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Ch12&13 ageofimperialismparti

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  • 1. World History Chapter 12 & 13The New Imperialism (1800–1914),including the Spanish- American War
  • 2. One of severaljournalists inSouth Africa,British writerRudyard Kipling(bottom right)consideredimperialism to bebeneficial toAfricans.
  • 3. A Market for Goods A driving force behind imperialism was the desire for access to newmarkets in which to sell goods. This British propaganda poster boasts that Africa wouldbecome a gold mine for British-made products. Britain’s sense of national pride andaggressive foreign policy during this period came to be known as jingoism.What does this poster show about the British attitude toward Africa? Missionary prayer book in Korean
  • 4. Chapter 12: The New Imperialism (1800–1914)Section 1: Building Overseas EmpiresSection 2: The Partition of AfricaSection 3: European Challenges to the Muslim WorldSection 4: The British Take Over IndiaSection 5: China and the New Imperialism
  • 5. ImperialismImperialism= One country’s domination of the political,economic, and social life of another country Imperialism in the 1800’s resulted from 3 key factors:1. Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quests for power.2. The Industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expanded markets, which prompted industrialized nations to seek new territories.3. Both religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands.
  • 6. Political Rivalries In the mid-1800’s European countries saw themselves as actors on the world stage, and each country wanted to play a starring role.The key players were: Austria-Hungary, England, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the OttomanEmpire/Turkey. Great Britain France Belgium Italy Holland Spain Portugal
  • 7. Desire for New Markets• Factories ranging from The United States to Europe consumed raw materials and churned out thousands of manufactured goods.• The Colonies provided new markets for the finished products of the Industrial Revolution such as Tools, Weapons, and Clothing. India Southeast Asia Africa • Rubber • Cotton • Tin • Copper • Jute • Spices • Gold • Opium • Exotic • Diamonds stuff
  • 8. Seeking New Opportunities• Throughout the 1800’s European leaders urged their citizens to move to far-off colonies.• The British for example emigrated to the far corners of the globe in search of new jobs not available at home, like Australia, and New Zealand.• Cecil Rhodes, most successful emigrant during this time, made a fortune from gold and diamond mining in southern Africa, where he then went on to find a colony that bore his name Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). Cecil Rhodes and De Beers Continue to Dominate Diamond Industry
  • 9. Born in India, English writerRudyard Kipling witnessed Britishimperialism firsthand. His 1899poem “The White Man’s Burden”summarizes his view of the dutiesof imperial nations:“Take up the White Man’sburden—In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plain,To seek another’s profit,And work another’s gain.”
  • 10. Zulu King CetshwayoA nephew of Shaka, Cetshwayo was thelast of the great Zulu kings. He ruled adisciplined army of about 40,000 menuntil the British defeated him in 1879.Why was Cetshwayo considered a threatto British colonial interests?
  • 11. Favoring Imperialism“I contend that we are the first race inthe world and that the more of the worldwe inhabit the better it is for the humanrace. I contend that every acre added toour territory provides for the birth ofmore of the English race, who otherwisewould not be brought into existence . . . .I believe it to be my duty to God, myQueen and my country to paint thewhole map of Africa red, red from theCape to Cairo. That is my creed, mydream and my mission.”—Cecil RhodesOpposing Imperialism“A Pink Cheek man came one day to our Council. . . and he told us of the King of thePink Cheek who . . . lived in a land over the seas. ‘This great king is now your king,’ hesaid. This was strange news. For this land was ours. . . . We had no king, we elected ourCouncils and they made our laws. With patience, our leading Elders tried to tell this tothe Pink Cheek. . . . But at the end he said, ‘This we know, but in spite of this what Ihave told you is a fact. You have now a king . . . and his laws are your laws.’”—Chief Kabongo of the Kikuyu in Kenya
  • 12. Interesting thing on news 2/3/10 @ stealing kids from Haiti• Growing numbers of missionaries were delegated to the most remote corners of Africa and Asia by the Catholic and Protestants.• The main aspect of these missionaries was thought that Christianity and Western civilization could benefit and transform the world.• These missionaries were not military based, but did set out to change the people’s beliefs and practices, as by building schools and hospitals.
  • 13. Missionaries at Work Missionaries conduct a baptism ceremony in the Lower Congo in 1907. In 1890, Chief Machemba of the Yao people in East Africa wrote in Swahili to a German officer: “If it be friendship that you desire, then I am ready for it . . . but to be your subject, that I cannot be. . . . I do not fall at your feet, for you are God’s creature just as I am.” —Chief Machemba, Letter to Herman von Wissman Send in the missionaries, followed by merchants, and then, … oh yes, the military…
  • 14. The Maxim GunSir Hiram Maxim with hisinvention, the Maxim machine gun.Why were European armies oftenable to defeat African or Asianforces? Duh? Indian princes and British army officers play polo in 1880.
  • 15. 1 Causes of Imperialism ECONOMIC INTERESTS POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTSManufacturers wanted access tonatural resources. Merchant ships and naval vesselsManufacturers hoped for new needed bases around the world.markets for factory goods. Western leaders were motivated byColonies offered a valuable outlet for nationalism.Europe’s growing population. HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISM Many westerners felt concern for Many westerners viewed European their “little brothers” overseas. races as superior to all others. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial They saw imperial conquest as officials believed they had a duty to nature’s way of improving the spread western civilization. human species.
