Japanesewomen minglewith Europeansin Yokohama’stradingcompound inthis woodcutprint created bya Japaneseartist in 1861.
An Australian Aborigine boomerangA New Zealand postage stamp featuring theBritish empire’s Queen Victoria A bottle of quinine, which was used to fight malaria in Panama
The emperor Meiji wrote apoem to provide inspirationfor Japan’s efforts to becomea modern country in the late1800s: “May our country, Taking what is good, and rejecting what is bad, Be not inferior To any other.”
Cooperation: Japan as a World PowerAfter its rapid modernization in the late 1800s, Japan took itsplace among the leading powers of the world. It asserted thatpower throughout the 1900s, with varying results.Today, Japan’s economy is second in size only to that of theUnited States. Conduct research on Japan and write aparagraph describing its role in international affairs today.
The Meiji Restoration•Tokugawa Shogunateoverthrown by imperialforces.•Emperor Mutsuhitoruled 1867–1912•Modernization of Japanwas swift. Japanese Emperor Mutsuhito
In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the The “Opening” of United States sailed to Japan and anchored in Edo Bay near Tokyo. He had instructions Japan from U.S. President Millard Fillmore to openPerry brought many the country to trade with the United Statesgifts, but he alsothreatened tobombard theJapanese if theyrefused to tradewith the U.S. TheJapanese conceded,leading to whatmany called the“opening of Japan.”On March 31, 1854,the U.S. and Japansigned a treaty thatopened two portsto American shipsand proclaimedpeace andfriendship betweenthe two countries Japanese admire gifts brought by U.S. Commodore Perry
– Japan didnt trade until 1853, when four Modernizing American warships commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry sailed into the bay at Japan Edo(present-day Tokyo).He wanted to trade with Japan and so they signed a treaty with Perry in 1854.– Meiji Leaders/Meiji Restoration • First five years after Perry, shogun signed treaties with Britain, France, Holland, Russia, and the United States. Unhappiness at the treaties led to the overthrow of the shogun in 1868. A group of Samurai gave its allegiance to the new emperor, Mutsuhito, but kept the real power to themselves. • Mutsuhito was known as the Meiji, or Enlightened emperor, Japans new rulers were called Meiji leaders. They strengthened the military, and worked to transform the nation into industrial society.– They established a system of universal education designed to produce loyal, skilled citizens who worked for Japans modernization.
1 Events Leading Up to the Meiji Restoration By the 1800s, discontent simmered throughout Japan. The government responded by trying to revive old ways. The United States forced Japan to grant trading rights and forced unequal treaties on Japan. Some Japanese strongly criticized the shogun for not taking a strong stand against the foreigners. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest.Discontented daimyo and samurai overthrew the shogun and “restored”the emperor to power. The Meiji restoration, which lasted from 1868 to1912, was a major turning point in Japanese history.
1 Reforms Under the Meiji The Meiji reformers wanted to replace the rigid feudal order with a completely new political and social system and to build a modern industrial economy. ECONOMIC SOCIAL GOVERNMENT CHANGE REFORMSAdopted the German modelof government Encouraged Japan’s Ended legal distinctionsSet forth the principle that business class to adopt between classesall people were equal under western methods Set up schools and athe law Built factories and sold universityEstablished a western-style them to wealthy businessbureaucracy families, known as Hired westerners to teachUsed western technology to zaibatsu the new generationstrengthen the military modern technologyEnded the special privilegeof samurai under bushido
1 Japanese ImperialismAs with western industrial powers, Japan’seconomic needs fed its imperialist desires. In 1905, Japan defeated Russia inIn 1894,Japan defeated China in the Russo-Japanese War, gainingthe Sino-Japanese War, gaining control of Korea as well as rightstreaty ports in China and in parts of Manchuria. Russia wascontrol over the island of humiliatedTaiwan. In 1910, Japan annexed Korea, absorbing the kingdom into the Japanese empire and ruling it for 35 years.
