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Ch11 Imperialism Part 1
 

Ch11 Imperialism Part 1

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Imperialism Part I

Imperialism Part I

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    Ch11 Imperialism Part 1 Ch11 Imperialism Part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • ImperialismImperialism= One country’s domination of thepolitical, economic, and social life of another country Imperialism in the 1800’s resulted from 3 key factors:1. Nationalism prompted rival European nations to build empires in their competitive quests for power.2. The Industrial Revolution created a tremendous demand for raw materials and expanded markets, which prompted industrialized nations to seek new territories.3. Both religious fervor and feelings of racial and cultural superiority inspired Europeans to impose their cultures on distant lands.
    • Causes of Imperialism ECONOMIC INTERESTS POLITICAL & MILITARY INTERESTSManufacturers wanted access tonatural resources. Merchant ships and naval vesselsManufacturers hoped for new needed bases around the world.markets for factory goods. Western leaders were motivated byColonies offered a valuable outlet for nationalism.Europe’s growing population. HUMANITARIAN GOALS SOCIAL DARWINISM Many westerners felt concern for Many westerners viewed European their “little brothers” overseas. races as superior to all others. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial They saw imperial conquest as officials believed they had a duty to nature’s way of improving the spread western civilization. human species.
    • • Growing numbers of missionaries were delegated to the most remote corners of Africa and Asia by the Catholic and Protestants.• The main aspect of these missionaries was thought that Christianity and Western civilization could benefit and transform the world.• These missionaries were not military based, but did set out to change the people’s beliefs and practices, as by building schools and hospitals.
    • Missionaries at Work Missionaries conduct a baptism ceremony in the Lower Congo in 1907. In 1890, Chief Machemba of the Yao people in East Africa wrote in Swahili to a German officer: “If it be friendship that you desire, then I am ready for it . . . but to be your subject, that I cannot be. . . . I do not fall at your feet, for you are God’s creature just as I am.” —Chief Machemba, Letter to Herman von Wissman• Send in the missionaries, followed by merchants, and then, … oh yes, the military…
    • Indian princes andBritish army officersplay polo in 1880.
    • The Successes of Imperialism In just a few decades, imperialist nations gained control over much of the world. Western imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons:1. While European nations had grown stronger in the 1800s, several older civilizations were in decline.• 2. Europeans had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies.• 3. Europeans had superior technology and medical knowledge.
    • Forms of Imperialism• Colony: territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials.• Protectorate: Had its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power.• Sphere of Influence: was a region of a country in which the imperial power had exclusive investment or trading rights.
    • Forms of Imperial Rule SPHERES OF COLONIES PROTECTORATES INFLUENCEThe French In a protectorate, A sphere ofpracticed direct local rulers were left influence is an arearule, sending in place but were in which an outsideofficials to expected to follow the power claimedadminister their advice of European exclusivecolonies. advisers. investment or trading privileges.The British A protectorate costspracticed an less to run than a The United Statesindirect rule, using colony and usually did claimed Latinlocal rulers to not require a large America as itsgovern their military presence. sphere of influence.colonies.
    • Aden (Yemen) Kiribati and Tuvalu Nyasaland (Malawi)Afghanistan * United States of Gold Coast (Ghana) Omanprotectorate America Grenada Papua New Guinea1839-1919 British Cameroon Transjordan Palestine (Israel)Australia (Cameroon) Hong Kong QatarBahamas British Guyana India (India, Pakistan, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe andBahrain (Guyana) Bangladesh) Zambia)Barbados British Honduras Iraq Sarawak (East Malaysia)Basutoland (Belize) Ireland St Kitts (St. Kitts and Nevis)(Lesotho) British Somaliland Jamaica St LuciaBechuanaland (Somaliland) Kenya St Vincent(Botswana) British Solomon Kuwait Seychelles Islands Malaya (West Malaysia) Sierra Leone Brunei Maldive Islands Singapore Burma (Myanmar) Malta South Africa Canada Mauritius Sudan Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Miskito (Mosquito) Coast Swaziland / Ngwane Cook Islands (New (Nicaragua / Honduras) Tanganyika (Tanzania)Western Samoa Zealand) Newfoundland (Canada) Tonga(Samoa) Cyprus New Hebrides(Vanuatu) Transjordan (Jordan)Zanzibar Egypt * protectorate New Zealand Trinidad and Tobago(Tanzania) 1882-1922 Nigeria Trucial Oman (United Arab Fiji North Borneo (Sabah, Emirates) Gambia Malaysia) Uganda
    • AnguillaBritish Antarctic Territory BritishBermudaBritish Indian Ocean Territory OverseasBritish Virgin IslandsCayman Islands TerritoriesFalkland IslandsGibraltarMontserratSt. Helena and Dependencies(Ascension Island andTristan da Cunha)Turks and Caicos IslandsPitcairn IslandsSouth Georgia and South SandwichIslandsthe Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus(Akrotiri and Dhekelia)
    • Born in India, English writerRudyard Kipling witnessed Britishimperialism firsthand. His 1899poem “The White Man’s Burden”summarizes his view of the dutiesof imperial nations:“Take up the White Man’sburden—In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plain,To seek another’s profit,And work another’s gain.”
    • As Europeans took over foreign lands, they viewed the culture of the native population to be inferior to their own. This concept became know as “The White Man’s Burden” after a popular poem by the same name was published by Rudyard Kipling in 1899. Some interpreted this poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.This is sometimes referred to as Social Darwinism, or the belief that all humangroups compete for survival, and that the stronger groups will replace the weakergroups. Others saw it as a warning to western nations to stop the harmful practiceof imperialism.
    • by Rudyard Kipling “The White Take up the White Man’s burden—Man’s Burden” Send forth the best ye breed— Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. Take up the White Mans burden— In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek anothers profit And work anothers gain.
    • One of severaljournalists inSouth Africa,British writerRudyard Kipling(bottom right)consideredimperialism to bebeneficial toAfricans.
    • The New Imperialism•Imperialism is the domination by one country of thepolitical, economic, or cultural life of another country orregion.•Between 1500 and 1800, European states won empiresaround the world. However, Europe had little influence onthe lives of the people of these conquered lands.•By the 1800s, Europe had gained considerable power.Encouraged by their new economic and military strength,Europeans embarked on a path of aggressive expansionthat today’s historians call the “New Imperialism.”
