• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Between the World Wars
 

Between the World Wars

on

  • 2,551 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,551
Views on SlideShare
2,546
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0

1 Embed 5

http://honorsworldhistoryii.ning.com 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Between the World Wars Between the World Wars Presentation Transcript

    •  
    •  
    • Causes and Effects of World War I
    • Chapter 15: Nationalism and Revolution Around the World (1910–1939) Section 5: Conflicting Forces in Japan Section 1: Struggle in Latin America Section 2: : Nationalism in Africa & the Middle East Section 4: Upheavals in China Section 3: India Seeks Self-Rule
    •  
    •  
    • Chapter Outline Section 1: Struggle in Latin America The desire for lands, better wages, and democratic reforms led to the Mexican Revolution. Section 2: Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East Following World War I, nationalist sentiment contributed to many changes in Africa and the Middle East. Section 3: India Seeks Self-Rule Mohandas Gandhi and the Congress party led the drive for independence in India. Section 4: Upheavals in China Civil war and foreign invasions plagued the new Chinese republic. Section 5: Conflicting Forces in Japan By the 1930s, the Japanese military dominated a government that emphasized service to the nation and a policy of imperialistic expansion. Summary The postwar years from 1919 to 1939 saw a surge of hope around the world. They also brought great turmoil as a desire for democracy and self-determination sparked explosive struggles in many regions. In Africa, Latin America, and Asia, new leaders forged liberation movements that would change the face of the world. Nationalism and Revolution Around the World (1910–1939)
    • Struggle for Change in Latin America
      • What were the causes of the Mexican Revolution?
      • What reforms were introduced in Mexico?
      • How did nationalism affect Mexico?
      • What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
      1
    • Causes of the Mexican Revolution Most Mexicans were peasants who lived in desperate poverty. Factory workers and miners earning meager wages were restless and angry. Middle-class liberals, who embraced democracy, opposed the lengthy D í az dictatorship. A liberal reformer, Francisco Madero, encouraged revolt. 1
    •  
    • General Pancho Villa
      • Villa looked for the recognition of the United States, for his government, and as he did not obtain it, he visited the border population of Columbus, where he take weapons. North American general Pershing entered Mexican territory, persecuting it, without never reaching it. Carranza was dead in 1917, apparently by its same
      • U.S. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 12,000 troops, under Gen. John J. Pershing, into Mexico on March 15 to pursue Villa. In the U.S., this was known as the Pancho Villa Expedition. During the search, the United States launched its first air combat mission when eight airplanes lifted off on March 19. The expedition to capture Villa was called off as a failure on January 28, 1917.
      • Modern historians debate whether Villa was involved with the Germans and how much aid and information passed through them. Some contend that the Germans encouraged Villa's actions against U.S. interests and incursions into Texas and New Mexico in order to create instability on the southern border of a power they definitely did not want interfering in World War I. Other actions by the Germans such as the Zimmermann Telegram correspond with Germany's wish to destabilize the United States. The extent of Villa's role as an abettor of German interests and receiver of German aid is still very much in question, but the idea would not seem to be in contradiction with his opportunistic tendencies.
      • Quotes
      • "Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something." (Last words.)
    •  
    • Reforms in Mexico
      • The Constitution of 1917:
      • permitted the breakup of large estates
      • placed restrictions on foreigners owning land
      • allowed nationalization, or government takeover, of natural resources
      • made church land “the property of the nation”
      • set a minimum wage
      • protected workers’ right to strike
      • gave some protections to women
      • In the 1920s, the government also:
      • helped some Indian communities regain lands that had been taken from them
      • launched a massive effort to combat illiteracy
      1
    • How Did Nationalism Affect Mexico?
      • A tide of economic nationalism, or emphasis on domestic control of the economy, swept through Mexico and other Latin American countries.
      • Local entrepreneurs set up factories to produce goods.
      • The government nationalized resources and took over foreign- owned industries.
      • In Mexico and in other Latin American countries, writers, artists, and thinkers began to reject European influences. Instead, they took pride in their own culture. Pride in one’s own culture is called cultural nationalism.
      • A revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs, took place. Muralists like Diego Rivera, Jos é Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros created magnificent works.
      1
    •  
    • The Good Neighbor Policy
      • The United States played the role of “international policeman,” intervening to restore order when it felt its interests were threatened. This included sending troops to Latin American countries to protect American interests.
      • These actions stirred up anti-American feelings among Latin Americans.
      • In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt pledged to follow the Good Neighbor Policy. The United States withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua. It also lifted the Platt Amendment, which had limited Cuban independence.
      1
    • Section 1 Assessment
      • Why was the revival of mural paintings an example of cultural nationalism?
      • Murals became an important source of revenue in Mexico.
