Russians, they wanted to guarantee their nation’s security by winning the support of other countries. •The Soviet Union sought to join the League of Nations. The Comintern’s propaganda against capitalism made western powers highly suspicious of the Soviet Union.
  • 71. 3 A Totalitarian StateStalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. Inthis form of government, a one-party dictatorshipattempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of itscitizens.• To ensure obedience, Stalin used secret police (theKGB), censorship, violent purges, and terror.• The party bombarded the public with relentlesspropaganda.• The Communists replaced religion with their ownideology.
  • 72. 3Changes in Soviet Society, Comrade! The Communists transformed Russian life. • They created a society where a few elite groups emerged as a new ruling class. • The state provided free education, free medical care, day care for children, inexpensive housing, and public recreation. But quality of everything was poor and the average person had no choices. • Women were granted equality under the law. • There was no place for the Church in the regime.
  • 73. The Party Versus the ChurchTo weaken the power of the RussianOrthodox Church, the party seizedchurch property and converted churchesinto offices and museums. Here, RedArmy soldiers carry off religious relicsfrom a Russian church.How might the policy of destroyingchurches in such a public way havebackfired on the party?Atheism—the belief that there is no Godbecame an official State policy.
  • 74. 3 State Control and the ArtsStalin forced artists and writers to conform to a style called socialistrealism. Its goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in apositive light. Lots of statues of himself were evident.Government controlled what books were published, what music washeard, and which works of art were displayed. Censorship andpropaganda were rampant and the State controlled all news,information, and media.Writers, artists, and composers faced government persecution. Theywere killed or sent to Siberia, or imprisoned in a gulag.Few people were allowed to emigrate and fewer people wereallowed in.
  • 75. 3 Section 3 AssessmentStalin used all of the following to create a totalitarian state except a) secret police. b) propaganda. c) religion. d) censorship.In Soviet society, women were a) considered second-class citizens. b) stripped of all past freedoms. c) granted equality under the law. d) only allowed to hold certain jobs.
  • 76. 3 Section 3 AssessmentStalin used all of the following to create a totalitarian state except a) secret police. b) propaganda. c) religion. d) censorship.In Soviet society, women were a) considered second-class citizens. b) stripped of all past freedoms. c) granted equality under the law. d) only allowed to hold certain jobs.
  • 77. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War/Second Italo-Ethiopian War was a brief colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno dItalia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (AOI). However, Ethiopia never capitulated or surrendered.Politically, the war is best remembered for exposing the inherent weakness of the League of Nations. The Abyssinia Crisis in 1934 is often seen as a clear example of the ineffectiveness of the League. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations and yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy clearly violated the Leagues own Article X. The war is also remembered for the illegal use of mustard gas and phosgene by the Italian armed forces.The positive outcome of the war for the Italians coincided with the zenith of the international popularity of dictator Benito Mussolinis Fascist regime, in a phase called "the age of consensus" during which foreign leaders, including Winston Churchill, praised him for his achievements, it must not be ignored that during the fascist period slavery was abolished in Ethiopia.
  • 78. On 3 October 1935, Italian soldiers commanded by General Emilio De Bono invaded Ethiopia from Eritrea and started the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. The war lasted seven months before Haile Selassie I went into exile and the Italians declared victory. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, Italy was named as the aggressor, and some sanctions were imposed. However, not much was ever done to end hostilities. In May 1936, Ethiopia became part of Italian East Africa and remained as part of the colony until World War II. In 1941, the Ethiopian Empire was liberated by a combination of Ethiopian partisans and British and Commonwealth forces. The major offensives launched against the Italian colonial forces came from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and from British East Africa. Haile Selassie re-entered Addis Ababa five years to the day from when he was forced into exile. After World War II, Eritrea was incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire. Eritrea remained a part of Ethiopia even after the dissolution of the monarchy. In 1993, Eritrea won its independence from Ethiopia.International Fascism:The Italian Empire in 1939.