    • A Market for Goods A driving force behind imperialism was the desire for access to newmarkets in which to sell goods. This British propaganda poster boasts that Africa wouldbecome a gold mine for British-made products. Britain’s sense of national pride andaggressive foreign policy during this period came to be known as jingoism.What does this poster show about the British attitude toward Africa? Missionary prayer book in Korean
    • Cecil Rhodes and the Boer War Cecil Rhodes was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world’s diamond production. After becoming prime minister of the Cape Colony (now South Africa) in 1890, he used his influence to strengthen British control over the region. His master plan was to establish a Cape to Cairo railroad line that would link British colonial interests in Africa between Egypt and the Cape Colony in southern Africa. The Boers, however, provided heavy and eventually armed resistance to this proposal. After authorizing an aggressive invasion of the Boer Republic of Transvaal which ended poorly, Rhodes was removed from office. However, theTribalism seeds of the Boer War had been sown.Because European nation carved Africaup with no regard for traditional tribal Great Britain decided to annex the Boer republics, andboundaries, Africa still suffers with Boer resistance came the Boer War (1899-1902). Byfrom tribalism. Modern African all accounts the fighting was vicious, with the Boersnations often contain several different employing guerilla tactics and the British eventually usingtribes that harbor ill feelings towards 450,000 troops to achieve victory.one another. Therefore, inter-tribalconflict is a common in Africa often In 1910, the various British colonies in southern Africaleading to civil wars and power were united as the Union of South Africa, eventuallystruggles within national governments. becoming the nation of South Africa after WWII.
    • Zulu King CetshwayoA nephew of Shaka, Cetshwayo was the last of the great Zulu kings. He ruled adisciplined army of about 40,000 men until the British defeated him in 1879. Why was Cetshwayo considered a threat to British colonial interests?
    • Locate(a) Algeria(b) Belgian Congo(c) EthiopiaRegionIn which part ofAfrica were most ofFrance’s colonieslocated?Make ComparisonsHow didimperialism inAfrica in 1850compare with thatin 1914?
    • Ethiopia SurvivesOne ancient Christian kingdom in East Africa, Ethiopia,managed to resist European colonization and maintain itsindependence. Like feudal Europe, Ethiopia had been dividedup among a number of rival princes who ruled their owndomains. In the late 1800s, however, a reformingruler, Menelik II, began to modernize his country. He hiredEuropean experts to plan modern roads and bridges and setup a Western school system. He imported the latest weaponsand European officers to help train his army. Thus, when Italyinvaded Ethiopia in 1896, Menelik was prepared. At thebattle of Adowa , the Ethiopians smashed the Italianinvaders. Ethiopia was the only African nation, aside fromLiberia, to preserve its independence.
    • The Negus of Ethiopia, Menelik II (1844-1913),
    • Menelik II• Ethiopia is Abyssinia to Europe.• Menelik II is direct ancestor of King Solomon and Queen of Sheba (and Emperor Haile Salassie later).• He can see what is coming and so invests in modernization, including weaponry and warning his neighbors to be prepared.
    • Menelik IIBefore becoming emperor of Ethiopia,Menelik II (1844–1913) ruled the Shoaregion in central Ethiopia. He ensuredthat he would succeed John IV asemperor by marrying his daughter toJohn’s son. After John died in 1889,Menelik took the throne.How did Menelik preserve Ethiopian independence? Menelik used profits from ivory sales to buy modern weapons. He then hired European advisors to teach his soldiers how to use the new guns. Menelik’s army conquered neighboring lands and won a stunning victory over the Italians at Adowa. European nations rushed to establish diplomatic ties with Ethiopia. Around the world, people of African descent hailed Menelik’s victory over European imperialism.
    • An Asante King A king of the Asante people in Ghana (center) sits surrounded by his people.What do the clothes of the man to the left of the king suggest about his social rank?
    • “Why did you not stand up to “Did you give that word?”Rhodes and prevent him from taking “No.”your country by strength? Why did “Were the soldiers keen to fight?”you not fight?” “Yes, they were dying to fight.”“I thought that if I appealed to the “Why did you not let them fight?”white men’s sense of justice and fair “I wanted to avoid bloodshed and war. . . .” “And you allowed them to flout your word asplay, reminding them how good I king of the Amandebele? You let them havehad been to them since I had never their way. . . . Is that right?. . . .Why did you notkilled or ill-treated a white . . . seek their protection and declare yourman, they might hear my word and country a British protectorate?”return to their homes. . . .” “. . . I knew that if I fought the white men I would be beaten. If I sought the white man’s“I . . . told them that I had friendship and protection, there would benot given them the road to opposition to me or civil war. So I decided toMashonaland.” pretend to the white men that if they came into“Yes, and they replied and the country I would fight, and hoped that theytold you that they had been would be afraid and not come. . . . [They calledgiven the road by their my bluff and came . . .”Queen and would only “Was there no other way out of yourreturn on the orders of dilemma?”their Queen. “I did consider marrying the Queen, but evenWhat did you do then?” though I hinted at this several times no one“I mobilized the army and followed it up.”told them to wait for my “I see!”word.” King Lobengula of the South We are not amused! African Matabele nation
    • Africa in the Early 1800s 2To understand the impact of European domination, we must look at Africa in the early1800s, before the scramble for colonies began. NORTH AFRICA WEST AFRICA On the grasslands, Islamic leaders preached Since long before 1800, the region had jihad, a holy struggle, to revive and purify close ties to the Muslim world. Islam. In the early 1800s, much of the region In the forest regions, the Asante controlled remained under the rule of the smaller states. These smaller tributary states declining Ottoman empire. were ready to turn to Europeans to help them defeat their Asante rulers. SOUTH AFRICA EAST AFRICA Zulu aggression caused mass Islam had long influenced the coast, migrations and wars and created where a profitable slave trade was chaos across much of the region. carried on. Slave trade will continue and Imperialism will separate men from their families--***
    • European Contacts Increased 2From the 1500s through the 1700s, difficult geography and disease preventedEuropean traders from reaching the interior of Africa. Medical advances and riversteamships changed all that in the 1800s. EXPLORERS MISSIONARIESExplorers were Catholic and Protestantfascinated by African missionaries sought to wingeography, but had little people to Christianity. Mostunderstanding of the took a paternalistic view ofpeople they met. Africans. They urged Africans to reject their own traditions in favor of western civilization.