• Industrialization –In late 1870s Japan began to industrialize in an effort to strengthen its economy. • Japan’sa Rising Power Japan as World Power –Japanese government revised tax structure to raise money for investment. It also developed a –Japan had acquired an efficient modern currency system, supported the government, a vigorous economy, and a building of postal, and telegraph networks, strong military. railroads. and port facilities. –People of Korea had revolted against –Beginning in the late 1880s, Japans economy Chinese rule in 1894. So Japan decided to grew rapidly. Growing population also provided intervene and defeated the Chinese army a continual supply of cheap labor in the Sino-Japanese war. Although Korea –By 1914 Japan had become one of the became independent, they were partially worlds leading industrial nations, owned by Japan. – hungry for empire and eager to use –In 1904 the Japanese navy launched a surprise attack on Port Arthur, a Russian their new military. port. This was a major victory, because so few expected Japan to win the Russo- Japanese War. –Japan had victory after victory and eventually had Russia sign a treaty in 1905 that granted control of Korea and other nearby areas. It annexed Korea as a colony in 1910 and continued to expand its empire for the next 35 years.
1 Why Was Japan Able to Modernize So Rapidly?• Japan was a homogeneous society — that is, it had a common culture and language that gave it a strong sense of identity.• Economic growth during the Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development.• The Japanese had experience learning from foreign nations, such as China.• The Japanese were determined to resist foreign rule.• 得たい E Tai = one people; community;• Everyone dedicated to the same ideals—as in to rebuild after tsunami
In the Japanese woodblock print below, Japanese boats go out to meet one of CommodoreMatthew Perry’s ships in Tokyo Bay. In response to Perry’s expedition, the Japanesestatesman Lord li considered Japan’s strategy toward contact with foreign powers:“There is a saying that when one is besieged in a castle, to raise the drawbridge is toimprison oneself. . . . Even though the Shogun’s ancestors set up seclusion laws, they leftthe Dutch and Chinese to act as a bridge. . . . Might this bridge not now be of advantage tous in handling foreign affairs, . . . providing us with the means whereby we may for a timeavert the outbreak of hostilities and then, after some time has elapsed, gain a completevictory?”
In the image, aJapanese womanwears Westernclothing.What role didwesternization playin helping bothJapan and Siamavoid colonizationby Europeannations?
Japan modernized with amazing speed during the Meiji period. Its success was due to a number of causes. Japan had a strong sense of identity, partly because it had a homogeneous society—that is, its people shared a common culture and language. Economic growth during Tokugawa times had set Japan on the road to development. Japan also had experience in learning and adapting ideas from foreign nations, such as China.The powerfulbanking andindustrial familieswere knownas zaibatsu provided capital forbusiness start-ups.
Korea in the MiddleImperialist rivalries put the spotlight on Korea. Located at a crossroads of EastAsia, the Korean peninsula was a focus of competition among Russia, China, andJapan. Korea had been a tributary state to China for many years. A tributary stateis a state that is independent but acknowledges the supremacy of a strongerstate. Although influenced by China, Korea had its own traditions andgovernment. Korea had also shut its doors to foreigners. Itdid, however, maintain relations with China and sometimes with Japan.By the 1800s, Korea faced pressure from outsiders. As Chinese powerdeclined, Russia expanded into East Asia. Then, as Japan industrialized, it tooeyed Korea. In 1876, Japan used its superior power to force Korea to open itsports to Japanese trade. Faced with similar demands from Western powers, the“Hermit Kingdom” had to accept unequal treaties. Japan Rising In this political cartoon, Japan is depicted marching over Korea on its way to Russia. Why would Russia feel threatened by Japan’s aggression in Korea?
The Japanesein KoreaIn thisillustration,Japanesesoldiers marchinto Seoul,Korea’s capitalcity.JapancontrolledKorea from1905 until1945.
There wasno looting,no breaking in lines.Everyone wasvery politeand waitedtheir turnin anorderly manner.This line is forKerosene. 得たい
1 AssessmentWealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai. d) zaibatsu.Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society. b) a homogeneous society. c) a military society. d) an isolated society.Random Japanese terms: Shogun Daimyo zaibatsu Samurai bushido seppuku/hari kari
1 AssessmentWealthy business families in Japan were known as a) daimyo. b) shogun. c) samurai. d) zaibatsu.Japan was able to modernize so quickly in part due to being a) a heterogeneous society. b) a homogeneous society. c) a military society. d) an isolated society.
