Chapter 15—Miles, Allison, Ryan, Tom, Rachel Joseph Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800–1914) World History
Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800–1914) Section 2: Building a German Nation Section 3: Strengthening Germany Section 1: Unifying Italy Section 5: Nationalism Threatens Old Empires Section 4: Russia: Reform and Reaction World History
Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon made important territorial changes in German-speaking lands. Many Germans resented Napoleon and his changes. As people fought to free their lands from French rule, they began to demand a unified state.
In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union called the Zollverein .
In 1848, liberals again demanded German political unity. They offered the throne of a united German state to Frederick William IV of Prussia, but he refused it.
A major city of the Holy Roman Empire, Frankfurt, was the seat of imperial elections since 885 and the city for imperial coronations from 1562 until 1792.
In 1372 Frankfurt was declared an Imperial Free City ( Reichsstadt ) , therefore making the city Frankfurt on the entity of Imperial immediacy. This means that this city is immediately subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.
Location of Frankfurt within the German Confederation
Son of Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck and Wilhelmine Luise Mencken, Otto von Bismarck was born into a wealthy family. He was educated at secondary schools and studied law at the University of Gottingen. Otto also severed in the army for one year and became an officer in the Landwehr, reserve.
HIS ROLE IN GERMANY
Bismarck was one of the most significant figures in Germany. In 1847 Bismarck entered into politics as a ultraconservative champion of Junker interest.
Junker is a member of the aristocratic landholders class, esp. in East Prussia, strongly devoted to militarism and authoritarianism, from among whom the German military forces recruited a large number of its officers .
Bismarck was also a Chancellor of the Northern German Confederation. As Chancellor of the N. German Confederation Bismarck played an important role in government. He greatly influenced German and international politics both during and after his time of service.
Otto von Bismarck was also the Prime Minister of Prussia. He shared many of the same views as the King of Germany at the time, William I. They both believed that Prussia needed a government and army to achieve German unity.
While alive Bismarck engaged in THREE major battles to unite Germany.
Denmark ruled the territories Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck wanted to avoid the Danish annexation of Schleswig so he persuaded Austria to join Prussia in declaring war against Denmark. In 1864 the war took place.
Effects of War
Prussia and Austria won the war and Denmark was forced out of the disputed Schleswig and Holstein.
Prussia got Schleswig and Austria got Holstein .
Accomplishments of this war...
It made Europe aware of Prussia’s military might and influence.
Also the tension stemming from the war gave Bismarck the PERFECT excuse he wanted for going to war with Austria.
Bismarck stripped Austria of its alliances. By doing this he gained alliances with Russia, France and Italy.
On June 15, 1866 the war between Prussia and Austria began and shortly end seven weeks later with the victory of Prussia.
The purpose of this was to separate Austria from Germany and eliminate the chance for Germany to be controlled under Austrian rule.
Effect of the Seven Weeks War
Even though Bismarck wanted to destroy Austria, Bismarck knew it wasn’t a good idea because he would probably need an alliance with Austria in the future.
The treaty that officially ended the Seven Weeks War was negotiated in the city of Prague.
This treaty also dissolved the German Confederation.
After the war was over, a “new organization” was formed. It was called the Northern German Confederation. This “new organization” gave the German states the right to handle there own domestic affairs. However, the national defense and the foreign policy was in Prussia’s hands.
* Because of this new strong government Bismarck was made a hero among German nationalists.
The southern German states were largely Catholic so they stayed out of the Confederation all together. They feared the Protestant Prussian military and its immense control of Germany!
Now, France posed as a serious obstacle to the unification of Germany. This is because Napoleon I would not accept or allow the unification of Germany unless France got a cut and received some territory in Germany.
Bismarck went to war with France to solve this situation. On July 19, 1870 the fighting began! Because there were more anti-French then there were anti-Prussian the German states allied with Prussia.
It’s not a surprise that Prussia won and Bismarck had now gained support from all of the German states for the unification of Germany under Prussia!!
When William II came to power, he wanted to put his own stamp on Germany. During his reign, he asked Bismarck to resign, believing that his right to rule came from God and that “there is only one master in the Reich.”
resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms.
provided services, such as programs for social welfare, cheap transportation, and electricity.
spent heavily on the German military machine.
launched an ambitious campaign to
expand the German navy and win an overseas empire.