    • Berlin ConferenceTo avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference in 1884. It took place not in Africa but in Berlin, Germany. No Africans were invited to the conference.At the Berlin Conference, European powers recognized Leopold’s private claims to the Congo Free State but called for free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers. They further agreed that a European power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had set up a government office there. This principle led Europeans to send officials who would exert their power over local rulers and peoples.The rush to colonize Africa was on. In the 20 years after the Berlin Conference, the European powers partitioned almost the entire continent. As Europeans carved out their claims, they established new borders and frontiers. They redrew the map of Africa with little regard for traditional patterns of settlement or ethnic boundaries. African soldiers in German uniforms
    • A Scramble for Colonies King Leopold II of Belgium sent explorers to the Congo River basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders.King Leopold’s activities in the Congo set off a scrambleamong other European nations. Before long, Britain, France,and Germany were pressing for rival claims to the region.At the Berlin Conference in 1884, European powers agreed on howthey could claim African territory without fighting amongstthemselves.European powers partitioned almost the entire African continent.
    • The Scramble for Africa • The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa was a process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between 1881 and World War I in 1914. • As a result of the heightened tension between European states in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa may be seen as a way for the Europeans to eliminate the threat of a Europe-wide war over Africa.The Rhodes Colossus, a caricature of Cecil Rhodes after announcingplans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo.For Punch by Edward Linley Sambourne.
    • • The last 59 years of the nineteenth century saw transition from ‘informal imperialism’ of control through military influence and economic dominance to that of direct rule. Attempts to mediate imperial competition, such as the Berlin Conference (1884–1885), failed to establish definitively the competing powers claims.• Many African polities, states and rulers (such as the Ashanti, the Abyssinians, the Moroccans and the Dervishes) sought to resist this wave of European aggression. However, the industrial revolution had provided the European armies with advanced weapons such as machine guns, which African armies found difficult to resist. Also, unlike their European counterparts, African rulers, states and people did not at first form a continental united front although within a few years, a Pan-African movement did emerge.
    • Western AdvantagesEuropean powers had the advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies. Superiortechnology, including riverboats and the telegraph, as well as improvedmedical knowledge also played a role. Quinine and other newmedicines helped Europeans survive deadly tropical diseases. And, ofcourse, advances such as Maxim machine guns, repeating rifles, andsteam-driven warships were very strong arguments in persuadingAfricans and Asians to accept Western control.The Maxim GunSir Hiram Maxim with hisinvention, the Maximmachine gun.Why were European armiesoften able to defeat Africanor Asian forces?
    • 2Imperialism in Africa to 1914
    • African Resistance• Europeans met armed resistance across the continent.• Algerians battled the French for years.• The Zulus in southern Africa and the Asante in West Africa battled the British.• East Africans fought wars against the Germans.• In Ethiopia, King Menelik II modernized his country. When Italy invaded, Ethiopia was prepared. Ethiopia was the only nation, aside from Liberia, to preserve its independence.
    • European missionaries urged Africans toa) reject their own traditions.b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim world.c) seek independence.d) attend the Berlin Conference.Which of the following African nations was able to preserve itsindependence?a) Congob) Algeriac) Egyptd) Ethiopia
    • European missionaries urged Africans toa) reject their own traditions.b) strengthen their ties with the Muslim world.c) seek independence.d) attend the Berlin Conference.Which of the following African nations was able to preserve itsindependence?a) Congob) Algeriac) Egyptd) Ethiopia
    • David Livingstone David Livingstone is a famous Scottish explorer, who first went to Africa in 1840.He was a doctor and missionary. While he explored central and east Africa he set upmissions and sent back reports of his findings. He was the first recorded Europeanto see the Victoria Falls, to which he gave the English name in honor of hismonarch, Queen Victoria. Believing he had a spiritual calling for exploration ratherthan mission work, and encouraged by the response in Britain to his discoveries andsupport for future expeditions, in 1857 he resigned from the London MissionarySociety after they demanded that he do more evangelizing and less exploring. Thequalities and approaches which gave Livingstone an advantage as an explorer werethat he usually traveled lightly, and he had an ability to reassure chiefs that he wasnot a threat. He lost touch in 1860 and Henry M. Stanley was sent to find him. “Dr. Livingstone, i presume?”
    • Henry M. StanleyHenry Morton Stanley was the British journalist andexplorer, hired to find Livingstone. He is best remembered for hisquote when he met Livingstone, "Dr. Livingstone, Ipresume?", although there is some question as to authenticity ofthis now famous greeting. Stanley also explored on his own. Hewas tricked by the Belgian King into getting Congo for him, buthe remained on the king’s payroll even after he found out.Publicity around the explorations of Africa caused a madEuropean scramble for Africa between 1880-1914, and by 191490 percent of Africa was under European control.
    • Shortly afterward, King Leopold II of Belgiumhired Stanley to explore the Congo River basinand arrange trade treaties with Africanleaders. Publicly, Leopold spoke of a civilizingmission to carry the light “that for millions ofmen still plunged in barbarism will be thedawn of a better era.” Privately, he dreamed ofconquest and profit. Leopold’s activities in theCongo set off a scramble by other nations.Before long, Britain, France, and Germanywere pressing rival claims to the region.
    • North AfricaNorth Africa is the northern most of the African continent, linkedby the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the UNdefinition of Northern Africa includes the following sevencountries or territories;Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Mauritania, andWestern Sahara. Most people in North Africa live on a fertile andmild strip of land north of the Sahara along the Mediterraneancoast.
    • The French In North Africa In 1830 King Charles X of France ordered an invasion of Algiers, in order to colonize it. This was the true beginning of hesecond French colonial empire. After about ten years the 100,000French soldiers beat the Algerians and their leader Abd al -Qadir. They established a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (BardoTreaty). In 1904 France secured special trading rights in Morocco. During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate.
    • Britain and Egypt  In the 1880s Ottoman Egypt was almost independent under Governor (Pasha)Muhammad Ali. Egypt was a power in the eastern Mediterranean under Ali. Ali reformed tax and land systems, encouraged industry and supported irrigation projects, but unfortunately the rulers after him increased debt and European influence. Ferdinand de Lesseps was a French entrepreneur who set up a company to build the Suez Canal (it would become a vital short cut). In 1875 GB gains control of canal and,In 1882 Egypt becomes a British protectorate after British forces put down a nationalist revolt.
    • The Sudan Sir Herbert Kitchener • In the Sudan there was a Muslim revival that stirred nationalist feelings. The Sudanese had challenged British exploration since the 1880s. At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi. Around 10,000 Ansar were killed,13,000 were wounded, and 5,000 were taken prisoner. Kitcheners force lost 48 men with 382 wounded. Soon after the British confronted the French at Fashoda, bringing the two countries to the brink of war. War was avoided when the French withdrew from Sudan and Britain recognized French control of Morocco.
    • Italy Seizes Libya  Libya was known as Tripoli in the 1800s and had almost no economic value but Italy, the closest European nation, wanted it because, they were starting late in the race to build an African empire. In 1911, after the other European nations promised neutrality, Italy declared war on the ruling Ottoman Empire and easily won. Libya was the last North African country to be conquered by Europeans.