Currency from a British colony in Malaya In 1867, Phan Thanh Gian, a Vietnamese official, faced a dilemma. The French were threatening to invade. As a patriot, Phan Thanh Gian wanted to resist. But as a devoted follower of Confucius, he was obliged “to live in obedience to reason.” And based on the power of the French military, he concluded that the only reasonable course was to surrender: “The French have immense warships, filled with soldiers and armed with huge cannons. No one can resist them. They go where theyA European woman beingtransported in a rickshaw want, the strongest *walls+ fall before them.”in French Indochina
• The East Indies and the Philippines are the two distinct geographic areas that France, Spain, Great Britain, United State, and the Netherlands had set Southeast• up colonies in that region. The Islands of Southeast Asia Asia – At the beginning of the 1800s, the Dutch controlled most of the East Indies and Spain controlled the Philippines. – The East Indies, present-day Indonesia, had many natural resources, including rich soil where farmers grew indigo, and tea, coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar; miners dug for tin and copper; loggers cut down ebony, teak, and other hardwood trees. Dutch Government used a method of forced labor called the culture system – to gather all these materials. – Diponegoro, a Native prince from the East Indian island of Java, started a revolt against the Dutch in 1825. Though it lasted 10 years, it failed, and the After the Spanish-American War, Dutch encountered little opposition for the next 80 we had promised to grant the years. In the early 1900s, Dutch won control of the Philippines their independence, entire archipelago. but we did not. Aguinaldo led a rebellion against US and was brutally suppressed.
French Indochina “French Indochina” encompassed a number of self- governing regions in Southeast Asia, including modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (labeled as Kampuchea).
2Colonization of Southeast Asia•By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia.They:• introduced modern technology• expanded commerce and industry• set up new enterprises to mine tin and• harvest rubber• brought in new crops of corn and cassava• built harbors and railroads•These changes benefited Europeans far more• than the people of Southeast Asia.
• In early 1880s, there consisted on a mainland region that included Burma (Myanmar), and Malaya in the west, Vietnam in the east, and Siam, Cambodia, and Laos in the Middle. All though the 1800s, Great Britain and France struggled for Mainland• domination of the area The British swept in from India in the 1820s. Over the next 60 Southeast years, they took full control of Burma and neighboring Malaya. Asia• Slowly, France was conquering Indochina, the region that includes: – Present-day Vietnam – Cambodia – Laos• They established complete control in the 1880s.• European rivalries for control of resources brought much disturbance to mainland Southeast Asia. Western influences changed traditional ways of life.• Colonial landowners and trading companies forced local farmers and workers to grow cash crops, mine coal, and cut teak trees.
2 Imperial Powers in the PacificIn the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in theislands of the Pacific.In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa.Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a tripleprotectorate over Samoa.From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power inHawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines wasplaced under American control. The United States promised Filipinosself-rule some time in the future.By 1900, nary an island was left unclaimed.
• Spanish ruled the Philippines which resembled the Dutch rule of the Dutch East Indies. During 1800s, the Filipinos resentment grew until it finally exploded into revolution in 1896. – When the United States declared war on Spain, they promised if they helped that the Philippines would be free. – It became evident in the next few years that the U.S. was not interested in giving the Philippines their independence, but wished to continue their relationship as merely a colony. –
Emilio • After the U.S. declared war on Spain, Aguinaldo saw a possibility that the Philippines might achieveAguinaldo its independence; the U.S. hoped instead that Aguinaldo would lend his troops to its effort against Spain. He returned to Manila on May 19, 1898 and declared Philippine independence on June 12. • When it became clear that the United States had no interest in the liberation of the islands, Aguinaldo’s forces remained apart from U.S. troops. • On January 1, 1899 following the meetings of a constitutional convention, Aguinaldo was proclaimed president of the Philippine Republic. Not surprisingly, the United States refused to recognize Aguinaldo’s authority and on February 4, 1899 he declared war on the U.S. forces in the islands. After his capture on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo agreed to swear allegiance to the United States, and then left public life. • His dream of Philippine independence came true on
Thailand • Thailand, whose name means "Land of the Free People," is the only Southeast Asian country that has never been a colony of a European power. • Thailand has borrowed freely from the West without losing its special Asian identity. Thailands exquisite beauty and rich culture, a culture built on more than 5,000 years of tradition. • It also established contact with European trading powers such as Holland, Portugal, and Great Britain.King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the roadto modernization.Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escapedbecoming a European colony.Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam a buffer,or neutral zone, between them.In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam itsindependence.