  • 16. Forms of Imperialism• Colony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials.• Protectorate: Had its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power.• Sphere of Influence: was a region of a country in which the imperial power had exclusive investment or trading rights.
  • 17. Forms of Imperial Rule SPHERES OF COLONIES PROTECTORATES INFLUENCEThe French In a A sphere ofpracticed direct protectorate, local influence is an arearule, sending rulers were left in in which an outsideofficials to place but were power claimedadminister their expected to follow the exclusivecolonies. advice of European investment or advisers. trading privileges.The Britishpracticed an A protectorate costs The United Statesindirect rule, using less to run than a claimed Latinlocal rulers to colony and usually did America as itsgovern their not require a large sphere of influence.colonies. military presence.
  • 18. The European belief that conquest was a way of improving thehuman species was an example of a) colonization. b) imperialism. c) Social Darwinism. d) nationalism.The United States claimed Latin America asa) its colony. b) its sphere of influence.c) its protectorate. d) part of its territory.
  • 19. The European belief that conquest was a way of improving thehuman species was an example of a) colonization. b) imperialism. c) Social Darwinism. d) nationalism.The United States claimed Latin America asa) its colony. b) its sphere of influence.c) its protectorate. d) part of its territory.
  • 20. 1 The New Imperialism•Imperialism is the domination by one country of thepolitical, economic, or cultural life of another country orregion.•Between 1500 and 1800, European states won empiresaround the world. However, Europe had little influence onthe lives of the people of these conquered lands.•By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power.Encouraged by their new economic and militarystrength, Europeans embarked on a path of aggressiveexpansion that today’s historians call the “NewImperialism.”
  • 21. 1 The Successes of Imperialism In just a few decades, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons:• 1. While European nations had grown stronger in the 1800s, several older civilizations were in decline.• 2. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies.• 3. Europeans had superior technology and medical knowledge.
  • 22. Locate(a) Algeria(b) Belgian Congo(c) EthiopiaRegionIn which part ofAfrica were most ofFrance’s colonieslocated?Make ComparisonsHow didimperialism inAfrica in 1850compare with thatin 1914?
  • 23. Ethiopia SurvivesOne ancient Christian kingdom in East Africa, Ethiopia,managed to resist European colonization and maintain itsindependence. Like feudal Europe, Ethiopia had been dividedup among a number of rival princes who ruled their owndomains. In the late 1800s, however, a reformingruler, Menelik II, began to modernize his country. He hiredEuropean experts to plan modern roads and bridges and setup a Western school system. He imported the latest weaponsand European officers to help train his army. Thus, when Italyinvaded Ethiopia in 1896, Menelik was prepared. At thebattle of Adowa , the Ethiopians smashed the Italianinvaders. Ethiopia was the only African nation, aside fromLiberia, to preserve its independence.
  • 24. Menelik II• Ethiopia is Abyssinia to Europe.• Menelik II is direct ancestor of King Solomon and Queen of Sheba (and Emperor Haile Salassie later).• He can see what is coming and so invests in modernization, including weaponry and warning his neighbors to be prepared.
  • 25. Menelik IIBefore becoming emperor of Ethiopia,Menelik II (1844–1913) ruled the Shoaregion in central Ethiopia. He ensuredthat he would succeed John IV asemperor by marrying his daughter toJohn’s son. After John died in 1889,Menelik took the throne.How did Menelik preserve Ethiopian independence? Menelik used profits from ivory sales to buy modern weapons. He then hired European advisors to teach his soldiers how to use the new guns. Menelik’s army conquered neighboring lands and won a stunning victory over the Italians at Adowa. European nations rushed to establish diplomatic ties with Ethiopia. Around the world, people of African descent hailed Menelik’s victory over European imperialism.
  • 26. An Asante King A king of the Asante people in Ghana (center) sits surrounded by his people.What do the clothes of the man to the left of the king suggest about his social rank?
  • 27. “Why did you not stand up to Rhodes “Did you give that word?”and prevent him from taking your “No.”country by strength? Why did you not “Were the soldiers keen to fight?”fight?” “Yes, they were dying to fight.”“I thought that if I appealed to the white “Why did you not let them fight?”men’s sense of justice and fair play, “I wanted to avoid bloodshed and war. . . .”reminding them how good I had been to “And you allowed them to flout your word as kingthem since I had never killed or ill- of the Amandebele? You let them have their way.treated a white man, they might hear my . . . Is that right?. . . .Why did you not . . . seekword and return to their homes. . . .” their protection and declare your country a British protectorate?” “. . . I knew that if I fought the white men I would“I . . . told them that I had be beaten. If I sought the white man’s friendshipnot given them the road to and protection, there would be opposition to meMashonaland.” or civil war. So I decided to pretend to the white“Yes, and they replied and men that if they came into the country I wouldtold you that they had been fight, and hoped that they would be afraid andgiven the road by their not come. . . . *They called my bluff and came . . .”Queen and would only “Was there no other way out of your dilemma?”return on the orders of “I did consider marrying the Queen, but eventheir Queen. though I hinted at this several times no oneWhat did you do then?” followed it up.”“I mobilized the army and “I see!”told them to wait for myword.” King Lobengula of the South African Matabele nation We are not amused!