    • West, Central and East Africa During the 1800s there many territories with varied landscapes, histories and traditions.Europeans swallowed up the lands in the late 1800s. West Africa -In the1500s and 1600s there was European slave trade on the coast.Salt, gold and ironware were also traded. When European countries stopped trading slavesin the 1800s west African countries traded natural products for manufactured goods.European countries push inland in 1870s to expand coastal holdings and control trade.Steam ships allowed for easier travel over difficult terrain and quinine provided protectionfrom malaria. By 1900 European powers had acquired vast new territories. Leaders in the1890s, such as Samori Toure and Behanzin, fought against the expansion but were defeatedby well armed European forces.The only independent state in West Africa by 1900 was Liberia, founded as acolony by the American Colonization Society in 1821-22. It was created as aplace for slaves freed in the United States to emigrate to in Africa, on thepremise they would have greater freedom and equality there.Slaves freed from slave ships also were sent there instead of being repatriated to theircountries of origin. These freed slaves formed an elite group in Liberian society, and, in1847, they founded the Republic of Liberia, establishing a government modeled on that ofthe United States.Liberias ties to the US made it off limits for expansion.
    • Central and East Liberia Africa Congo EthiopiaBelgiums King Leopold II claimed the Congo river region as his own as aresult of Henry Stanleys explorations. He enslaved the people, forced them tocut down the forests and kill the elephants. doing that stripped the area of manypeople and resources. In 1903 in exchange for a large loan Leopard gave theCongo Basin to the Belgian government and it became the Belgian Congo. TheBritish, Italians and Germans were claiming East Africa at this time. The onlyindependent country was Ethiopia. Liberia was repopulated with freedAmerican slaves.In the 1880s Italy attempts to conquer Ethiopia and its Emperor MenelikII, but underestimate their determination, and lose devastatingly at the Battle ofAdowa. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on 26 October1896. The Italian defeat scares away the other European counties and protectsEthiopia.
    • Southern Africa  The Dutch arrived in Southern Africa in 1652 andestablished a port called Cape Town and for the next 150 years the Afrikaners, what the settlers were called, conquered land around port, the lands became known as Cape Colony. The British seizeCape Colony, in the early 1880s, because of its strategic value. The Afrikaaners believed that God had ordained slavery and that they were superior, and they resented the British laws that forbadeslavery. In the 1830s 100,000 Afrikaaners that the British calledBoers left Cape Colony. They migrated north east on The GreatTrek, and established the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
    • ConflictsThe Afrikaners fought constantly with their neighbors. They fight with the Zulu fora large empire conquered by the Zulu in the early 1800s. The Boers couldnt win avictory, in 1879 the British become involved, the British win against theZulu, especially their great king Shaka. The Boers also fought with the British, when, in the 1880s, British settlers movedto Transvaal and searched for gold and diamonds. the Boers were pushed to give theBritish civil rights. Growing hostility erupted into the Anglo-Boer War, also knownas the Second Boer War, it was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May1902, between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of theSouth African Republic. The British win.On 31 May 1910 the British unite the previously separate colonies of CapeColony, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State, into the Union of SouthAfrica. Its constitution made it almost impossible for non-whites to win the right tovote.
    • Racial EqualityRacial equality becomes a major issue. Many non-white South Africangroups tried to advance their civil rights. Mohandas K. Gandhi a lawyerfrom India, was one man. He worked for equality for Indians, and he urgedthem to disobey laws that discriminated against them. His efforts worked.Following Gandhi’s pattern, the black majority in Africa went into actionagainst racial injustices. They founded the organization of the SouthAfrican Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 inBloemfontein to increase the rights of the black South African population.In 1923, its name was shortened to the African National Congress. Gandhis principles of nonviolent protest were called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as "truth-force."[
    • Effects of Imperialism1. The effects mainly centered on economic and social life.2. Imperialists profit from building mines, factories and ports and plantations.3. Africans were hired at low wages and taxed.4. Men were housed in dormitories away from their families and disciplined brutally. Prostitution and HIV/STDs spread.5. European schools taught that European ways are best.6. Sometimes African traditions declined, but most held on to their cultures and accepted some European ways, including Christianity.7. By the early 1900s there were groups that condemned imperialism as contrary to western ideas of liberty and equality.8. They founded nationalist groups to push for self-rule and Africas peoples were politically independent from Europe by end of 20th century.
    • Railroads and TradeBy building thousands of miles of railroads, theBritish opened up India’s vast interior to trade. TheBritish also encouraged Indians to grow tea and jute.Today, tea is one of India’s biggest crops.What were some of the benefits of British rule?
    • By 1797, Napoleon Bonaparte felt thatEurope offered too few chances forglory. Setting his sights toward Africa in1798, he invaded Egypt, a province ofthe Ottoman empire.“Europe is a molehill. . . . We must go tothe East. . . . All great glory has beenacquired there.”Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign highlighted Ottoman decline and opened a newera of European contact with Muslim regions of the world. European countrieswere just nibbling at the edges of Muslim countries. Before long, they wouldstrike at their heartland.
    • The Ottoman EmpireBy the early 1800s, the Ottoman empire faced serious challenges.• Ambitious pashas, or provincial rulers, had increased their power.• As ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe, internal revolts weakened the multiethnic Ottoman empire.• European states sought to benefit from the weakening of the Ottoman empire by claiming lands under Ottoman control.• Attempts at westernization by several Ottoman rulers increased tensions. Many officials objected to changes that were inspired by foreign cultures.• A reform group called the Young Turks overthrew the sultan.• Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian people in the eastern mountains of the empire.
    • General Ismail Pasha (center) fought for the British army in the Crimean War.In the 1890s, a group of liberals formed a movement called theYoung Turks. They insisted that reform was the only way to save theempire. In 1908, the Young Turks overthrew the sultan. Before theycould achieve their planned reforms, however, the Ottoman empirewas plunged into the world war that erupted in 1914.
    • Armenian GenocideTraditionally, the Ottomans had let minority nationalities live intheir own communities and practice their own religions. By the1890s, however, nationalism was igniting newtensions, especially between Turkish nationalists and minoritypeoples who sought their own states. These tensions triggered abrutal genocide of the Armenians, a Christian peopleconcentrated in the eastern mountains of the empire.Genocide is a deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, orcultural group.The Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supportingRussian plans against the Ottoman empire. When Armeniansprotested repressive Ottoman policies, the sultan had tens ofthousands of them slaughtered. Over the next 25 years, between600,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were killed or died fromdisease and starvation.