      • Spanish conquistadors had brought mural painting to Mexico in the 1600s.
      • The United States sponsored muralists in Mexico.
      • Mural painting was a major art form of the Aztecs.
      • Under the Good Neighbor Policy, the United States
      • passed the Platt Amendment.
      • withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua.
      • sent troops to Latin American nations to protect American interests.
      • became an “international policeman.”
      1
    • Section 1 Assessment
      • Why was the revival of mural paintings an example of cultural nationalism?
      • Murals became an important source of revenue in Mexico.
      • Spanish conquistadors had brought mural painting to Mexico in the 1600s.
      • The United States sponsored muralists in Mexico.
      • Mural painting was a major art form of the Aztecs.
      • Under the Good Neighbor Policy, the United States
      • passed the Platt Amendment.
      • withdrew troops stationed in Haiti and Nicaragua.
      • sent troops to Latin American nations to protect American interests.
      • became an “international policeman.”
      1
    • Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East
      • How did Africans resist colonial rule?
      • What signs of nationalism developed in Africa?
      • How did Turkey and Iran modernize?
      • How did European mandates contribute to the growth of Arab nationalism?
      2
    • “ If you woke up one morning and found that somebody had come to your house, and had declared that house belonged to him, you would naturally be surprised, and you would like to know by what arrangement. Many Africans at that time found that, on land that had been in the possession of their ancestors from time immemorial, they were now working as squatters or as laborers.” — Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyan independence leader
    • Modernization in Turkey and Iran
      • ( Mustafa Kemal) Atat ürk forced through an ambitious program of radical reforms. His goals were to modernize Turkey along western lines and separate religion from government. He:
      • replaced Islamic law with a
      • European-style law code
      • replaced the Muslim calendar with the western calendar
      • forced people to wear western dress—no more fez
      • opened state schools
      • encouraged industrial
      • expansion
      • outlawed polygamy and gave rights to women
      • Shah Reza Khan rushed to modernize Iran and make it fully independent. He: built factories, roads, and railroads and strengthened the army
      • adopted the western alphabet
      • forced Iranians to wear western clothing
      • set up modern, secular schools.
      • replaced Islamic law with secular law
      • encouraged women to
      • take part in public life
      TURKEY IRAN/PERSIA 2
    • Atatürk (1881–1938) “ Atatürk” is the name that Mustafa Kemal gave himself when he ordered all Turkish people to take on surnames, or last names. It means “Father of the Turks.” In 1920, he led Turkish nationalists in the fight against Greek forces trying to enforce the Treaty of Sèvres, establishing the borders of the modern Republic of Turkey. Once in power, he passed many reforms to modernize, Westernize, and secularize Turkey. Atatürk is still honored throughout Turkey today—his portrait appears on postage and all currency.  Why is Atatürk considered the “Father of the Turks”? Atatürk’s Reforms in Turkey Replaced Islamic law with European model Replaced Muslim calendar with Western (Christian) calendar Moved day of rest from Friday to Sunday Closed religious schools and opened state schools Forced people to wear Western-style clothes Replaced Arabic alphabet with Latin alphabet Gave women the right to vote and to work outside the home.
    • Resistance to Colonial Rule
      • Those who had lost their lands to Europeans sometimes squatted, or settled illegally, on European-owned plantations.
      • In cities, workers began to form forbidden labor unions.
      • Western-educated Africans criticized the injustice of imperial rule.
      • Socialism found a growing audience.
      • In Kenya, the Kikuyu protested the loss of their land, forced labor, heavy taxes, and required identification cards.
      • In Nigeria, Ibo women denounced British policies that threatened their rights and their economic role.
      • In South Africa, a vital nationalist movement demanded rights for black South Africans. ANC formed.
      Opposition to imperialism grew among Africans. Resistance took many forms. 2
    • Rise of Nationalism
      • During the 1920s, a movement known as Pan-Africanism emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world.
      • Marcus Garvey preached “Africa for Africans” and demanded an end to colonial rule.
      • W.E.B. DuBois organized the first Pan-African Congress, which called for a charter of rights for Africans.
      • French-speaking writers in West Africa and the Caribbean expressed pride in their African roots through the N égritude movement.
      • Senegalese poet L éopold Senghor celebrated Africa’s rich cultural heritage and later became Senegal’s first president.
      2
    • The Middle East, 1920s 2
    •  
    • European Mandates and Arab Nationalism
      • During World War I, Arabs had been promised independence in exchange for helping the Allies against the Central Powers.
      • Instead, the Paris Peace Conference had set up mandates — territories administered by European nations, which outraged the Arabs.
      • In 1917 , the British issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Palestine was already the home to many Arab communities. This set the stage for conflict between Arab and Jewish nationalists.