Two Paths in Southeast Asia King Mongkut ofSiam managed to keep his kingdom out ofEuropean control. In other parts of SoutheastAsia, colonized peoples labored to produceexport crops for their colonial rulers. Below,workers process sugar cane in the Philippines inthe early 1900s.
• In the late 1700s, Burma (now Myanmar) overwhelmed the kingdom. However, Rama I, founder of the present ruling dynasty, routed them, changed the countrys name to Siam, and established Bangkok as the nations capital. Successive rulers became preoccupied with European colonialism.• That Thailand was never a colony is a source of great pride, and it can be attributed to the efforts of two kings who ruled during the mid-1800s. ThailandKing Mongkut, or Rama IV (popularized in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical TheKing and I), and Chulalongkorn, or Rama V, are most responsible for introducingextensive reforms. Slavery was abolished, outmoded royal customs were ended, andthe power of the aristocracy was limited. For the most part, however, only the toplevel of Thai society was changed. Life for most Thais remained the same.
In the 1800s, the industrialized powers also began to take an interest in theislands of the Pacific. The thousands of islands splashed across the Pacificinclude the three regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.At first, American, French, and British whaling and sealing ships looked forbases to take on supplies in the Pacific. Missionaries, too, moved into theregion and opened the way for political involvement.In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa, a group ofislands in the South Pacific. The United States gained rights such asextraterritoriality and a naval station. Other nations gained similaragreements. As their rivalry increased, the United States, Germany, andBritain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.Beginning in the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in theHawaiian Islands. When the Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani tried to reduceforeign influence, American planters overthrew her in 1893. They then askedthe United States to annex Hawaii, which it finally did in 1898. Supporters ofannexation argued that if the United States did not take Hawaii, Britain orJapan might do so. By 1900, the United States, Britain, France, and Germanyhad claimed nearly every island in the Pacific.
Queen Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii• Following the death of her brother, King Kalakaua, Liliuokalani is proclaimed the last monarch of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii, first settled by Polynesian voyagers sometime in the eighth century, saw a massive influx of American settlers during the nineteenth century, most coming to exploit Hawaii’s burgeoning sugar industry. In 1887, under pressure from U.S. investors and American sugar planters, King Kalakaua agreed to a new constitution that stripped him of much of his power.• However, in 1891, Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and refused to recognize the constitution of 1887, replacing it instead with a constitution that restored the monarchy’s traditional authority. Two years later, a revolutionary "Committee of Safety," organized by Sanford B. Dole, a Hawaiian-born American, staged a coup against Queen Liliuokalani with the support of U.S. Minister John Stevens and a division of U.S. marines. On February 1, 1893, Stevens recognized Dole’s new government on his own authority and proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. protectorate. Dole submitted a treaty of annexation to the U.S. Senate but most Democrats opposed it, especially after it was revealed that most Hawaiians did not want annexation.• President Grover Cleveland sent a new U.S. minister to Hawaii to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne under the 1887 constitution, but Dole refused to step aside and instead proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii, which was organized into a U.S. territory in 1900.• Liliuokalani herself spent much of the remainder of her life in the United States, where she unsuccessfully petitioned the federal government for compensation for seized property and other losses. The territorial legislature of Hawaii finally voted her an annual pension of four thousand dollars and permitted her to receive the income from a small sugar plantation.• In additional to her political fame, Liliuokalani is also known for composing many Hawaiian songs, including the popular "Aloha Oe," or "Farewell to Thee."
President Dole, of the Hawaiian Republic.• Liliuokalani, however, was determined to eliminate American influence in the government. She tried to create a new constitution that would strengthen the traditional monarchy, but her cabinet refused to cooperate. The American residents were outraged. They organized the Committee of Safety and appointed members of the Annexation Club as its leaders. On the morning of January 17, 1893, armed members of the committee attacked. They took over the government office building. From its steps they read a proclamation abolishing the monarchy and establishing a provisional government. The provisional government "would exist until terms of union with the United States of America have been negotiated and agreed upon." Sanford B. Dole, an elderly judge with a flowing, white beard, became its president. Hawaiians who were loyal to their queen tried to come to her defense and stop the revolution. When they arrived in Honolulu, however, American troops confronted them. The United States minister, John L. Stevens, had sent for a battalion of marines and an artillery company from the cruiser Boston. They were ordered to protect the provisional government. For the Hawaiians, resistance was hopeless. Queen Liliuokalani sadly surrendered her throne.