    • 3 The Modernization of EgyptCalled the “father of modern Egypt,” Muhammad Ali introduced politicaland economic reforms. Before he died in 1849, he had set Egypt on theroad to becoming a major Middle Eastern power. During his reign, Muhammad Ali: • improved tax collection • reorganized the landholding system • backed large irrigation projects to increase farm output • expanded cotton production and encouraged local industry, thereby increasing Egyptian participation in world trade • brought in western military experts to modernize the army • conquered Arabia, Syria, and Sudan
    • As the followingexamplesdemonstrate,advances intransportationtechnology alwayshave the potential ofchanging society.
    • Iran and the European PowersThe importance of Iran was its location! Oil was later.Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into CentralAsia.Britain was concerned about protecting its interests in India.For a time, Russia and Britain each set up their own spheres of influence,Russia in the north and Britain in the south.The discovery of oil in the region in the early 1900s heightened foreigninterest in the region.Russia and Britain persuaded the Iranian government to grant themconcessions, or special economic rights given to foreign powers.Iran =Persia Iraq is where we were fightingIran are shiia; Iraq are mostly sunnis;Hardliner, strict sharia-followers are the Taliban
    • Oil flows out of one of the first Like the Ottoman empire, Persia faced majoroil wells to be drilled in challenges in the 1800s. The Qajar shahs, who ruledPersia, around 1910. Persia from 1794 to 1925, exercised absolute power. Still, they did take steps to introduce reforms. The government helped build telegraph lines and railroads and experimented with a liberal constitution. Reform, however, did not save Persia from Western imperialism. Russia wanted to protect its southern frontier and expand into Central Asia. Britain wanted to protect its interests in India. For a time, each nation set up its own sphere of influence in Persia. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s heightened foreign interest in the region. Both Russia and Britain plotted for control of Persian oil fields. They persuaded the Persian government to grant them concessions, or special rights given to foreign powers. To protect their interests, they sent troops into Persia. Persian nationalists were outraged. The nationalists included two very different groups. Some Persians wanted to move swiftly to adopt Western ways. Others, led by Muslim religious leaders, condemned the Persian government and Western influences.
    • The Suez Canal linked a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. c) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.Which nations set up spheres of influence in Iran? a) Britain and France b) France and the United States c) Britain and Russia d) Russia and Germany
    • The Suez Canal linked a) the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. b) the Red Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. c) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. d) the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.Which nations set up spheres of influence in Iran? a) Britain and France b) France and the United States c) Britain and Russia d) Russia and Germany
    • For more than 200 years, Mughal rulers governed a powerful empire in India. By the mid-1700s, however, the Mughal empire was collapsing from a lack of strong rulers. Britain then turned its commercial interests in the region into political ones. British East India Company’sQueen Victoria writes letters as her Indian coat of armsservant waits for his orders.
    • British East India CompanyDuring the 1700s, a joint-stock company called the British East India Company was chartered byQueen Elizabeth I of England. The company’s main objective was to make a profit for shareholdersby exploiting the abundant natural resources and gaining access to the markets in India. To dothis, the British East India Company successfully used “divide and conquer” tactics to increasetheir control over entire regions of the Indian subcontinent. This strategy entailed fanning theflames of religious division between native Muslim and Hindu groups, and taking advantage of thepolitical rivalries that existed between local native rulers.By the 1830s, the British government had taken over control of the East India Company. UnderBritish rule, native customs such as sati, the ritual suicide of a wife after her husband’s death, werebanned. The British built schools and railroads, and missionaries spread Christianity.Sepoy Mutiny IndiaBy 1857 the British army in India included a large number of Indian soldiers, or Sepoys. The riflecartridges that were distributed to the Sepoys had to be bitten to remove a cover before beinginserted into a gun. Rumors circulated among the Sepoys that this cover had been greased withbeef and pork fat. This angered Muslim Sepoys who were not supposed to consume pork, and theHindu Sepoys who were not supposed to eat beef. Thus, the Sepoys revolted against the Britisharmy, which eventually ended the conflict through use of force. This resulted in the Britishgovernment officially taking control of India, making it a colony.Some view this as the first act of Indian independence, which would not be achieved untilafter WWII with the formation of the countries of India and Pakistan.
    • Natural Resources Beginning in the 1800s, imperialism was also practiced in the Middle East. The prime attraction for most European nations was the presence of vast oil fields. The machinery produced as a result of the Industrial Revolution required oil to keep numerous moving parts lubricated. As the internal combustion engine became more popular around 1900, oil was also needed as a fuel. Strategic Location Strategy also played a major role in the European conquest of the Middle East through imperialism. Two areas that Europe paid particular attention to were the Suez Canal and Palestine.Suez CanalThe French originally set out to build the Suez Canal in 1859. However, Britain soonbecame jealous because of the potential impact the shortcut between theMediterranean and Red Seas could have on trade with its Indian colony. In 1875, theBritish wrested financial control of the Suez Canal away from the French, and eventuallymade all of Egypt a protectorate in 1882.
    • PalestineAfter WWI, the newly formed League ofNations gave Great Britain a mandate over Palestine.Palestines location on the eastern shore of theMediterranean Sea seemed like a great prize to theBritish, but problems soon erupted. It became clearthat both Arabs and Jews claimed the region as ahomeland.Ambiguous British foreign policy heightened tensionsbetween the two groups as each was given aconflicting promise . For their support in WWI, Britainpromised Arabs independence. Later however, inthe Balfour Declaration, Britain promised to establisha national homeland for the Jews. Middle East After WWII, Palestine would be renamed Israel and given to Jews as a homeland to provide shelter from atrocities such as the Nazi Holocaust in Europe. Inevitably, fighting broke out between the two groups which still remains to be resolved today.