      • Arabs felt betrayed by the West — a feeling that has endured to this day. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted in frequent protests and revolts against western imperialism.
      2
    • After 1900, the efforts of the Zionist movement, under pressure from the effects of anti-Semitism in Europe, increased Jewish emigration to Palestine. Despite great hardships, Jewish settlers set up factories, built new towns, and established farming communities. The Jewish population, which was less than 60,000 in 1919, grew to about 400,000 in 1936. Meanwhile, the Muslim population had almost doubled, from about 568,000 in 1919 to about 1 million in 1940. At first, some Arabs welcomed the money and modern technical skills that the newcomers brought with them. But as more Jews moved to Palestine, tensions between the two groups developed. Jewish organizations tried to purchase as much land as they could, while Arabs sought to slow down or stop Jewish immigration. Religious differences between Jews and Arabs heightened tensions. Arabs attacked Jewish settlements, hoping to discourage settlers. The Jewish settlers established their own military defense force. For the rest of the century, Arab and Jews fought over the land that Arabs called Palestine and Jews called Israel.
    • European Mandates and Arab Nationalism
      • During World War I, Arabs had been promised independence in exchange for helping the Allies against the Central Powers.
      • Instead, the Paris Peace Conference had set up mandates — territories administered by European nations, which outraged the Arabs.
      • In 1917, the British issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Palestine was already the home to many Arab communities. This set the stage for conflict between Arab and Jewish nationalists.
      • Arabs felt betrayed by the West — a feeling that has endured to this day. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted in frequent protests and revolts against western imperialism.
      2
    • Section 2 Assessment
      • Which of the following was not an example of African resistance to colonial rule? a) Workers formed labor unions. b) Ibo women denounced British policies. c) Western-educated Africans criticized imperial rule. d) Europeans took over land belonging to Africans.
      • Who organized the first Pan-African conference? a) Marcus Garvey b) W.E.B. DuBois c) L éopold Senghor d) Diego Rivera
      2
    • Section 2 Assessment
      • Which of the following was not an example of African resistance to colonial rule? a) Workers formed labor unions. b) Ibo women denounced British policies. c) Western-educated Africans criticized imperial rule. d) Europeans took over land belonging to Africans.
      • Who organized the first Pan-African conference? a) Marcus Garvey b) W.E.B. DuBois c) L éopold Senghor d) Diego Rivera
      2
    • India Seeks Self-Rule
      • What sparked the Indian independence movement after World War I?
      • How did Mohandas Gandhi influence the independence movement?
      • What did the Salt March symbolize?
      3
    • What Sparked the Indian Independence Movement After World War I?
      • The Amritsar massacre was a turning point for many Indians. It convinced them of the evils of British rule. In 1919, in Amritsar, India's holy city of the Sikh religion, British and Gurkha troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, a city park. Most of those killed were Indian nationalists meeting to protest the British government's forced conscription of Indian soldiers and the heavy war tax imposed against the Indian people.
      • The British had promised India greater self-rule in exchange for sending more than a million troops to fight in World War I.
      • However, after the war, Britain proposed only a few minor changes.
      • In the 1920s, a new leader, Mohandas Gandhi , emerged and united all Indians.
      India Seeks Self-Rule
    • Mohandas Gandhi
      • Gandhi adopted the weapon of nonviolent
      • (passive) resistance and embraced Hindu traditions.
      • During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actions against British rule.
      • He called for boycotts of British goods, especially textiles.
      • He urged Indians to wear only cotton grown and woven in India.
      • He worked to restore pride in India’s traditional industries.
      • He inspired Indians to “get rid of helplessness.”
      • Satyagraha = Truth Force
      • He earned the title of Mahatma = Great Soul
      3
    • Gandhi’s ideas inspired Indians of all religious and ethnic backgrounds. His nonviolent protests caught the attention of the British government and the world. Gandhi’s theories embraced Hindu traditions. He preached the ancient doctrine of ahimsa , or nonviolence and reverence for all life. By using the power of love, he believed, people could convert even the worst wrongdoer to the right course of action. To fight against injustice, he advocated the use of nonviolent resistance . Gandhi’s philosophy reflected Western as well as Indian influences. He admired Christian teachings about love. He believed in the American philosopher Henry David Thoreau’s ideas about  civil disobedience , the refusal to obey unjust laws. Gandhi was also influenced by Western ideas of democracy and nationalism. He urged equal rights for all Indians, women as well as men. He fought hard to end the harsh treatment of untouchables, who were members of the lowest caste, or class. Gandhi Sets an Example During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actions against British rule. He called for Indians to  boycott , or refuse to buy, British goods, especially cotton textiles. He worked to restore pride in India’s traditional industries, making the spinning wheel a symbol of the nationalist movement. Gandhi’s campaigns of civil disobedience attracted wide support.