Monroe Doctrine • U.S. and Britain opposed Spain’s plan to regain former colonies • Monroe Doctrine-In 1823, James Monroe and John Quincy Adams issued warning to European powers that an attempt to gain land in Latin America would be considered a threat to the United States. • The British navy helped to enforce the Doctrine. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: Western Hemisphere is Ours! Stay Out!
Senator Albert J. Beveridge• Oct 6, 1862- April 27, 1927• Orator, Senator, and historian• 1898, Gave speech on America’s growing as a world power• “Fate has written our policy for us; the trade of the world must and shall be ours. We will establish trading-posts throughout the world as distributing-points for American products…Great colonies governing themselves, flying our flag and trading with us, will grow about our posts of trade.”
José Martí• Writer and political activist• Considered father of modernist poetry• Writings sparked Cuban revolution against Spain• Died in battle against Spaniards
Remember the Maine!To show support for the Cubans, U.S. President William McKinley sent the battleship the Maine to Havana, the capital of Cuba.The ship exploded in a harbor near Havana.Newspapers blamed Spain for the explosion.The battle cry “Remember the Maine!” swept across the United States.1898, Congress declared war on Spain.The Spanish-American War lasted four months and resulted in an American victory. It was a “Splendid Little War!”
The Spanish-American War 1898• The Spanish-American War of 1898 marked a turning point in United States foreign policy. Spain ruled Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other overseas possessions during the 1890s. In the mid-1890s, Cubans revolted against their Spanish rulers. Many Americans demanded that the United States aid the rebels. On Feb. 15, 1898, the United States battleship Maine blew up off the coast of Havana, Cuba. No one was certain what caused the explosion, but many Americans blamed the Spaniards. Demands for action against Spain grew, and "Remember the Maine" became a nationwide war cry. On April 25, 1898, at the request of President William McKinley, Congress declared war on Spain. The United States quickly defeated Spain, and the Treaty of Paris of Dec. 10, 1898, officially ended the war. Under the treaty, the United States received Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines from Spain. Also in 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.• Spanish-American War marked the emergence of the United States as a world power. This brief conflict between the United States and Spain took place between April and August 1898, over the issue of the liberation of Cuba. In the course of the war, the United States won Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands.• http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_music.html
The Spanish-American War• “A Splendid Little War”• “Remember the Maine!” (and to hell with Spain!)
Remember the Maine!• Arriving 25 January, Maine anchored in the center of the port, remained on vigilant watch, allowed no liberty, and took extra precautions against sabotage. Shortly after 2140, 15 February, the battleship was torn apart by a tremendous explosion that shattered the entire forward part of the ship. Out of 350 officers and men on board that night (4 officers were ashore), 252 were dead or missing. Eight more were to die in Havana hospitals during the next few days. The survivors of the disaster were taken on board Ward Line steamer City of Washington and Spanish cruiser Alfonso XII. The Spanish officials at Havana showed every attention to the survivors of the disaster and great respect for those killed. The Court of Inquiry convened in March was unable to obtain evidence associating the destruction of the battleship with any person or persons. The destruction of Maine did not cause the U.S. to declare war on Spain, but it served as a catalyst, accelerating the approach to a diplomatic impasse. In addition, the sinking and deaths of U.S. sailors rallied American opinion more strongly behind armed intervention. The United States declared war on Spain 21 April.
Prelude February 15 to 1898 WarYellow Journalism—”You provide the pictures, I’ll supply the war.”
Lieutenant Catlin later testified that he heardthe sound like the "crack of a pistol and (then)the second (was) a roar that engulfed theships entire forward section."Indeed the entire forward section of the Mainehad broken almost entirely in half.