  • 28. Africa in the Early 1800s 2To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached Since long before 1800, the region had jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify close ties to the Muslim world. Islam. In the early 1800s, much of the region In the forest regions, the Asante controlled remained under the rule of the smaller states. These smaller tributary states declining Ottoman empire. were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA Zulu aggression caused mass Islam had long influenced the coast, migrations and wars and created where a profitable slave trade was chaos across much of the region. carried on. Slave trade will continue and Imperialism will separate men from their families--***
  • 29. European Contacts Increased 2From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and diseaseprevented European traders from reaching the interior of Africa.Medical advances and river steamships changed all that in the 1800s. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIESExplorers were Catholic and Protestantfascinated by African missionaries sought to wingeography, but had little people to Christianity. Mostunderstanding of the took a paternalistic view ofpeople they met. Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization.
  • 30. Berlin Conference• To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference in 1884. It took place not in Africa but in Berlin, Germany. No Africans were invited to the conference.• At the Berlin Conference, European powers recognized Leopold’s private claims to the Congo Free State but called for free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers. They further agreed that a European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there. This principle led Europeans to send officials who would exert their power over local rulers and peoples.• The rush to colonize Africa was on. In the 20 years after the Berlin Conference, the European powers partitioned almost the entire continent. As Europeans carved out their claims, they established new borders and frontiers. They redrew the map of Africa with little regard for traditional patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries.• African soldiers in German uniforms
  • 31. A Scramble for Colonies King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders.King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scrambleamong other European nations. Before long, Britain, France,and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region.At the Berlin Conference in 1884, European powers agreed on howthey could claim African territory without fighting amongstthemselves.European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent.
  • 32. The Scramble for Africa • The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa was a process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914. • As a result of the heightened tension between European states in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa may be seen as a way for the Europeans to eliminate the threat of a Europe- wide war over Africa.The Rhodes Colossus, a caricature of Cecil Rhodes after announcingplans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.For Punch by Edward Linley Sambourne.
  • 33. • The last 59 years of the nineteenth century saw transition from ‘informal imperialism’ of control through military influence and economic dominance to that of direct rule. Attempts to mediate imperial competition, such as the Berlin Conference (1884–1885), failed to establish definitively the competing powers claims.• Many African polities, states and rulers (such as the Ashanti, the Abyssinians, the Moroccans and the Dervishes) sought to resist this wave of European aggression. However, the industrial revolution had provided the European armies with advanced weapons such as machine guns, which African armies found difficult to resist. Also, unlike their European counterparts, African rulers, states and people did not at first form a continental united front although within a few years, a Pan-African movement did emerge.
  • 34. Western AdvantagesEuropean powers had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies. Superiortechnology, including riverboats and the telegraph, as well as improvedmedical knowledge also played a role. Quinine and other newmedicines helped Europeans survive deadly tropical diseases. And, ofcourse, advances such as Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, andsteam-driven warships were very strong arguments in persuadingAfricans and Asians to accept Western control.The Maxim GunSir Hiram Maxim with hisinvention, the Maxim machinegun.Why were European armiesoften able to defeat African orAsian forces?
  • 35. 2Imperialism in Africa to 1914
  • 36. 2 African Resistance• Europeans met armed resistance across the continent.• Algerians battled the French for years.• The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British.• East Africans fought wars against the Germans.• In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.
  • 37. European missionaries urged Africans toa) reject their own traditions.b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim world.c) seek independence.d) attend the Berlin Conference.Which of the following African nations was able to preserve itsindependence?a) Congob) Algeriac) Egyptd) Ethiopia
  • 38. European missionaries urged Africans toa) reject their own traditions.b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim world.c) seek independence.d) attend the Berlin Conference.Which of the following African nations was able to preserve itsindependence?a) Congob) Algeriac) Egyptd) Ethiopia
  • 39. David Livingstone David Livingstone is a famous Scottish explorer, who first went to Africa in1840. He was a doctor and missionary. While he explored central and east Africa heset up missions and sent back reports of his findings. He was the first recordedEuropean to see the Victoria Falls, to which he gave the English name in honor ofhis monarch, Queen Victoria. Believing he had a spiritual calling for explorationrather than mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to hisdiscoveries and support for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned from theLondon Missionary Society after they demanded that he do more evangelizing andless exploring. The qualities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantageas an explorer were that he usually traveled lightly, and he had an ability to reassurechiefs that he was not a threat. He lost touch in 1860 and Henry M. Stanley wassent to find him. “Dr. Livingstone, i presume?”
  • 40. Henry M. Stanley•Henry Morton Stanley was the British journalist and explorer,hired to find Livingstone. He is best remembered for his quotewhen he met Livingstone, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?",although there is some question as to authenticity of this nowfamous greeting. Stanley also explored on his own. He wastricked by the Belgian King into getting Congo for him, but heremained on the king’s payroll even after he found out.•Publicity around the explorations of Africa caused a madEuropean scramble for Africa between 1880-1914, and by 191490 percent of Africa was under European control.
  • 41. Shortly afterward, King Leopold II of Belgiumhired Stanley to explore the Congo River basinand arrange trade treaties with Africanleaders. Publicly, Leopold spoke of a civilizingmission to carry the light “that for millions ofmen still plunged in barbarism will be thedawn of a better era.” Privately, he dreamed ofconquest and profit. Leopold’s activities in theCongo set off a scramble by other nations.Before long, Britain, France, and Germanywere pressing rival claims to the region.