    • The Salt March
      • While natural salt was available in the sea, Indians were forced by the British to buy salt sold by the British government.
      • To Gandhi, the British salt monopoly was a symbol of British oppression. To mobilize mass support, Gandhi set out to end the British salt monopoly.
      • During the Salt March, Gandhi picked up a lump of the forbidden salt and declared, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British empire.”
      3
    • The Salt March Gandhi’s march to the sea to collect forbidden salt started out with Gandhi and 78 followers, but gathered strength as it progressed. As he picked up the first lump of salt, he declared, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British empire.”  How do you think people in other countries would have reacted to British authorities using violence against this group? Gandhi picking up salt at the coastal village of Dandi in India, April 6, 1930
    • Since 1885, the Indian National Congress party, called the Congress party, had pressed for self-rule within the British empire. After Amritsar, it began to call for full independence. But party members were mostly middle-class, Western-educated elite who had little in common with the masses of Indian peasants. In the 1920s, a new leader named Mohandas Gandhi emerged and united Indians across class lines. Gandhi came from a middle-class Hindu family. At age 19, he went to England to study law. Then, like many Indians, Gandhi went to South Africa. For 20 years, Gandhi fought laws that discriminated against Indians in South Africa. In 1914, Gandhi returned to India. Soon, he became the leader of the Congress party. Breaking the Law On March 12, 1930, Gandhi set out with 78 followers on a 240-mile march to the sea. As the tiny band passed through villages, crowds responded to Gandhi’s message. By the time they reached the sea, the marchers numbered in the thousands. On April 6, Gandhi waded into the surf and picked up a lump of sea salt. He was soon arrested and jailed. Still, Indians followed his lead. Coastal villages started collecting salt. Indians sold salt on city streets. As Gandhi’s campaign gained force, tens of thousands of Indians were imprisoned. Steps Toward Freedom All around the world, newspapers criticized Britain’s harsh reaction to the protests. Stories revealed how police brutally clubbed peaceful marchers who tried to occupy a government saltworks. Slowly, Gandhi’s campaign forced Britain to hand over some power to Indians. Britain also agreed to meet other demands of the Congress party.
    •  
    • Section 3 Assessment
      • Why was the Amritsar massacre a turning point? a) It gave the British more power in India. b) It convinced many Indians of the evil of British rule. c) It resulted in the expulsion of the British from India. d) It cemented good relations between Britain and India.
      • What did the British salt monopoly symbolize to Gandhi?
      • a) poor health b) British oppression c) big business d) Indian weakness
      3
    • Section 3 Assessment
      • Why was the Amritsar massacre a turning point? a) It gave the British more power in India. b) It convinced many Indians of the evil of British rule. c) It resulted in the expulsion of the British from India. d) It cemented good relations between Britain and India.
      • What did the British salt monopoly symbolize to Gandhi?
      • a) poor health b) British oppression c) big business d) Indian weakness
      3
    • Upheavals in China
      • What were the key challenges to the Chinese republic?
      • What leaders emerged in the “new” China?
      • How did invasion by Japan affect China?
      4
    • One Strong Leader The most important point of fascism is absolute trust in a sagely able leader. Aside from complete trust in one person, there is no other leader or ism. Therefore, with the organization, although there are cadre, council members, and executives, there is no conflict among them, there is only the trust in the one leader. The leader has final decision in all matters. — Jiang Jieshi, 1933 Peasant Masses The broad peasant masses have risen to fulfill their historic mission . . . the democratic forces in the rural areas have risen to overthrow the rural feudal power. . . . To overthrow this feudal power is the real objective of the national revolution. What Dr. Sun Yat-sen [Yixian] wanted to do . . . but failed to accomplish, the peasants have accomplished in a few months. — Mao Zedong, 1927 Jiang Jieshi, Leader of the Guomindang, the Nationalist Party Mao Zedong, Leader of the Communists
    • Challenges to the Chinese Republic
      • When Yuan Shikai tried to make himself emperor, the military objected, and opposition divided the nation.
      • In the provinces, warlords seized power.
      • During the upheaval, foreign powers were able to increase their influence over Chinese affairs.
      • Student protests set off a cultural and intellectual ferment known as the May Fourth Movement.
      • Some Chinese turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin.