• America went to war against Spain to free Cuba from Spanish domination. But the war provided the United States an opportunity to seize overseas possessions and begin Facts / Statistics building an American empire. After ousting Spain from Cuba, the United States seized Puerto Rico. And subsequently it Dates: 1898-1901 annexed the Philippines, Samoa, Guam, and Wake Island, Troops: 306,760 followed by Hawaii.• . Deaths: 2,446 A New Navy, A New War After the Civil War, the United States neglected its navy, which ranked twelfth in the world by 1880. Although the United States had no overseas colonies to protect, business and government leaders realized that a strong navy was essential to defend trade and growing international interests. Beginning in 1881, Congress supported a modernization program that would make the American navy effective. The new ships would have steel hulls, steam engines, and large, rifled guns. At first, the ships still used sails as a backup to steam power. But by the 1890s, the U.S. Navy had converted to all-steel and -steam, and ranked among the top five navies in the world. Naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan stated, “Americans must now begin to look outward. The growing production of the country demands it . . . .” This Means War! On February 15, 1898, a mysterious explosion sank the battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor, triggering a war between the United States and Spain. The Maine had come to Cuba to protect American citizens while Cuban revolutionaries were fighting to win independence from Spain. The United States supported their cause, and after the Maine exploded, demanded that Spain give Cuba freedom. Instead, Spain declared war, and America quickly followed suit, moving Commodore George Dewey into position in the Philippines and Commodore Winfield Scott Schley into Santiago Bay. War fever was fanned by the press, particularly publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Although the United States claimed it had no designs on Cuba, many believed the war would be an opportunity to seize other overseas possessions and begin building an American empire. Newspapers printed maps to help Americans follow the war.
Admiral George Dewey• In 1900 much of America was caught up in what might be termed Dewey Delirium. For the first time since the Civil War, Americans had set their sights upon a war hero whose allegiance was to the entire nation, not just the North or South. George Dewey, a commodore at the time, slipped into Manila Bay in the Philippines on the night of April 30, 1898 and quietly plotted to destroy the once-formidable Spanish Pacific fleet. Just 4 days earlier, the US had declared war on Spain in response to events in Cuba. Caught unawares, the Spanish fleet in Manila was destroyed a mere two hours after Dewey issued his famous order, "You may fire when ready, Gridley." Millions were on hand in New York harbor to greet Dewey upon his triumphant return to the States. Congress bestowed upon him the special rank of admiral of the navy. Other honors followed, including the naming of a chewing gum, Deweys Chewies, after him. He also enjoyed the dubious distinction of providing the inspiration for a laxative: The Salt of Salts. Such adulation prompted Dewey to consider politics. Though he lacked any party affiliation and had never himself voted, in March 1900 Dewey let it be known that he was making himself available to the American people as a presidential candidate. "If the American people want me for this high office, I shall be only too willing to serve them," he declared. He went on to point out that "since studying this subject I am convinced that the office of the President is not such a very difficult one to fill..." The Admirals lack of command of the issues of the day caused few to take him seriously. One reporter wrote, "A great sailor should have a better chart in a strange sea." Failing to secure any serious backing for his presidential bid, Dewey served out his days as the head of the General Board of the Navy Department.
Treaty of Paris 1899• After heated debate, United States Congress approved the Treaty of Paris on February 6, 1899, by a two-thirds margin (57 to 27). The following day, President McKinley signed the treaty, and the United States officially controlled Spains former colonies—Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. With the Treaty of Paris, the United States emerged as an imperial power.• Under the treatys terms, the U.S. gained possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and for $20 million, the Philippines. As for Cuba, the U.S. could neither keep it without reneging on the Teller Amendment, nor release the island without abandoning it to the revolutionary aims of the Cuban insurgency.
The Great White Fleet • The battleships assigned to the Great White Fleet represented the bulk of the US battle fleet. The only battleships that did not sail with the Fleet were one ship that was in overhaul, one newly competed ship not yet ready for deployment (both of these ships later joined the Fleet), and four obsolete, unseaworthy coast defense battleships. The 16 battleships of the Great White Fleet were organized into four Divisions of four ships each.
This is how we become both Momma and Cop to the World
Alice Roosevelt Longworth February 12, 1884 - February 20, 1980 Widely known as the "other Washington Monument" and "Princess Alice", this rambunctious, independent, and irreverent American social icon once described her father as an individual who wanted to be "the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral". In return, President Roosevelt once described his first childs irreverence by remarking that he could control the affairs of state, or control Alice, but could not possibly do both.Shelivedto be96.
In 1854,Commodore Perry establishes Open Door policy with the Far East. In 1900, with the backing of the Great White Fleet, TR convinces them to agree to trade deals with relative ease.• TR sends Taft and Alice on a trade/visit to Japan. The secret deal was that we would look the other way if Japan expanded its sphere of influence in the East. Bottom line, we sold out Korea.• The Japanese virtually rape the country, north and south.