  • 42. North AfricaNorth Africa is the northern most of the African continent, linkedby the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the UNdefinition of Northern Africa includes the following sevencountries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan,Tunisia, Mauritania, and Western Sahara. Most people in NorthAfrica live on a fertile and mild strip of land north of the Saharaalong the Mediterranean coast.
  • 43. The French In North Africa In 1830 King Charles X of France ordered an invasion of Algiers, in order to colonize it. This was the true beginning of hesecond French colonial empire. After about ten years the 100,000French soldiers beat the Algerians and their leader Abd al -Qadir. They established a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (BardoTreaty). In 1904 France secured special trading rights in Morocco. During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate.
  • 44. Britain and Egypt  In the 1880s Ottoman Egypt was almost independent under Governor (Pasha)Muhammad Ali. Egypt was a power in the eastern Mediterranean under Ali. Ali reformed tax and land systems, encouraged industry and supported irrigation projects, but unfortunately the rulers after him increased debt and European influence. Ferdinand de Lesseps was a French entrepreneur who set up a company to build the Suez Canal (it would become a vital short cut). In 1875 GB gains control of canal and,In 1882 Egypt becomes a British protectorate after British forces put down a nationalist revolt.
  • 45. The Sudan Sir Herbert Kitchener • In the Sudan there was a Muslim revival that stirred nationalist feelings. The Sudanese had challenged British exploration since the 1880s. At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi. Around 10,000 Ansar were killed,13,000 were wounded, and 5,000 were taken prisoner. Kitcheners force lost 48 men with 382 wounded. Soon after the British confronted the French at Fashoda, bringing the two countries to the brink of war. War was avoided when the French withdrew from Sudan and Britain recognized French control of Morocco.
  • 46. Italy Seizes Libya  Libya was known as Tripoli in the 1800s and had almost no economic value but Italy, the closest European nation, wanted it because, they were starting late in the race to build an African empire. In 1911, after the other European nations promised neutrality, Italy declared war on the ruling Ottoman Empire and easily won. Libya was the last North African country to be conquered by Europeans.
  • 47. West, Central and East Africa During the 1800s there many territories with varied landscapes, histories and traditions.Europeans swallowed up the lands in the late 1800s. West Africa -In the1500s and 1600s there was European slave trade on the coast. Salt, goldand ironware were also traded. When European countries stopped trading slaves in the 1800swest African countries traded natural products for manufactured goods. European countries pushinland in 1870s to expand coastal holdings and control trade. Steam ships allowed for easiertravel over difficult terrain and quinine provided protection from malaria. By 1900 Europeanpowers had acquired vast new territories. Leaders in the 1890s, such as Samory Toure andBehanzin, fought against the expansion but were defeated by well armed European forces.The only independent state in West Africa by 1900 was Liberia, founded as a colony by theAmerican Colonization Society in 1821-22. It was created as a place for slaves freed in theUnited States to emigrate to in Africa, on the premise they would have greater freedom andequality there.Slaves freed from slave ships also were sent there instead of being repatriated to their countriesof origin. These freed slaves formed an elite group in Liberian society, and, in 1847, they foundedthe Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that of the United States.Liberias ties to the US made it off limits for expansion.
  • 48. Central and East Liberia Africa Congo EthiopiaBelgiums King Leopold II claimed the Congo river region as his own as aresult of Henry Stanleys explorations. He enslaved the people, forced them tocut down the forests and kill the elephants. doing that stripped the area of manypeople and resources. In 1903 in exchange for a large loan Leopard gave theCongo Basin to the Belgian government and it became the Belgian Congo. TheBritish, Italians and Germans were claiming East Africa at this time. The onlyindependent country was Ethiopia. Liberia was repopulated with freedAmerican slaves.In the 1880s Italy attempts to conquer Ethiopia and its Emperor Menelik II,but underestimate their determination, and lose devastatingly at the Battle ofAdowa. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October1896. The Italian defeat scares away the other European counties and protectsEthiopia.
  • 49. Southern Africa  The Dutch arrived in Southern Africa in 1652 andestablished a port called Cape Town and for the next 150 years the Afrikaners, what the settlers were called, conquered land around port, the lands became known as Cape Colony. The British seizeCape Colony, in the early 1880s, because of its strategic value. The Afrikaaners believed that God had ordained slavery and that they were superior, and they resented the British laws that forbadeslavery. In the 1830s 100,000 Afrikaaners that the British calledBoers left Cape Colony. They migrated north east on The GreatTrek, and established the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
  • 50. ConflictsThe Afrikaners fought constantly with their neighbors. They fight with the Zulu fora large empire conquered by the Zulu in the early 1800s. The Boers couldnt win avictory, in 1879 the British become involved, the British win against the Zulu,especially their great king Shaka. The Boers also fought with the British, when, in the 1880s, British settlers movedto Transvaal and searched for gold and diamonds. the Boers were pushed to give theBritish civil rights. Growing hostility erupted into the Anglo-Boer War, also knownas the Second Boer War, it was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902,between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the SouthAfrican Republic. The British win.On 31 May 1910 the British unite the previously separate colonies of CapeColony, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State, into the Union of SouthAfrica. Its constitution made it almost impossible for non-whites to win the right tovote.