2 He was born with a withered arm, carefully disguised in photos, but this may have affected his self-esteem. He over-compensates, especially with the mustache!
What if Annie Oakley had shot Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1889?
By David Clay Large
One chilly November afternoon in 1889, a fur-coated crowd assembled in Berlin’s Charlottenburg Race Course to enjoy a performance of Buffalo Bill’s Wild Wild West Show, which was touring Europe to great popular acclaim. Among the audience
was the Reich’s impetuous young ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II, who had been on the throne for a year. Wilhelm was particularly keen to see the show’s star attraction, Annie Oakley, famed throughout the world for her skills with a Colt. 45.
On that day, as usual, Annie announced to the crowd that she would attempt to shoot the ashes from the cigar of some lady or gentleman in the audience. “Who shall volunteer to hold the cigar?” she asked. In fact, she expected no one from the crowd to volunteer; she simply asked for laughs. Her long-suffering husband, Frank Butler, always stepped forward and offered himself as her human Havana-holder.
This time, however, Annie had no sooner made her announcement then Kaiser Wilhelm himself leaped out of the royal box and strutted into the arena . Annie was stunned and horrified but could not retract her dare without losing face. She paced off her usual distance while Wilhelm extracted a cigar from a gold case and lit it with flourish. Several German policeman, suddenly realizing that this was not one of Kaiser's little jokes, tried to preempt the stunt, but were waved off by His All-Highest Majesty. Sweating profusely under her buckskin, and regretful that she had consumed more than her usual amount of whiskey the night before, Annie raised her Colt, took aim, and blew away Wilhelm's ashes. Had the sharpshooter from Cincinnati creased the Kaiser's head rather than his cigar, one of Europe's most ambitious and volatile rulers would have been removed from the scene. Germany might not have pursued its policy of aggressive Weltpolitik that culminated in war twenty-five years later. Annie herself seemed to realize her mistake later on. After World War I began, she wrote to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. He did not respond.
Chapter 15 Section 3 Bismarck’s Realm By: Ryan Kirk
Military battles caused Germany to become politically unified, but this did little to ease the tension felt by German people. The Germans still had many religious, social, economic and political differences that divided them. This was because the Germans had been separate individual kingdoms for hundreds of years. German leaders saw the need to bring the people together as a whole. Otto von Bismarck emerged as the man who would play a key role in unifying the nation of Germany. Kaiser William I will support Bismarck.
Kulturkampf refers to the German cultural struggle between church and state .
The Catholics in Germany organized the Center party to represent their interests in German government. They did this because at this time, there were a lot of Protestant Prussians who wanted to oppress the Catholics.
Bismarck viewed Catholics as a threat to German unification. For this reason, he usually supported the Protestants in political affairs.
Bismarck viewed the Jesuits as papal agents working to bring down Germany, so he banished all Jesuits from Germany in 1872. The Jesuits who had been living in Germany were expelled out of the country.
The next year, German legislature started passing a series of laws that were meant to lessen Catholic influence in the country. These were called the May Laws. Under the May Laws, Catholic bishops lost most of their authority and power. Also, weddings had to be performed by a secular official.
In response to the May Laws, the Catholic Church ended all diplomatic ties with Germany and the Pope Pius IX declared the laws invalid.
Pope Pius IX died and was succeeded by Leo XIII. Leo XIII wanted to make peace with Germany . He made an effort to heal the rift and come to a compromise with the German legislature.
Eventually the German legislature agreed and repealed most of the May Laws. This was an effort by the German government to appease the Church and the Catholic population of Germany. This ended the Kulturkampf.
Before it unified, Germany was not a very industrialized nation. The main source of income was through agriculture. Germany did not produce the same amount of coal, textiles, iron and steel as industrial nations like Great Britain.
German leaders realized that a strong economy is the foundation of a strong country, so they worked to industrialize Germany. Germany began mining coal along the Rhine.
This coal will fuel the new factories and industrial plants. Many young German citizens came to work at these new factories and by the end of the 1800’s Germany was an industrial nation.