  • 79. Haile Selassie, Ras Tafari• In 1936, with the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Mussolini proclaimed Victor Emmanuel III to be the Emperor of Ethiopia - a title considered illegitimate by parts of the international community, and lasted only five years.• Haile Selassie returned to power with the British conquest of the Italian East Africa during WWII.• In January 1942 he was officially reinstated to power in Ethiopia by the British government.
  • 80. 1The Spanish Civil WarAlthough the Spanish Civil War was a localstruggle, it drew other European powersinto the fighting.• Hitler and Mussolini sent arms andforces to help Franco. Dress rehearsal!• Volunteers from Germany, Italy, theSoviet Union, and the westerndemocracies joined the InternationalBrigade and fought alongside theLoyalists against fascism.By 1939, Franco had triumphed.Once in power, he created a fascistdictatorship like those of Hitler andMussolini, but remained “neutral” duringWWII.
  • 81. The Abraham Lincoln BrigadeThe Abraham Lincoln "No man ever enteredBrigade were a group of the earth morevolunteers who went to honorably than thoseSpain to fight in the who died in Spain."Spanish Civil War. It Ernest Hemingwaywas not their war, but itwas their fight—to savethe world from fascismand communism.
  • 82. The Spanish Civil War 1936-37 • In 1931 the Spanish king, King Alfonso XII, was forced to stand down and retreat into exile, and a republic was established. The next five years saw the balance of power swing between the conservative reactionaries of the Spanish establishment and the progressive working class movement. • The rulers of Spain could see their power (and property) slipping away and on the 17th July 1936, a group of extreme right-wing Nationalist generals made their move, starting with a military rising in Morocco, led by Franco, a fascist, which spread immediately to the mainland. Working class militants armed themselves and the military coup was smashed in Barcelona and Madrid, although the generals troops did seize large areas. • General Francisco Franco called upon Hitler and Mussolini to help him gain military supremacy in Spain. This included the infamous destruction of Guernica in April 37 by German planes. • The Spanish Republican army unconditionally surrendered to Francos fascist forces on 1st April 1939. • Everyone seemed happy that the communists had not won,Picasso, Guernica and so Franco remained in power until his death in 1975.8th - 23rd November 1936 Prince Juan Carlos became king upon Franco’s death.
  • 83. Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco (1892-1975), was dictator of Spain from 1939 untilhis death in 1975. He came to power at the end of the Spanish CivilWar. In that war, he led the rebel Nationalist Army to victory overthe Republican forces. After the war ended in 1939, Franco heldcomplete control of Spain. His regime was similar to a Fascistdictatorship. He carried out the functions of chief of state, primeminister, commander in chief, and leader of the Falange Espanola,the only political party permitted. He adopted the title of El Caudillo(The Leader). In the early years of his regime, Franco tried toeliminate all opposition. He later eased restrictions. http://youtu.be/3m-7J3dtEBw
  • 84. Francisco Franco• As dictator, Franco kept Spain officially neutral during World War II. But he sent "volunteers" to help Germany fight the Soviet Union. After the war, the victorious Allies would have little to do with Spain because of Francos pro-Fascist policies.• The Western powers became more friendly toward Franco during the Cold War with the Soviet Union, because he was against Communism. In 1953, Franco signed an agreement with the United States. He permitted the United States to build air and naval bases in Spain in exchange for economic and military aid. This aid helped bring about industrial expansion. Spains living standard rose dramatically during the 1960s. By the mid-1970s, Spain had become a relatively modern, industrialized country.• In the early 1960s, opposition to Franco became more outspoken. Miners and other workers went on strike, though strikes were illegal. Opposition groups organized in secret. Franco relaxed police controls and economic restriction somewhat. In 1966, strict press censorship was relaxed.• Franco declared, in 1947, that Spain would be ruled by a king after he left office. In 1969, Franco named Prince Juan Carlos to be king and head of state after Francos death or retirement. Juan Carlos is the grandson of King Alfonso XIII, who left Spain in 1931. Franco died on Nov. 20,1975, and Juan Carlos became king.
  • 85. Update—Kim Jong Un,youngest son and successorto deceased North Koreanleader Kim Jong Il,has taken over since 12/11,and wedon’t know ifhe’s a good ‘unor a bad ‘un!