  • 51. Racial EqualityRacial equality becomes a major issue. Many non-white South Africangroups tried to advance their civil rights. Mohandas K. Gandhi a lawyerfrom India, was one man. He worked for equality for Indians, and he urgedthem to disobey laws that discriminated against them. His efforts worked.Following Gandhi’s pattern, the black majority in Africa went into actionagainst racial injustices. They founded the organization of the SouthAfrican Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 inBloemfontein to increase the rights of the black South African population.In 1923, its name was shortened to the African National Congress. Gandhis principles of nonviolent protest were called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force."[
  • 52. Effects of Imperialism1. The effects mainly centered on economic and social life.2. Imperialists profit from building mines, factories and ports and plantations.3. Africans were hired at low wages and taxed.4. Men were housed in dormitories away from their families and disciplined brutally. Prostitution and HIV/STDs spread.5. European schools taught that European ways are best.6. Sometimes African traditions declined, but most held on to their cultures and accepted some European ways, including Christianity.7. By the early 1900s there were groups that condemned imperialism as contrary to western ideas of liberty and equality.8. They founded nationalist groups to push for self-rule and Africas peoples were politically independent from Europe by end of 20th century.
  • 53. Railroads and TradeBy building thousands of miles of railroads, theBritish opened up India’s vast interior to trade. TheBritish also encouraged Indians to grow tea and jute.Today, tea is one of India’s biggest crops.What were some of the benefits of British rule?
  • 54. By 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte felt thatEurope offered too few chances forglory. Setting his sights toward Africa in1798, he invaded Egypt, a province ofthe Ottoman empire.“Europe is a molehill. . . . We must go tothe East. . . . All great glory has beenacquired there.”Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign highlighted Ottoman decline and opened a newera of European contact with Muslim regions of the world. European countrieswere just nibbling at the edges of Muslim countries. Before long, they wouldstrike at their heartland.
  • 55. The Suez Canal linked a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. c) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.Which nations set up spheres of influence in Iran? a) Britain and France b) France and the United States c) Britain and Russia d) Russia and Germany
  • 56. The Suez Canal linked a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. c) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.Which nations set up spheres of influence in Iran? a) Britain and France b) France and the United States c) Britain and Russia d) Russia and Germany
  • 57. 3 The Ottoman EmpireBy the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges.• Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had increased their power.• As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire.• European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control.• Attempts at westernization by several Ottoman rulers increased tensions. Many officials objected to changes that were inspired by foreign cultures.• A reform group called the Young Turks overthrew the sultan.• Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.
  • 58. General Ismail Pasha (center) fought for the British army in the Crimean War.In the 1890s, a group of liberals formed a movement called theYoung Turks. They insisted that reform was the only way to save theempire. In 1908, the Young Turks overthrew the sultan. Before theycould achieve their planned reforms, however, the Ottoman empirewas plunged into the world war that erupted in 1914.
  • 59. Armenian GenocideTraditionally, the Ottomans had let minority nationalities live intheir own communities and practice their own religions. By the1890s, however, nationalism was igniting new tensions,especially between Turkish nationalists and minority peopleswho sought their own states. These tensions triggered a brutalgenocide of the Armenians, a Christian people concentrated inthe eastern mountains of the empire. Genocide is a deliberateattempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group.The Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supportingRussian plans against the Ottoman empire. When Armeniansprotested repressive Ottoman policies, the sultan had tens ofthousands of them slaughtered. Over the next 25 years, between600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed or died fromdisease and starvation.
  • 60. 3 The Modernization of Egypt Called the “father of modern Egypt,” Muhammad Ali introduced political and economic reforms. Before he died in 1849, he had set Egypt on the road to becoming a major Middle Eastern power.During his reign, Muhammad Ali:• improved tax collection• reorganized the landholding system• backed large irrigation projects to increase farm output• expanded cotton production and encouraged local industry, thereby increasing Egyptian participation in world trade• brought in western military experts to modernize the army• conquered Arabia, Syria, and Sudan
  • 61. As the followingexamplesdemonstrate, advances in transportationtechnology alwayshave the potential ofchanging society.
  • 62. 3 Iran and the European PowersThe importance of Iran was its location! Oil was later.Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into CentralAsia.Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India.For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence,Russia in the north and Britain in the south.The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreigninterest in the region.Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant themconcessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers.Iran =Persia Iraq is where we were fightingIran are shiia; Iraq are mostly sunnis;Hardliner, strict sharia-followers are the Taliban
  • 63. Oil flows out of one of the first Like the Ottoman empire, Persia faced majoroil wells to be drilled in Persia, challenges in the 1800s. The Qajar shahs, who ruledaround 1910. Persia from 1794 to 1925, exercised absolute power. Still, they did take steps to introduce reforms. The government helped build telegraph lines and railroads and experimented with a liberal constitution. Reform, however, did not save Persia from Western imperialism. Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain wanted to protect its interests in India. For a time, each nation set up its own sphere of influence in Persia. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Both Russia and Britain plotted for control of Persian oil fields. They persuaded the Persian government to grant them concessions, or special rights given to foreign powers. To protect their interests, they sent troops into Persia. Persian nationalists were outraged. The nationalists included two very different groups. Some Persians wanted to move swiftly to adopt Western ways. Others, led by Muslim religious leaders, condemned the Persian government and Western influences.
  • 64. For more than 200 years, Mughal rulers governed a powerful empire in India. By the mid-1700s, however, the Mughal empire was collapsing from a lack of strong rulers. Britain then turned its commercial interests in the region into political ones. British East India Company’sQueen Victoria writes letters as her Indian coat of armsservant waits for his orders.