    • Islands The Dutch and the Spanish controlled much of Southeast Asia during the early 1800s. The Dutch East Indies was renowned for its rich soil which allowed the harvesting of crops such as: coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar, indigo, and tea. Mines were formed to exploit the rich deposits of tin and copper. Forests yielded valuable timber including teak, ebony, and other hardwoods. The Dutch became notorious for the use of forced slave labor, known as the culture system, to gather these raw materials, while purposely discouraging westernization, or the spreading of European culture.The Spanish used similar methods to reap the rewards from their tobacco and sugar plantations located in the Philippine Islands. However in 1898, the Philippines were given to the United States as part of the settlement for their loss of the Spanish-American War. Mainland The British took control of Burma from their colonial stronghold in India in the early 1800s. Meanwhile, the French imperialized modern-day Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam forming French Indochina in the 1880s. Siam became the embattled buffer zone between these two European powers, but was eventually guaranteed its independence by a treaty negotiated between France and Great Britain. After the Meiji Restoration led to massive industrialization in Japan, the nation found itself in great need of natural resources. Industrialization makes a nation dependent upon iron, coal, and oil, none of which were found in great quantity on the Japanese archipelago. This need led them to invade mainland Korea in order to exploit the natural resources thereOutcomeJapan took over much of the coast of China and the rest of Southeast Asia, eventually forming the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere whichprovided even more natural resources to feed its vast military-industrial complex. East Asian raw materials such as oil from the Dutch East Indiesand rubber from French Indochina kept Japan’s manufacturing industry and military in China well supplied. The Japanese war machine waseventually aimed at the United States in WWII with their attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.The French left French Indochina in the 1950s after years of warfare with nationalist groups. Communism seemed destined to spread into theregion from China. The U.S. foreign policy of containment of communism would lead to their involvement in the area in the unpopular VietnamConflict. Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos all eventually became communist in the 1970s. In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge orchestrated mass killing ofintellectuals and so-called reactionaries which became known as the Killing Fields.
    • Opium WarsIn the early 1800s, the British treasury was being depleted due toits dependence upon imported tea from China. The Chinese stillconsidered their nation to be the Middle Kingdom, and thereforeviewed the goods the Europeans brought to trade with as nearlyworthless trinkets. To solve this trade imbalance Britain importedopium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony ofIndia, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban theimportation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed.The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts calledthe Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed themto claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequaltreaties.Unequal TreatiesAccording to the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing, the Chinese were to:1.Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the Chinese2.Open several ports to British trade3.Provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong4.Grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in ChinaSpheres of InfluenceEventually several European nations followed suit, forcing China tosign a series of unequal treaties.Extraterritoriality guaranteed thatEuropean citizens in China were only subject to the laws of theirown nation and could only be tried by their own courts. Eventuallywestern nations weary of governing foreignlands, established spheres of influence within China whichguaranteed specific trading privileges to each nation within itsrespective sphere.
    • 4 The British Take Over India• What were the causes and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?• How did British rule affect India?• How did Indians view western culture?• What were the origins of Indian nationalism?
    • The British in IndiaEuropean trade with Asia opened up in the 1500s. In 1600 some English traders formed the East India Company Which later became the richest and most powerful trading companies the world has ever known Built trading post and forts throughout IndiaFrench tried to challenge the British, but they were later crushed by Robert Clive, a East India Company Agent, along with an army of British and Indian troops at the Battle of Plassey 1757.
    • Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northernand central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital.There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader. In some places, the sepoys brutallymassacred British men, women, and children. But the British soon rallied and crushed therevolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages andslaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides. It alsobrought major changes in British policy. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East IndiaCompany and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxingIndians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While it slowed the “reforms” that hadangered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop India for Britain’s own economic benefit.
    • The Sepoy RebellionThe East Indian Company quickly controlled most of India in 1857. Later that year, Sepoys rebelled against their British commanders and it began to spread across the Northern and Central India.Indians had massacred British men, children, and women.In response, they killed thousands of unarmed Indians.In 1858 Parliament ended the East Indian Company. They had sent a viceroy to rule as the monarchs representative and India became “the Jewel in the Crown”—Queen Victoria claimed India as a crown colony and became an Empress. Sepoys-Indian Troops The new rifles’ casings were supposedly greased/made with beef or pork fat in the cartridge papers.
    • 4 The Sepoy Rebellion: Causes and Effects CAUSES EFFECTSThe British East India Company: •The Sepoys brutally massacred•required sepoys, or Indian British men, women, and children.soldiers in its service, to serve •The British took terrible revenge,anywhere, including overseas, slaughtering thousands of unarmedwhich violated Hindu religious law Indians.•passed a law allowing Hindu •Both sides were left with a bitterwidows to marry, (avoiding legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust.sutee/sati) which underminedHindu beliefs •The British put India directly under British rule, sent more troops to•Ordered the sepoys to bite off India, and taxed Indians to pay forcartridges made of animal fat the cost of the occupying forces.when loading their rifles, whichviolated both Hindu and Muslimreligious law.
    • British Colonial Rule After 1858, Parliament set up a system of colonial rule in India.The British built roads and an impressive railroad network.The British flooded India with machine-made textiles, ruining India’s once-prosperous hand-weaving industry.Britain transformed Indian agriculture.Better health care and increased food production led to rapid population growth. Over-population led to terrible famines.The British revised the Indian legal system.British rule brought peace and order to the countryside.Upper-class Indians sent their sons to British schools.
    • Indian NationalismBritish built paved roads and an extensive railroad; installed telegraph lines and dug irrigation canals; and established schools and universitiesThey forced Indians to grow cotton instead of wheat which led to the lack of wheat and resulted in severe food shortages that killed millions of Indians during 1800sHuge taxes and inflated prices made it hard to afford certain products—example: tax on salt.In 1885 a group of Indian business and professional leaders formed the Indian National Congress who tried to peacefully protest to urge British to grant more power to the Indians Also the group that led the long struggle for complete independence—Gandhi will lead with non-violent, passive resistance. (Satyagraha)
    • Imperialism in India to 1858The Jewel in the Crown— as the British Raj Queen Victoria gained the title of Empress (to match Russia).
    • The Great GameThe Great Game was introduced into mainstream consciousnessby British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901). In aphrase coined by Captain Arthur Connolly an intelligence officerof the British East India Companys Sixth Bengal LightCavalry, before he was beheaded in Bokhara for spying in1842, a "Great Game" was played between Tsarist Russia andVictorian England for supremacy in Central Asia. The classicGreat Game period is generally regarded as runningapproximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to theAnglo-Russian Convention of 1907.At stake was the security of India, key to the wealth of theBritish Empire. When play began early in the 19th century, thefrontiers of the two imperial powers lay two thousand milesapart, across vast deserts and almost impassable mountainranges; by the end, only 20 miles separated the two rivals.
    • Kim Kim is a picaresque novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first by published serially in McCluresRudyard Magazine and in Cassells Magazine from in 1901. Kipling The story unfolds against the backdrop of The Great Game, the political conflict between Russia and Britain in Central Asia. It is set after the Second Afghan War which ended in 1881, but before the Third, perhaps in the 1890s. The novel is notable for its detailed portrait of the people, culture, and varied religions of India. "The book presents a vivid picture of India, its teeming populations, religions, and superstitions, and the life of the bazaars and the road."