The upper class of Germany profited from industrialization and lived lavishly, but the lower class was forced to live in crowded cities and work long hours.
Workers in German factories had to endure poor wages, long workdays and hazardous working conditions. To combat these injustices, Ferdinand Lassalle formed the Universal German Workingmen’s Association . Ferdinand was a socialist, but he did not want revolution. He wanted this dispute to be settled politically, not through violence. Lassalle was an important man who would talk to Bismarck and lecture him on the workingman’s plight. Unfortunately Lassalle was killed in a duel by Yanko von Racowitza.
After Lassalle’s death, the UGWA merged with the Social Democratic party and became a political force.
Bismarck believed that Socialists were a threat to the German government. He decided to try to end the Socialist party. In 1878, German legislature passed a law that banned any Socialists meeting or publication. It did not ban the party itself, but it made it nearly impossible for the Socialists to communicate publicly. Bismarck also tried to convince the people that the German government cared about the workers more than the socialists. German legislature passed bills such as the Old Age Insurance Law and the Sickness Insurance Law. The Old Age Insurance Law protected workers after their retirement and the Sickness Insurance Law gave partial compensation to sick workers.
Bismarck’s success against the Socialists was short-lived, because the Socialists won 35 seats in German legislature. These Socialists refused to renew any anti-socialist bill that was proposed.
In 1888 Kaiser William I, an influential supporter of Bismarck, died at the age of 91. His son, Prince Frederick, replaced him. Frederick was very liberal-minded, but accomplished very little because he died less than a year after his coronation. Frederick’s son, William II, will take the throne. At the time of his coronation William II is 29 years old. He was very conservative. He also believed strongly in militarism. Militarism is the idea that a country needs a strong military prepared for war at all times. Bismarck and the Kaiser disagreed many times and eventually this caused Bismarck to resign. Bismarck resigned in 1890 after many years of changing Germany into a world power.
By the 1800s, czars saw the need to modernize but resisted reforms that would undermine their absolute rule. While czars wavered, Russia fell further behind Western Europe in economic and social developments.
The rigid social structure was an obstacle to progress:
Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change that would threaten their privileges.
The majority of Russians were serfs.
Serfdom was inefficient and caused Russia’s economy to remain backward.
Many peasants gave up farming and moved from the farms to the cities, adding to the growing numbers of unskilled urban workers
The emancipation decree took control of the provinces away from the landowners and it created the need for a new system of local government
An 1864 law created the new system. Locally elected assemblies called took charge of provincial matters such as schools and health zemstvos care
The nobility, wealthy townspeople, and the peasants could vote in zemstvos, local governmental, elections . The vote was weighted so that noblemen and rich taxpayers dominated the local assemblies
Czar Alexander II became known as the Czar Liberator for freeing the serfs and for his many reforms. He limited the use and authority of the secret police, eased restrictions on the press, modernized the judicial system, and expanded the educational system.
The reforms satisfied few Russians—ripe for revolution!
A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day , painting by Sergei V. Ivanov . Volga attack—it was tough being a serf
Some radical reformers, such as Michael Bakunin, advocated anarchy, or the absence of government, and called for the complete destruction of the state, the family, law, property, and other institutions.
Nihilists also rejected all traditions, believing Russia would have to destroy the czarist autocracy and build a completely new society
Beginning in the 1870s, many reformers became active in a new movement known as populism. The populists believed that the peasants would eventually lead a revolution, overthrow the czar, and establish a socialist society
To further their cause, groups of students and intellectuals went to the villages to prepare the peasants for the revolution.
The peasants often grew suspicious of the young revolutionaries and sometimes even turned them over to the police.
Frustrated by their lack of success, many populists turned to violent tactics
After Alexander III’s death in 1894 , many Russians were disappointed when his son, Nicholas II stated he would also rule as an autocrat
He lacked the strong will to make absolute rule effective. He was easily influence by those around him, particularly his wife, Empress Alexander, who wanted their son to inherit an autocracy
During reign of Nicholas II, a revolutionary mood swept over Russia. Peasants grew increasingly dissatisfied, minorities called for an end to persecution, and middle- class reformers pushed for a constitutional monarchy.