Territorial Gains• During late 1800’s and early 1900’s ,U.S. made many territorial gains.• 1867- purchased Alaska from Russia• 1898- annexed Hawaii• Gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico in victory in Spanish-American War.• 1917- US purchased Virgin Islands from Denmark
• Roosevelt developed plan to obtain the isthmus. A man, a plan,• American agents encouraged the people of Panama to rebel against a canal, Columbia.• The U.S. Navy helped the rebels. Panama!• The new Republic of Panama signed the land over to the United States.
U.S. wanted quick access across the Isthmus of Panama for trade and Isthmus of Panama military reasons.Isthmus of Panama connects Central and South America A man, a plan, a canal, PanamaSeparates Atlantic and Pacific OceansColumbia had rights to the isthmus.Pres. Theodore Roosevelt tried to sign treaty with them to gain the land, but Columbia refused.And so….
TR cartoon by Berryman “The news reaches Bogota”• The Panama Canal One of Roosevelts proudest accomplishments--and most controversial--was acquiring U.S. rights to building and operating a canal in Panama. This cartoon shows him throwing dirt on the Colombian capital. (Cartoon by W. A. Rogers)
Panama Canal• The Construction of the Panama Canal lasted 10 year between 1904- 1914.• Involved more than 40,000 workers.• Many died of malaria and yellow fever. A sanitation program contained the mosquitoes.• The canal was hailed as one of the greatest engineering feats .• It was an engineering marvel;• it was built on time,• and it came in under budget.
Walter Reed• Walter Reed, an American medical doctor had received his medical degree by the time he was 18 years old. He joined the Army and became a captain. For 16 years he had served in an outpost that was far away from other doctors. He wanted to be able to study and learn more about medicine, so he asked for a four month leave. He learned so well that they allowed him to study for seven months at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He continued to study and do experiments at the Army outpost. He and some other doctors studied typhoid fever * and discovered that it was carried by flies. Yellow fever * was a dreaded disease. 90,000 people in the United States had died of the disease. Many American soldiers in Cuba had died also. Reed noticed that people who cared for the patients with yellow fever didnt usually get the disease. So he concluded that people didnt catch it from each other. Reed began looking for answers. He remembered the research they had done on typhoid fever. He wondered if maybe mosquitoes might be spreading it. Some of the doctors and soldiers volunteered to take part in the experiment. The mosquitoes were put in test tubes. First they bit the arms of men who already had yellow fever. Then they were allowed to bite the arms of people who didnt have the disease. After many tests, they decided that the mosquito did carry the disease from one person to another. The next step was to get rid of the mosquitoes. They sprayed the areas of water where the mosquitoes were hatching, with chemicals. This stopped the spread of the disease. The Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington D.C. is named in honor of him.•
The Influence of the United States 4•In 1823, the United States issued the Monroe Doctrine, which stated thatthe American continents were no longer open to colonization by anyEuropean powers.•In 1904, the United States issued the Roosevelt•Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Under this•policy, the United States claimed•“international police power” in the•Western Hemisphere.• In the next decade, the United States frequently intervenedmilitarily in Latin American nations to protect American lives andinvestments.•In 1903, the United States backed the Panamanians•in a revolt against Colombia in order to gain land to•build the Panama Canal.•“A man, a plan, a canal, Panama”• To people in Latin America, the canal was an• example of “Yankee Imperialism.”
Benito Juárez isthe central figureof this detail fromMexican artistDiego Rivera’smural SundayAfternoon inAlameda Park.Sugar cane, aLatin American cash crop
Remember theAlamo! MexicanPresident AntonioLópez de SantaAnna (above) iswell-known for hisruthless decisionto give no quarterto the Texandefenders of theAlamo, a fort inSanAntonio, Texas, during the TexasRevolution.The illustration shows Texandefenders of the Alamo bravelyfighting against overwhelmingodds.In what light does this illustrationpresent the defenders of theAlamo?
Uncle Sam Takes OffThis cartoon representsthe entry of the UnitedStates into competitionwith European powersover new territory in theEastern Hemisphere inthe early 1900s.Uncle Sam representsthe United States.The horse wears asaddle that reads“Monroe Doctrine.”European powers watchin frustration.What do the wheels onUncle Sam’s bicyclerepresent?Why are the Europeanpowers shouting atUncle Sam?