    • Different Views on Culture During the Age of Imperialism, Indians and British developed different views of each other’s culture. INDIAN BRITISH ATTITUDES ATTITUDESSome educated Indians were Most British knew little aboutimpressed by British power and Indian achievements andtechnology and urged India to dismissed Indian culture withfollow a western model of contempt. Ethnocentricity.progress. Few British admired IndianOther Indians felt the answer to theology and philosophy andchange lay with their own Hindu respected India’s ancientor Muslim cultures. heritage.
    • Indian Nationalism•The British believed that western-educated Indians would forman elite class which would bolster British rule.•As it turned out, exposure to European ideas had the oppositeeffect. By the late 1800s, western-educated Indians werespearheading a nationalist movement.•In 1885, nationalist leaders organized the Indian NationalCongress. Its members looked forward to eventual self-rule, butsupported western-style modernization.•In 1906, Muslims formed the Muslim League to pursue their owngoals, including a separate Muslim state.
    • In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of thefollowing excepta) place India directly under British rule.b) send more troops to India. Mangel Pandey,c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. Sepoy Martyrd) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence.Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule. c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.
    • In response to the Sepoy Rebellion, the British did all of thefollowing excepta) place India directly under British rule.b) send more troops to India. Mangel Pandey,c) give into Indian demands for greater self-rule. Sepoy Martyrd) tax Indians to pay for an increased British military presence.Which of the following is true of the Indian National Congress? a) Its members wanted to establish a separate Muslim state. b) Its members favored continued British rule. c) Its members supported western-style modernization. d) Its members favored immediate overthrow of the British.
    • The political cartoon below shows a French soldier (left) and a Britishsoldier (right) ripping apart a map. How do you think the situationdepicted in the cartoon affected relations between Britain and France?
    • Currency from a British colony in Malaya In 1867, Phan Thanh Gian, a Vietnamese official, faced a dilemma. The French were threatening to invade. As a patriot, Phan Thanh Gian wanted to resist. But as a devoted follower of Confucius, he was obliged “to live in obedience to reason.” And based on the power of the French military, he concluded that the only reasonable course was to surrender: “The French have immense warships, filled with soldiers and armed with huge cannons. No one can resist them. They go where theyA European woman beingtransported in a rickshaw want, the strongest [walls] fall before them.”in French Indochina
    • • The East Indies and the Philippines are the two distinct geographic areas that France, Spain, Great Britain, United State, and the Netherlands had set Southeast• up colonies in that region. The Islands of Southeast Asia Asia – At the beginning of the 1800s, the Dutch controlled most of the East Indies and Spain controlled the Philippines. – The East Indies, present-day Indonesia, had many natural resources, including rich soil where farmers grew indigo, and tea, coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar; miners dug for tin and copper; loggers cut down ebony, teak, and other hardwood trees. Dutch Government used a method of forced labor called the culture system – to gather all these materials. – Diponegoro, a Native prince from the East Indian island of Java, started a revolt against the Dutch in 1825. Though it lasted 10 years, it failed, and the After the Spanish-American War, Dutch encountered little opposition for the next 80 we had promised to grant the years. In the early 1900s, Dutch won control of the Philippines their independence, entire archipelago. but we did not. Aguinaldo led a rebellion against US and was brutally suppressed.
    • Islands The Dutch and the Spanish controlled much of Southeast Asia during the early 1800s. The Dutch East Indies was renowned for its rich soil which allowed the harvesting of crops such as: coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar, indigo, and tea. Mines were formed to exploit the rich deposits of tin and copper. Forests yielded valuable timber including teak, ebony, and other hardwoods. The Dutch became notorious for the use of forced slave labor, known as the culture system, to gather these raw materials, while purposely discouraging westernization, or the spreading of European culture.The Spanish used similar methods to reap the rewards from their tobacco and sugar plantations located in the Philippine Islands. However in 1898, the Philippines were given to the United States as part of the settlement for their loss of the Spanish-American War. Mainland The British took control of Burma from their colonial stronghold in India in the early 1800s. Meanwhile, the French imperialized modern-day Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam forming French Indochina in the 1880s. Siam became the embattled buffer zone between these two European powers, but was eventually guaranteed its independence by a treaty negotiated between France and Great Britain. After the Meiji Restoration led to massive industrialization in Japan, the nation found itself in great need of natural resources. Industrialization makes a nation dependent upon iron, coal, and oil, none of which were found in great quantity on the Japanese archipelago. This need led them to invade mainland Korea in order to exploit the natural resources thereOutcomeJapan took over much of the coast of China and the rest of Southeast Asia, eventually forming the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere whichprovided even more natural resources to feed its vast military-industrial complex. East Asian raw materials such as oil from the Dutch East Indiesand rubber from French Indochina kept Japan’s manufacturing industry and military in China well supplied. The Japanese war machine waseventually aimed at the United States in WWII with their attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.The French left French Indochina in the 1950s after years of warfare with nationalist groups. Communism seemed destined to spread into theregion from China. The U.S. foreign policy of containment of communism would lead to their involvement in the area in the unpopular VietnamConflict. Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos all eventually became communist in the 1970s. In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge orchestrated mass killing ofintellectuals and so-called reactionaries which became known as the Killing Fields.
    • French Indochina “French Indochina” encompassed a number of self- governing regions in Southeast Asia, including modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (labeled as Kampuchea).
    • Colonization of Southeast Asia•By the 1890s, Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia.They:• introduced modern technology• expanded commerce and industry• set up new enterprises to mine tin and• harvest rubber• brought in new crops of corn and cassava• built harbors and railroads•These changes benefited Europeans far more• than the people of Southeast Asia.
    • • In early 1880s, there consisted on a mainland region that included Burma (Myanmar), and Malaya in the west, Vietnam in the east, and Siam, Cambodia, and Laos in the Middle. All though the 1800s, Great Britain and France struggled for Mainland• domination of the area The British swept in from India in the 1820s. Over the next 60 Southeast years, they took full control of Burma and neighboring Malaya. Asia• Slowly, France was conquering Indochina, the region that includes: – Present-day Vietnam – Cambodia – Laos• They established complete control in the 1880s.• European rivalries for control of resources brought much disturbance to mainland Southeast Asia. Western influences changed traditional ways of life.• Colonial landowners and trading companies forced local farmers and workers to grow cash crops, mine coal, and cut teak trees.
    • 2 Imperial Powers in the PacificIn the 1800s, the industrial powers began to take an interest in theislands of the Pacific.In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa.Later, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a tripleprotectorate over Samoa.From the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power inHawaii. In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Philippines wasplaced under American control. The United States promised Filipinosself-rule some time in the future.By 1900, nary an island was left unclaimed.