In the early 1900s, several revolutionary groups followed the teachings of Karl Marx
Their members believed that the working class, not the peasants, would lead the revolution
The Mensheviks believed that Russia needed to develop into an industrial state with a sizable working class before a socialist revolution could occur
The more radical, Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov(known as Levin) believed that a small party of professional revolutionaries could use force to bring about a socialist society in the near future
War between Russia and Japan in 1904 over control of Manchuria furthered the Socialists’ cause
Russian land forces suffered major setbacks, and a Russian fleet attempting to deliver supplies lost many ships in a Japanese attack
With the mediation of the United States, the war- exhausted empires finally concluded a peace agreement in 1905 (TR)
Russia’s humiliating military performance heightened already mounting opposition to the czar’s government by urban workers, middle- class thinkers, and peasants
The war had strained the Russian economy, raising food prices while keeping wages low.
Crisis and Revolution War broke out between Russia and Japan. (Russo-Japanese War) The Russians suffered repeated military defeats. News of the military disasters unleashed pent-up discontent created by years of oppression. The czar’s troops fired on protesters on “Bloody Sunday,” destroying the people’s trust and faith in the czar. Discontent and revolution spread throughout Russia. Czar Nicholas was forced to announce sweeping reforms. In the October Manifesto , he agreed to summon a Duma, or elected national legislature. 5
Spontaneous strikes began to break out in many cities throughout the empire
On January 22, 1905 , about 200,000 workers marched in a peaceful procession to the czar’s palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition for reform. Palace soldiers opened fire on the crowd , killing hundreds of workers.
Bloody Sunday , as it was called, sparked riots and strikes in most industrial centers and set off a wave of political protests
Middle- Class organizations drew up programs for political reforms
The zemstvos issued a list of demands
In the spring of 1905, the first soviets, or workers’ councils , formed to voice workers’ grievances
In October 1905, angry workers seized control of the major cities in a general strike
Nicholas II announced a law providing for the election of a national duma, or legislature
During the fateful last evening of Rasputin's life, the conspirators drugged with poisoned wine (he had taken enough cyanide to kill six men),poisoned with cyanide in the cakes, shot at point blank range, beaten, and then dumped in the river. Yet the monk survived all of these and actually died by drowning when his body, wrapped in a carpet was thrown into the Moika Canal on the Neva River. Rasputin's corpse was discovered under the ice of the Neva on December 19. His hands had been untied and there was water in his lungs. He died from drowning.
Most persistent was the claim that the Tsar’s youngest daughter, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, survived. (Anastasia is Greek for “the woman who rose again.”) Only 17 at the time of the execution, the Russian report had it that she had not been hit by bullets (some may have ricocheted off her jewelry) but merely fainted. She revived moments later in a pool of her family’s blood and began screaming. At this point she was run through with many bayonets and bludgeoned to death. This much was reported and this much was confirmed in recent excavations.
The Anastasia rumors lived, bolstered perhaps by her failure to die in the initial volley. As early as 1925 Grand Duchess Olga (the Tsar’s sister) interviewed one Anna Anderson in Berlin. Anderson was a young woman with a history of mental illness, and Olga quickly rejected her claim to be Anastasia. Yet just three years later the first of at least four books was published claiming Anna Anderson was Anastasia. One, purporting to be a first-person account, titled I am Anastasia, was even rejected as a forgery by Anderson herself. Her claim was featured in a 1956 cover article in Life. Over the years additional faux-Anastasias appeared, many of them interviewed and rejected by Olga, who died in 1960. The Anastasia mania inspired four films, five plays, a musical, two ballets, two TV shows, and a 1956 song by Pat Boone. Ingrid Bergman copped an Oscar for her role in the 1956 eponymously titled movie.
The Last of the Romanovs: L to R: Olga, Marie, Nicholas II, Alexandra, Anastasia, Alexei, Tatiana Nicholas II, Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia, and Alexei(photo taken by Alexandra) The Last of the Romanovs
Francis Joseph ruled both, as emperor of Austria and king of Hungary.
The two states shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs, but were independent of each other in all other areas.
Austria’s defeat in the 1866 war with Prussia brought renewed pressure for change from Hungarians within the empire. This pressure led to the creation of a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. 4