  • 65. 4 The British Take Over India• What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?• How did British rule affect India?• How did Indians view western culture?• What were the origins of Indian nationalism?
  • 66. The British in IndiaEuropean trade with Asia opened up in the 1500s. In 1600 some English traders formed the East India Company Which later became the richest and most powerful trading companies the world has ever known Built trading post and forts throughout IndiaFrench tried to challenge the British, but they were later crushed by Robert Clive, a East India Company Agent, along with an army of British and Indian troops at the Battle of Plassey 1757.
  • 67. Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northernand central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital.There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader. In some places, the sepoys brutallymassacred British men, women, and children. But the British soon rallied and crushed therevolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages andslaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It alsobrought major changes in British policy. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East IndiaCompany and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxingIndians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While it slowed the “reforms” that hadangered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.
  • 68. The Sepoy RebellionThe East Indian Company quickly controlled most of India in 1857. Later that year, Sepoys rebelled against their British commanders and it began to spread across the Northern and Central India.Indians had massacred British men, children, and women.In response, they killed thousands of unarmed Indians.In 1858 Parliament ended the East Indian Company. They had sent a viceroy to rule as the monarchs representative and India became “the Jewel in the Crown”—Queen Victoria claimed India as a crown colony and became an Empress. Sepoys-Indian Troops The new rifles’ casings were supposedly greased/made with beef or pork fat in the cartridge papers.
  • 69. 4 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects CAUSES EFFECTSThe British East India Company: •The Sepoys brutally massacred•required sepoys, or Indian soldiers in British men, women, and children.its service, to serve anywhere, •The British took terrible revenge,including overseas, which violated slaughtering thousands of unarmedHindu religious law Indians.•passed a law allowing Hindu widows •Both sides were left with a bitterto marry, (avoiding sutee/sati) which legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust.undermined Hindu beliefs •The British put India directly under•Ordered the sepoys to bite off British rule, sent more troops tocartridges made of animal fat when India, and taxed Indians to pay forloading their rifles, which violated the cost of the occupying forces.both Hindu and Muslim religious law.
  • 70. 4 British Colonial Rule After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.• The British built roads and an impressive railroad network.• The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.• Britain transformed Indian agriculture.• Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines.• The British revised the Indian legal system.• British rule brought peace and order to the countryside.• Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.
  • 71. Indian Nationalism• British built paved roads and an extensive railroad; installed telegraph lines and dug irrigation canals; and established schools and universities• They forced Indians to grow cotton instead of wheat which led to the lack of wheat and resulted in severe food shortages that killed millions of Indians during 1800s• Huge taxes and inflated prices made it hard to afford certain products—example: tax on salt.• In 1885 a group of Indian business and professional leaders formed the Indian National Congress who tried to peacefully protest to urge British to grant more power to the Indians – Also the group that led the long struggle for complete independence—Gandhi will lead with non-violent, passive resistance. (Satyagraha)
  • 72. 4 Imperialism in India to 1858The Jewel in the Crown— as the British Raj Queen Victoria gained the title of Empress (to match Russia).
  • 73. The Great Game• The Great Game was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901). In a phrase coined by Captain Arthur Connolly an intelligence officer of the British East India Companys Sixth Bengal Light Cavalry, before he was beheaded in Bokhara for spying in 1842, a "Great Game" was played between Tsarist Russia and Victorian England for supremacy in Central Asia. The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.• At stake was the security of India, key to the wealth of the British Empire. When play began early in the 19th century, the frontiers of the two imperial powers lay two thousand miles apart, across vast deserts and almost impassable mountain ranges; by the end, only 20 miles separated the two rivals.
  • 74. Kim • Kim is a picaresque novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first by published serially in McClures Magazine and in CassellsRudyard Magazine from in 1901. Kipling • The story unfolds against the backdrop of The Great Game, the political conflict between Russia and Britain in Central Asia. It is set after the Second Afghan War which ended in 1881, but before the Third, perhaps in the 1890s. • The novel is notable for its detailed portrait of the people, culture, and varied religions of India. "The book presents a vivid picture of India, its teeming populations, religions, and superstitions, and the life of the bazaars and the road."
  • 75. Different Views on Culture During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN BRITISH ATTITUDES ATTITUDES•Some educated Indians were •Most British knew little aboutimpressed by British power and Indian achievements andtechnology and urged India to dismissed Indian culture withfollow a western model of contempt. Ethnocentricity.progress. •Few British admired Indian•Other Indians felt the answer theology and philosophy andto change lay with their own respected India’s ancientHindu or Muslim cultures. heritage.
  • 76. Indian Nationalism•The British believed that western-educated Indians would forman elite class which would bolster British rule.•As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the oppositeeffect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians werespearheading a nationalist movement.•In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian NationalCongress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, butsupported western-style modernization.•In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their owngoals, including a separate Muslim state.
  • 77. In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of thefollowing excepta) place India directly under British rule.b) send more troops to India. Mangel Pandey,c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. Sepoy Martyrd) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence.Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule. c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.
  • 78. In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of thefollowing excepta) place India directly under British rule.b) send more troops to India.c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. Mangel Pandey,d) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence. Sepoy MartyrWhich of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule. c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.
  • 79. by Rudyard Kipling “The White •Take up the White Man’s burden—Man’s Burden” –Send forth the best ye breed— •Go, bind your sons to exile –To serve your captives’ need; •To wait, in heavy harness, –On fluttered folk and wild— •Your new-caught sullen peoples, •Half-devil and half-child. •Take up the White Mans burden— –In patience to abide, •To veil the threat of terror –And check the show of pride; •By open speech and simple, –An hundred times made plain, •To seek anothers profit –And work anothers gain.