    • Leaders for a New China Revolutionary of peasant origins. Believed the Communists should seek support among the large peasant masses. Took over the Guomindang after Sun’s death. Led the Guomindang in a series of “extermination campaigns” against the Communists. With his Guomindang, or Nationalist party, established a government in South China. Turned to the Russians when western powers ignored his pleas for help in building a democratic China. Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi Sun Yixian 4
    • Civil War in China, 1925 – 1935 4
    • Japanese Invasion In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, adding it to the growing Japanese empire. In the face of Japanese aggression, Jiang was forced to form a united front with the Communists against Japan. In 1937, Japanese troops attacked again, overrunning eastern China, including Beijing and Guangzhou. Jiang retreated to the interior and set up his capital at Chongqing. Japanese troops marched into Nanjing. After the city’s surrender, the Japanese killed hundreds of thousands of soldiers and civilians in what came to be known as the “rape of Nanjing.” 4
    • Section 4 Assessment
      • Who led a series of extermination marches against the Communists? a) Mao Zedong b) Jiang Jieshi c) Sun Yixian d) the Japanese
      • During the 1930s, Japan invaded and overran all of the following except a) Beijing. b) Nanjing. c) Chongqing. d) Manchuria.
      4
    • Section 4 Assessment
      • Who led a series of extermination marches against the Communists? a) Mao Zedong b) Jiang Jieshi c) Sun Yixian d) the Japanese
      • During the 1930s, Japan invaded and overran all of the following except a) Beijing. b) Nanjing. c) Chongqing. d) Manchuria.
      4
    • Empire of the Rising Sun
      • How did liberal changes affect Japan during the 1920s?
      • How did nationalists react to Japan’s problems during the Great Depression?
      • How did the militarists use their power?
      5
    • The Nationalist Reaction
      • Economic disaster fed the discontent of the leading military officials and ultranationalists, or extreme nationalists. They condemned politicians for agreeing to western demands to stop overseas expansion.
      • Japanese nationalists were further outraged by racial policies in the United States, Canada, and Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.
      • As the economic crisis worsened, nationalists demanded renewed expansion in search of raw resources.
      • In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would provide an excuse to seize Manchuria from China.
      In 1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan with devastating force. 5 Empire of the Rising Sun
    • Liberal Changes of the 1920s
      • During the 1920s, Japan moved toward greater democracy:
      • Political parties grew stronger.
      • Elected members of the Diet — the Japanese parliament — exerted their power.
      • All adult men won the right to vote.
      • Western ideas about women’s rights had brought few changes.
      • Japan signed agreement with western powers to limit the size of its navy.
      • The government reduced military spending.
      5
    • Serious Problems
      • The economy grew more slowly in the 1920s than at any time since Japan modernized.
      • Rural peasants enjoyed none of the prosperity of city dwellers.
      • Factory workers earning low wages were attracted to the socialist ideas of Marx and Lenin.
      • Members of the younger generation were in revolt against tradition.
      • Tension between the government and the military simmered below the surface.
      Behind the seeming well-being, Japan faced some grave problems. 5
    • Japan on the Rise in the 1920s Hirohito reigned from 1926 to 1989—an astonishing 63 years. During those decades, Japan experienced remarkable successes and appalling tragedies. In this section, we will focus on the 1920s and 1930s, when the pressures of extreme nationalism and economic upheaval set Japan on a militaristic and expansionist path that would engulf all of Asia. A Combination of the Old and the New Although the economy grew throughout the 1920s, it experienced many highs and lows. One low point occurred when a devastating earthquake, one of the most destructive quakes in history, struck the Tokyo area in 1923. The earthquake and the widespread fires it caused resulted in the deaths of over 100,000 people and damaged more than 650,000 buildings. As many as 45 percent of surviving workers lost their jobs because so many businesses were destroyed. With help from the government, the Tokyo area gradually recovered—just as Japan faced a worldwide economic crisis.
    • Japan’s Expanding Empire to 1934 5
    •  
    • Biography: Hirohito Traditional Values Revived Civilian government survived, but the unrest forced the government to accept military domination in 1937. To please the ultranationalists, the government cracked down on socialists and suppressed most democratic freedoms. It revived ancient warrior values and built a cult around Emperor Hirohito, whom many believed was descended from the sun goddess. To spread its nationalist message, the government used schools to teach students absolute obedience to the emperor and service to the state. Hirohito (1901–1989) became emperor of Japan in 1926. As emperor, according to Japanese tradition, he was the nation’s supreme authority and a living god—no one could look at his face or even mention his name. In practice, however, he merely approved the policies that his ministers formulated. Hirohito was a private man who preferred marine biology to power politics. As a result, his role in Japan’s move toward aggression is unclear. Some historians believe that Hirohito did not encourage Japanese military leaders. Others assert that he was actively involved in expansionist policies.  Why was Hirohito given great respect?
    • The Nationalist Reaction
      • Economic disaster fed the discontent of the leading military officials and ultranationalists, or extreme nationalists. They condemned politicians for agreeing to western demands to stop overseas expansion.
      • Japanese nationalists were further outraged by racial policies in the United States, Canada, and Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.