Latin American Concerns• The canal gave the U.S. great access to Latin America.• The Roosevelt Corollary was added to the Monroe Doctrine.• This said U.S. would intervene to make Latin American countries honor foreign debts• Many Latin Americans looked at the United State’s interventions as steps to turn Latin American countries into colonies.
RevolutionMany Mexicans unhappy with dictator-like rule of General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna1835- Mexicans and Americans in Texas revolt1845- Texas becomes a state of the United StatesThis sparks Mexican War which United States winsU.S. gains much Mexican land through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
La Reforma and French Conflict• La Reforma was a Mexican period of change• Benito Juarez was elected president in 1855• He reduced power of the military, separated the church and state, and improved the lot of impoverished farmers• 1863-French troops came to collect money owed to France• 1864-Austrian Archduke Maximilian named emperor of Mexico• 1867-French troops withdrew under American pressure and Juarez returned to power• Juarez died mysteriously and Porfirio Diaz seized power• He limited individual rights, but the economy grew.
Mexican Revolution• 1910-1920: many Mexicans fought authorities, and many immigrated to U.S.• Armies were made up of farmers, workers, ranchers, and soldaderas (women soldiers)
Power Struggles• Revolution started in 1910 when Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz in 1910• Madero killed by one of his followers, Victoriano Huerta• Huerta overthrown by Mexican revolts• Three revolutionary leaders emerged:• Emiliano Zapata,• Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and• Venustiano Carranza
Where’s Pancho?• Villa was unhappy with the result, crosses the border of New Mexico, and kills 18 Americans.• Pres. Woodrow Wilson sent American troops to Mexico to capture Villa.• The troops were withdrawn because of the start of World War I in 1917
• Villa looked for the recognition of the United States, for his government, and as he did not obtain it, he visited the border population of Columbus, where he takes weapons. North American General Pershing entered Mexican territory, persecuting it, without never reaching it. Carranza was killed in a revolt in 1917-1920. • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 12,000 troops, under Gen. John J. Pershing into Mexico on March 15 to pursue Villa. In the U.S., this was known as the Pancho Villa Expedition During the search, the United States launched its first air combat mission when eight airplanes lifted off on March 19. • The expedition to capture Villa was called off as a failure on January 28, 1917.General • Historians debate • Modern historians debate whether Villa was involved with the GermansPancho and how much aid and information passed through them. Some contend that the Germans encouraged Villas actions against U.S. interests and incursions into Texas and New Mexico in order to create Villa instability on the southern border of a power they definitely did not want interfering in World War I. Other actions by the Germans such as the Zimmermann Telegram correspond with Germanys wish to destabilize the United States. The extent of Villas role as an abettor of German interests and receiver of German aid is still very much in question, but the idea would not seem to be in contradiction with his opportunistic tendencies. • Quotes "Dont let it end like this. Tell them I said something." (Last words.)
Protecting U.S. Interests• In the late 1800s and early 1900s the United States policy in Latin America was based on protecting U.S. interests and keeping European countries out of the area. The United States used military occupation and other tactics to ensure dominance in this region.• In 1916 and 1917, General “Black Jack” Pershing led an unsuccessful expedition with over 10,000 men into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa. In other incidents, the U.S. bombarded or occupied Latin American locations.
J. J. Pershing• “Black Jack” Pershing had spent years looking for Pancho Villa with his Buffalo soldiers, but he gets to be the leader of the AEF—American Expeditionary Forces—our army in Europe during WWI.• He is the Supreme Commander for all of our forces—highest honor and only Washington held this rank before him.
And the Winner is…..• Zapata used battle cry, “Tierra y Liberdad” meaning “Land and Liberty”• He fought for the impoverished farmers• Villa proposed radical reforms• Carranza was more conservative• 1915- with the help of American support,• Carranza became president
Carranza’s Rule• Carranza reluctantly introduced a liberal constitution• He was slow in carrying out reforms• Force was used to fight opposition• 1920- Carranza was killed in a revolt• Revolt brought Alvaro Obregon to power• Tensions cooled between Mexico and the United States until…
The Zimmerman Telegram • The German ambassador Zimmerman telegraphs the Mexican ambassador with a proposition. The British intercept it and decode it for US. • The Kaiser is offering Mexico choice parts of the US (CA, TX, NM) if they attack US and keep US off balance during The Great War. • This angers US so much that we will join the Allies against Germany.
Life on a HaciendaPeasant women process a crop grown on a hacienda in Mexico in the 1800s.