  • 80. Britain’s Union Jack Lin Zexu, Chinese official Trading Opium for TeaBy the 1830s, British merchant ships were arriving in China loaded with opium totrade with the Chinese for tea. In 1839, Chinese government official Lin Zexu wrotea letter to Britain’s Queen Victoria condemning the practice: “We have heard thatin your own country opium is prohibited with the utmost strictness and severity—this is strong proof that you know full well how hurtful it is . . . . Since . . . you donot permit it to injure your own country, you ought not to have the injurious drugtransferred to another country.”
  • 81. China In the 1700s, China enjoyed a favorable balance of trade.
  • 82. The Power of Opium•By 1779, the BritishEast India Companywas importing opiuminto China•Within a generation,opium addiction inChina becamewidespread Mandarin with Opium Pipe
  • 83. The East India Company’s opium factory stacking roomThis slide gives an impression of the huge volume of opium imported intoChina by the British. The East India Company developed a monopoly onopium cultivation in India, but disengaged itself legally and officially fromthe illicit trade with China by using vessels owned by private merchants (theboats were known as “country ships”) to transfer and sell the opium inChina.
  • 84. In 1839, a Chinese official China and Britain Clash demanded that the opium trade in Guangzhou (Canton) over Opium stop. The British refused, and war ensued.In 1839, theemperor of Chinasent a commissionerto Canton to put anend to the opiumtrade. The Britishignored thisdemand, and theChinese governmentresponded by havingthe commissionerdestroy 20,291chests of opium. Chinese unloading opium from a British ship
  • 85. The Opium War: 1839–1842 Britain, with its powerful navy, occupied several Chinese ports, including Hong Kong. British armies also met with success, coming within miles of Peking, the Chinese capital. In 1842, the Chinese conceded and Britain forced them to sign a treaty. The British navy attacks
  • 86. The Opium WarDuring the late 1700s, British merchants began making huge profits by trading opiumgrown in India for Chinese tea, which was popular in Britain. Soon, many Chinese hadbecome addicted to the drug. Silver flowed out of China in payment for the drug,disrupting the economy.The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers. They calledon Britain to stop the trade. The British refused, insisting on the right of free trade.In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British merchants, triggering the Opium War.British gunboats, equipped with the latest in firepower, bombarded Chinese coastal andriver ports. With outdated weapons and fighting methods, the Chinese were easilydefeated.
  • 87. Britain gained •Control of Hong The Treaty of Kong Nanjing •The right to trade in five major cities •Extraterritoriality •The legalization of opium in China •The treaty forced China to accept some major concessions and further opened the country to European trade. •It was an Unequal Treaty The signing of the Treaty of Nanjing aboard the British ship Cornwallis
  • 88. Unequal TreatiesIn 1842, Britain made China accept theTreaty of Nanjing Britain received ahuge indemnity, or payment for losses inthe war. The British also gained the islandof Hong Kong. China had to open fiveports to foreign trade and grant Britishcitizens in China extraterritoriality, theright to live under their own laws and betried in their own courts.The treaty was the first of a series of“unequal treaties” that forced China tomake concessions to Western powers. Asecond war, lasting from 1856 to1858, ended with France, Russia, and theUnited States pressuring China to signtreaties stipulating the opening of moreports to foreign trade and lettingChristian missionaries preach in China.
  • 89. Treaty Ports
  • 90. The Open Door Policy • Turmoil in China • “Spheres of influence” and • “Open Door” policy-- formulated by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay. • No nations formally accepted Hay’s proposal, but they didn’t counter the Open Door policy’s provisions either. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay
  • 91. 5 Internal ProblemsBy the 1800s, the Qing dynasty was in decline. • Irrigation systems and canals were poorly maintained, leading to massive flooding of the Huang He valley. • The population explosion that had begun a century earlier created a terrible hardship for China’s peasants. • An extravagant court, tax evasion by the rich, and widespread official corruption added to the peasants’ burden. • The civil service system was rocked by bribery scandals. • Between 1850 and 1864, peasants took part in the Taiping Rebellion, the most devastating revolt in history.
  • 92. The Taiping RebellionWeakens China
  • 93. China Faces the West– During the 1500s, Chinese civilization had been highly advanced and had little interest in European goods– Chinas political, economic, and military position weakened under the Qing dynasty who ruled from 1644-1912– The Unequal Treaties • In early 1800s, British merchants found a way to break Chinas trade barriers and earned huge profits. In exchange of tea, silk, and porcelain, the merchants smuggled a drug called opium, which they obtained from India and Turkey, into China. • In 1839 Chinese troops tried to stop the smuggling and war broke out and was fought for three years. • In 1842 British won the Opium War, which led to the Treaty of Nanking which forced China to yield many of its rights to western powers and Hong Kong was given to Great Britain. • Over the next 60 years the unequal treaties increased foreign influence in China and weakened the Qing dynasty. Civil war, such as the Taiping rebellion(1850-1864), also eroded the dynastys power, and in 1890s, European powers as well as Japan claimed large sections as • Spheres of Influence -areas where they had exclusive trading rights
  • 94. The Trade Issue•Prior to the 1800s, Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreigntraders.• China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported.• Westerners had a trade deficit with China, buying more fromthe Chinese than they sold to them. **** We do so now, too!•In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing, the firstin a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to makeconcessions to western powers.• China paid a huge indemnity to Britain. Reparations now• The British gained the island of Hong Kong.• China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant Britishcitizens in China extraterritoriality. Rights as if they were exemptfrom local law; like diplomatic immunity.