      • As the economic crisis worsened, nationalists demanded renewed expansion.
      • In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would provide an excuse to seize Manchuria from China.
      In 1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan with devastating force. 5
    • How Did Militarists Use Their Power?
      • By the early 1930s, ultranationalists were winning popular support for foreign conquests and a tough stand against western powers.
      • Civilian government survived, but by 1937 it had been forced to accept military domination. To please the ultranationalists, it:
      • cracked down on socialists
      • ended most democratic freedoms
      • revived ancient warrior values
      • built a cult around the emperor
      • focused on spreading the nationalist message in schools
      • renewed efforts at expansion
      5
    • Section 5 Assessment
      • Which of the following did Japanese nationalists demand? a) increased rights for workers ` b) renewed expansion c) the return of Manchuria to China d) increased power for the zaibatsu
      • By 1934, Japan had added all of the following territory to its empire except a) Taiwan. b) Korea.
      • c) Manchuria. d) Mongolia.
      5
    • Section 5 Assessment
      • Which of the following did Japanese nationalists demand? a) increased rights for workers b) renewed expansion c) the return of Manchuria to China d) increased power for the zaibatsu
      • By 1934, Japan had added all of the following territory to its empire except a) Taiwan. b) Korea.
      • c) Manchuria. d) Mongolia.
      5
    • Postwar Issues in Europe
      • Postwar Europe faced grave problems:
      • Returning veterans needed jobs.
      • War-ravaged lands needed to be rebuilt.
      • Many nations owed huge debts because they had borrowed heavily to pay for the war.
      • Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas more popular.
      • The peace settlements dissatisfied many Europeans, especially in Germany and Eastern Europe.
      • Europe lacked strong leaders just when they were most needed.
      1
    • The Great Depression 1 Worldwide interrelationship of governments and economies Huge war debts American loans to Europe Widespread use of credit Overproduction of goods Industrial wages rise as farm earnings fall New York stock market crash Farmers unable to repay loans Banks demand repayment of loans American loans to other countries dry up Without capital, businesses and factories fail Vast unemployment and misery Protective tariffs imposed Loss of faith in capitalism and democracy Authoritarian leaders emerge Rise of fascism and Nazism Governments experiment with social programs People blame scapegoats World War II begins Long-Term Causes Immediate Causes Immediate Effects Long-Term Effects
    • Unemployment, 1928 – 1938 1
    • Britain and France in the Postwar Era
      • The Great Depression intensified existing economic problems.
      • Britain set up a coalition government made up of leaders from all three major parties.
      • The government provided some unemployment benefits.
      • British leaders wanted to relax the Versailles treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany.
      • The French economy recovered fairly quickly.
      • Many political parties competed for power and France was ruled by a series of coalition governments.
      • France created the Maginot Line to secure its borders against Germany.
      • The government strengthened the military and sought alliances with other countries, including the Soviet Union.
      BRITAIN FRANCE 1
    • The United States in the Postwar Era
      • The country emerged from World War I in excellent shape.
      • The United States stayed out of the League of Nations. However, the nation took a leading role in international diplomacy during the 1920s.
      • During a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920, police rounded up suspected foreign-born radicals and expelled a number of them from the United States.
      • Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe.
      • The 1929 stock market crash shattered American prosperity.
      • President Franklin Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, a massive package of economic and social programs, to help combat the Great Depression.
      1
    • Chapter 16: The Rise of Totalitarianism (1919–1939) Section 2: The Western Democracies Stumble Section 1: Postwar Social Changes Section 3: Fascism in Italy Section 5: Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany Section 4: The Soviet Union Under Stalin
    • The Western Democracies
      • What issues faced Europe after World War I?
      • How did the Great Depression begin and spread?
      • How did Britain, France, and the United States try to meet the challenges of the 1920s and 1930s?
      1
    • Section 1 Assessment
      • After World War I, which country was concerned about securing its borders against Germany? a) Italy b) France c) Britain d) the Soviet Union
      • During which year did the unemployment rate peak? a) 1928 b) 1937 c) 1934 d) 1932
      1
    • Section 1 Assessment
      • After World War I, which country was concerned about securing its borders against Germany? a) Italy b) France c) Britain d) the Soviet Union
      • During which year did the unemployment rate peak? a) 1928 b) 1937 c) 1934 d) 1932
      1
    • A Culture in Conflict
      • How did new views revolutionize modern science and thought?
      • What artistic and literary trends emerged in the 1920s?
      • How did western society change after World War I?