    • • Spanish ruled the Philippines which resembled the Dutch rule of the Dutch East Indies. During 1800s, the Filipinos resentment grew until it finally exploded into revolution in 1896. – When the United States declared war on Spain, they promised if they helped that the Philippines would be free. – It became evident in the next few years that the U.S. was not interested in giving the Philippines their independence, but wished to continue their relationship as merely a colony. –
    • Emilio • After the U.S. declared war on Spain, Aguinaldo saw a possibility that the Philippines might achieveAguinaldo its independence; the U.S. hoped instead that Aguinaldo would lend his troops to its effort against Spain. He returned to Manila on May 19, 1898 and declared Philippine independence on June 12. • When it became clear that the United States had no interest in the liberation of the islands, Aguinaldo’s forces remained apart from U.S. troops. • On January 1, 1899 following the meetings of a constitutional convention, Aguinaldo was proclaimed president of the Philippine Republic. Not surprisingly, the United States refused to recognize Aguinaldo’s authority and on February 4, 1899 he declared war on the U.S. forces in the islands. After his capture on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo agreed to swear allegiance to the United States, and then left public life. • His dream of Philippine independence came true on July 4, 1946. He died in Manila in 1964.
    • Thailand • Thailand, whose name means "Land of the Free People," is the only Southeast Asian country that has never been a colony of a European power. • Thailand has borrowed freely from the West without losing its special Asian identity. Thailands exquisite beauty and rich culture, a culture built on more than 5,000 years of tradition. • It also established contact with European trading powers such as Holland, Portugal, and Great Britain.King Mongkut, who ruled from 1851 to 1868, set Siam on the roadto modernization.Siam was forced to accept some unequal treaties but escapedbecoming a European colony.Both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Siam abuffer, or neutral zone, between them.In the early 1900s, Britain and France guaranteed Siam itsindependence.
    • Two Paths in Southeast Asia King Mongkut ofSiam managed to keep his kingdom out ofEuropean control. In other parts of SoutheastAsia, colonized peoples labored to produceexport crops for their colonial rulers.Below, workers process sugar cane in thePhilippines in the early 1900s.
    • • In the late 1700s, Burma (now Myanmar) overwhelmed the kingdom. However, Rama I, founder of the present ruling dynasty, routed them, changed the countrys name to Siam, and established Bangkok as the nations capital. Successive rulers became preoccupied with European colonialism.• That Thailand was never a colony is a source of great pride, and it can be attributed to the efforts of two kings who ruled during the mid-1800s. ThailandKing Mongkut, or Rama IV (popularized in the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical TheKing and I), and Chulalongkorn, or Rama V, are most responsible for introducingextensive reforms. Slavery was abolished, outmoded royal customs were ended, andthe power of the aristocracy was limited. For the most part, however, only the toplevel of Thai society was changed. Life for most Thais remained the same.
    • In the 1800s, the industrialized powers also began to take an interest in theislands of the Pacific. The thousands of islands splashed across the Pacificinclude the three regions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.At first, American, French, and British whaling and sealing ships looked forbases to take on supplies in the Pacific. Missionaries, too, moved into theregion and opened the way for political involvement.In 1878, the United States secured an unequal treaty from Samoa, a group ofislands in the South Pacific. The United States gained rights such asextraterritoriality and a naval station. Other nations gained similaragreements. As their rivalry increased, the United States, Germany, andBritain agreed to a triple protectorate over Samoa.Beginning in the mid-1800s, American sugar growers pressed for power in theHawaiian Islands. When the Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani tried to reduceforeign influence, American planters overthrew her in 1893. They then askedthe United States to annex Hawaii, which it finally did in 1898. Supporters ofannexation argued that if the United States did not take Hawaii, Britain orJapan might do so. By 1900, the United States, Britain, France, and Germanyhad claimed nearly every island in the Pacific.
    • Queen Liliuokalani, Queen of HawaiiFollowing the death of her brother, King Kalakaua, Liliuokalani is proclaimed the last monarch of the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii, first settled by Polynesian voyagers sometime in the eighth century, saw a massive influx of American settlers during the nineteenth century, most coming to exploit Hawaii’s burgeoning sugar industry. In 1887, under pressure from U.S. investors and American sugar planters, King Kalakaua agreed to a new constitution that stripped him of much of his power.However, in 1891, Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and refused to recognize the constitution of 1887, replacing it instead with a constitution that restored the monarchy’s traditional authority. Two years later, a revolutionary "Committee of Safety," organized by Sanford B. Dole, a Hawaiian-born American, staged a coup against Queen Liliuokalani with the support of U.S. Minister John Stevens and a division of U.S. marines. On February 1, 1893, Stevens recognized Dole’s new government on his own authority and proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. protectorate. Dole submitted a treaty of annexation to the U.S. Senate but most Democrats opposed it, especially after it was revealed that most Hawaiians did not want annexation.President Grover Cleveland sent a new U.S. minister to Hawaii to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne under the 1887 constitution, but Dole refused to step aside and instead proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii, which was organized into a U.S. territory in 1900.Liliuokalani herself spent much of the remainder of her life in the United States, where she unsuccessfully petitioned the federal government for compensation for seized property and other losses. The territorial legislature of Hawaii finally voted her an annual pension of four thousand dollars and permitted her to receive the income from a small sugar plantation.In additional to her political fame, Liliuokalani is also known for composing many Hawaiian songs, including the popular "Aloha Oe," or "Farewell to Thee."
    • President Dole, of the Hawaiian Republic.Liliuokalani, however, was determined to eliminate American influence in thegovernment. She tried to create a new constitution that would strengthen thetraditional monarchy, but her cabinet refused to cooperate. The Americanresidents were outraged. They organized the Committee of Safety and appointedmembers of the Annexation Club as its leaders. On the morning of January 17,1893, armed members of the committee attacked. They took over the governmentoffice building. From its steps they read a proclamation abolishing the monarchyand establishing a provisional government. The provisional government "wouldexist until terms of union with the United States of America have been negotiatedand agreed upon." Sanford B. Dole, an elderly judge with a flowing, white beard,became its president. Hawaiians who were loyal to their queen tried to come toher defense and stop the revolution. When they arrived in Honolulu, however,American troops confronted them. The United States minister, John L. Stevens,had sent for a battalion of marines and an artillery company from the cruiserBoston. They were ordered to protect the provisional government. For theHawaiians, resistance was hopeless. Queen Liliuokalani sadly surrendered herthrone.