  • 95. • During late 1800s reformers began the "self- strengthening" movement involved importing both Western technology and educational methods. It also Chinese improve agriculture, strengthen the armed forces, and ended the European practice of Responses extraterritoriality • Chinese weakness was furthered by modernizing Japan that ended in Chinas defeat and loss of territory. (Sino-Japanese War) • Japan gained the island of Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula as well as trading benefits in Chinese territory, and also Korea. Reformers gained influence from Emperor Guang Xu andlaunched the Hundred Days of Reform to modernize thegovernment and encouraged new industries. However his mother,Ci Xi, returned to power, arrested her son, and halted the reform.
  • 96. 5 Reform Efforts•In the 1860s, reformers launched the “self-strengtheningmovement” in an effort to westernize and modernize China.•The movement made limited progress because the government didnot rally behind it.•After China was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War, EmperorGuang Xu launched the Hundred Days of Reform.•Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort and theemperor was imprisoned.
  • 97. – Ci Xi struggled to hold power. She agreed to give in to some of her peoples demands for change. She established school and reorganized the government. Even in these efforts people began to believe in the modern republic. The– Revolutionaries wanted China to regain its former power and influence. On of them, a doctor named Sun Yat-sen Revolution (Sun Yixian) and others formed the United League.– Their goal was to modernize China on the basis of the "Three Principles of the People“: of 1911 • Nationalism: freedom from Foreign control • Democracy: representative government • Livelihood: economic well-being for all Chinese control– The revolutionary cause was strengthened in 1908 when Ci Xi died, and two-year-old Prince Pu Yi became emperor. The Last Emperor– Revolution swept China as peasants, soldiers, workers, and court officials turned against the weak dynasty and on January 1912, Sun Yat-sen became the first president of the new Chinese republic. •
  • 98. 5Fall of the Qing DynastyAs the century ended, anger grew against foreigners in China.In the Boxer Rebellion, angry Chinese attacked foreigners across China. Inresponse, western powers and Japan crushed the Boxers.Defeat at the hands of foreigners led China to embark on a rush of reforms.Chinese nationalists called for a constitutional monarchy or a republic.When Empress Ci Xi died in 1908, China slipped into chaos.In 1911, the Qing dynasty was toppled.Sun Yixian (Yatsen) was named president of the new Chinese republic. Sunwanted to rebuild China on “Three Principles of the People”: nationalism,democracy, and economic security for all Chinese.
  • 99. In response to the European presencein China, nationalist groups emergedand organized in the hopes of removing The Boxerforeign influence from the country. Rebellion, 1899One group named the “HarmoniousFists” (called the “Boxers” byEuropeans) attacked foreignmissionaries, Chinese Christians, andgovernment officials whom they heldresponsible for allowing Europeans todominate China. In mid-1900, close to150,000 Boxers occupied Beijing.An international force composed ofEuropean, American, and Japanesesoldiers occupied Beijing and defeated American, Japanese, andthe Boxers. British troops storming Beijing
  • 100. The Boxer RebellionSuffering from the effects offloods and famine, poverty,and foreign aggression,Boxers (below) participatedin an anti-foreignmovement. In 1900, some140,000 Boxers attemptedto drive Westerners out ofChina. An internationalforce eventually put downthe uprising.Why were Westerners andWestern influences a sourceof discontent for the Boxers?
  • 101. The Boxer Protocol• China was forced to sign the Boxer Protocol • Required to pay damages to Europeans • Forced to allow foreign soldiers to live in Beijing Signing of the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901.
  • 102. 5Imperialism in China to 1914
  • 103. Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with theWest? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.
  • 104. Which of the following is not true of Chinese trade relations with theWest? a) Before the 1800s, China enjoyed a trade surplus. b) Before the 1800s, China had a trade deficit with the West. c) In 1842, China was forced to open up five ports to foreign trade. d) Before the 1800s, China strictly limited foreign trade.What happened in the Boxer Rebellion? a) Angry Chinese attacked foreigners in China. b) The Chinese started a war with Japan. c) Western imperialists attacked Chinese peasants. d) Chinese peasants rose up against the government.
  • 105. Sun Yixian The Qing DynastySun Yixian (1866–1925) was not born topower. His parents were poor farmers. FallsSun’s preparation for leadership camefrom his travels, education, and personalambitions. In his teen years, he lived withhis brother in Hawaii and attended Britishand American schools. Later on, heearned a medical degree.Sun left his career in medicine to struggleagainst the Qing government. After afailed uprising in 1895, he went into exile.Sun visited many nations, seeking supportagainst the Qing dynasty. When revolutionerupted in China, Sun was inDenver, Colorado. He returned to China tobegin his leading role in the new republic.How did Sun’s background prepare him tolead? Also known as Sun Yat-sen
  • 106. The political cartoon below shows a French soldier (left) and a Britishsoldier (right) ripping apart a map. How do you think the situationdepicted in the cartoon affected relations between Britain and France?
  • 107. The Big 63: Happy Birthday Communist China! The Big 60: 2012