      2
    • New Views of the Universe New ideas and scientific discoveries challenged long-held ideas about the nature of the world. Sigmund Freud suggested that the subconscious mind drives much human behavior. Freud pioneered psychoanalysis , a method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders. Albert Einstein advanced his theories of relativity: Measurements of space and time are not absolute. Marie Curie and other scientists experimented with radioactivity. They found that: atoms of certain elements release charged particles. radioactivity could change atoms of one element into atoms of another. PSYCHOLOGY RELATIVITY RADIOACTIVITY 2
    • Artistic and Literary Trends Writers exposed the grim horrors of modern warfare. To many postwar writers, the war symbolized the breakdown of western civilization. Some writers experimented with stream of consciousness , which reveals the character’s innermost thought processes Architects rejected classical traditions and developed new styles to match an industrial, urbanized world. The Bauhaus school blended science and technology with design. Frank Lloyd Wright ’s work reflected the belief that the function of a building should determine its form. In the early 1900s, many western artists rejected traditional styles. Instead of trying to reproduce the real world, they explored other dimensions of color, line, and shape. Cubism, abstract art, and surrealism were some of the styles that developed. LITERATURE ARCHITECTURE ART 2
    •  
    • A Changing Society New technologies helped create a mass culture shared by millions in the world’s developed countries. Labor-saving devices freed women from many time-consuming household chores. Women pursued careers in many arenas. The war changed social values and the class system itself. Affordable cars gave middle-class people greater mobility. Radios brought news, music, and sports into homes throughout the western world. After World War I, many people yearned to return to life as it had been before 1914. But rapid social changes would make it hard to turn back the clock. 2 Rebellious young people rejected the moral values of the Victorian age and chased excitement.
    • Section 2 Assessment
      • What scientist experimented with radioactivity? a) Albert Einstein b) Sigmund Freud c) Salvador Dali d) Marie Curie
      • To many postwar writers, the war symbolized a) the inner strength of mankind. b) the breakdown of civilization. c) the power and strength of nations and individuals. d) hard work and dedication.
      2
    • Section 2 Assessment
      • What scientist experimented with radioactivity? a) Albert Einstein b) Sigmund Freud c) Salvador Dali d) Marie Curie
      • To many postwar writers, the war symbolized a) the inner strength of mankind. b) the breakdown of civilization. c) the power and strength of nations and individuals. d) hard work and dedication.
      2
    • Fascism in Italy
      • How did conditions in Italy favor the rise of Mussolini?
      • How did Mussolini reshape Italy?
      • What were the values and goals of fascist ideology?
      3 Mussolini and the People An excited crowd of women and children greets the Italian leader in 1940.
    • What Is Fascism?
      • In the 1920s and 1930s, fascism meant different things in different countries. All forms of fascism, however, shared some basic features:
      • extreme nationalism
      • glorification of action, violence, discipline, and, above all, blind loyalty to the state
      • rejection of Enlightenment faith in reason and the concepts of equality and liberty
      • rejection of democratic ideas
      • pursuit of aggressive foreign expansion
      • glorification of warfare as a necessary and noble struggle for survival
      3
    • How Did Conditions in Italy Favor the Rise of Mussolini?
      • Italian nationalists were outraged by the Paris peace treaties.
      • Inspired by the revolution in Russia, Italian peasants seized land, and workers went on strike or seized factories.
      • Returning veterans faced unemployment.
      • Trade declined and taxes rose.
      • The government was split into feuding factions and seemed powerless to end the crisis.
      3
    • Mussolini’s Italy The individual was unimportant except as a member of the state. Men were urged to be ruthless warriors. Women were called on to produce more children. Fascist youth groups toughened children and taught them to obey strict military discipline. Mussolini brought the economy under state control. Unlike socialists, Mussolini preserved capitalism. Workers received poor wages and were forbidden to strike. By 1925, Mussolini had assumed the title Il Duce, “The Leader.” In theory, Italy remained a parliamentary monarchy. In fact, it became a dictatorship upheld by terror. The Fascists relied on secret police and propaganda. SOCIAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICY POLITICAL STRUCTURE 3
    •  
    • Section 3 Assessment
      • In Mussolini’s Italy, the government became a a) constitutional monarchy. b) dictatorship upheld by terror. c) parliamentary monarchy. d) democracy.
      • All of the following are features of fascism except
      • a) extreme nationalism.
      • b) glorification of war.
      • c) rejection of Enlightenment ideas.
      • d) belief in democratic ideas.
      3
    • Section 3 Assessment
      • In Mussolini’s Italy, the government became a a) constitutional monarchy. b) dictatorship upheld by terror. c) parliamentary monarchy. d) democracy.
      • All of the following are features of fascism except
      • a) extreme nationalism.
      • b) glorification of war.
      • c) rejection of Enlightenment ideas.
      • d) belief in democratic ideas.
      3
    • Revolution in Russia (1917–1939)
    • Revolution in Russia (1917–1939) Section 1: Two Revolutions in Russia Section 2: From Lenin to Stalin Section 3: Life in a Totalitarian State
    • Two Revolutions in Russia
      • Why did revolution occur in Russia in March 1917?
      • Why did Lenin and the Bolsheviks launch the November revolution?
      • How did the Communists defeat their opponents in Russia’s civil war?
      1
    • Why Did Revolution Occur in Russia in March 1917?
      • Czars had made some reforms, but too few to ease the nation’s tensions.
      • Much of the majority peasant population endured stark poverty.
      • Revolutionaries worked to hatch radical plots.
      • World War I was producing disasters on the battlefield for the Russian army, and food and fuel shortages on the home front.
      • Rasputin’s influence in domestic affairs weakened confidence in the government.
      1
    • Why Did Lenin and the Bolsheviks Launch the November Revolution?
      • Lenin adapted Marxist ideas to fit Russian conditions. He called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
      • Conditions were ripe for Lenin and the Bolsheviks to make their move:
      • The provisional government continued the war effort and failed to deal with land reform.
      • In the summer of 1917, the government launched a disastrous offensive against Germany.
      • The army was in terrible shape and growing numbers of troops mutinied.
      • Peasants seized land and drove off fearful landlords.
      1
    • Russian Civil War
      • How did the Communists defeat their
      • opponents in Russia’s civil war?
      • Lenin quickly made peace with Germany so that the Communists could focus all their energy on defeating enemies at home.
      • The Communists adopted a policy called “war communism.” They took over banks, mines, factories, and railroads, took control of food produced by peasants, and drafted peasant laborers into military or factory work.
      • Trotsky turned the Red Army into an effective fighting force.
      • When the Allies intervened to support the Whites, the Communists appealed to nationalism and urged Russians to drive out the foreigners.
      1
    • From Lenin to Stalin
      • How did the Communist state develop under Lenin?
      • What were the effects of Stalin’s five-year plans?
      • How did Soviet foreign policy affect relations with the western powers?
      2
    • Turning Points in Russia, 1914–1921 2 1914 August World War I begins. 1917 March Revolution forces the czar to abdicate. A provisional government is formed. April Lenin returns to Russia. July Russians suffer more than 50,000 casualties in battle against German and Austro- Hungarian forces. November A second revolution results in Bolshevik takeover of government. December Bolshevik government seeks peace with Germany. 1918 March Russia signs treaty of Brest-Litovsk, losing a large amount of territory. July Civil war between the Reds and Whites begins. The czar and his family are executed. August British, American, Japanese, and other foreign forces intervene in Russia. 1921 March Communist government is victorious. Only sporadic fighting continues.
      • Lenin called for an elite group to a) set up a dictatorship of the czar. b) set up a dictatorship of the proletariat. c) set up a democracy. d) set up a totalitarian state.
      • All of the following helped the Communists to win the civil war except a) war communism. b) making peace with Germany. c) Trotsky’s strengthening of the Red Army. d) an alliance with the Whites.
      Section 1 Assessment 1
    • Section 1 Assessment
      • Lenin called for an elite group to a) set up a dictatorship of the czar. b) set up a dictatorship of the proletariat. c) set up a democracy. d) set up a totalitarian state.
      • All of the following helped the Communists to win the civil war except a) war communism. b) making peace with Germany. c) Trotsky’s strengthening of the Red Army. d) an alliance with the Whites.
      1
    • The Communist State Under Lenin
      • The Communists produced a new constitution that:
      • set up an elected legislature, later called the Supreme Soviet
      • gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote
      • placed all political power, resources, and means of production in the hands of the workers and peasants
      • The new government united much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union.
      • Lenin adopted the New Economic Policy, or NEP.
      • It allowed some capitalist ventures.
      • The state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries. Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit.
      2
    • Soviet Union, 1917–1938 2
    • In this propaganda image, children surround a gentle Stalin. On the occasion of Stalin’s sixtieth birthday, the Communist party newspaper, Pravda,  or “Truth,” printed this praise of Stalin: “ There is no similar name on the planet like the name of Stalin. It shines like a bright torch of freedom, it flies like a battle standard for millions of laborers around the world. . . . Stalin is today’s Lenin! Stalin is the brain and heart of the party! Stalin is the banner of millions of people in their fight for a better life.” Far from helping people fight for a better life, Stalin’s ruthless policies brought suffering and death to millions of Soviets.
    • Food as a Weapon In 1932, when peasants failed to meet unrealistic crop quotas, Stalin retaliated by seizing all of their grain to sell on the market, leaving millions to starve. Below, a woman and her son search for food during the famine.  Describe the effects of Stalin’s ruthless policies on the production of oats, wheat, & potatoes.
    • Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
      • Stalin brought all economic activity under government control. The Soviet Union developed a command economy, in which government officials made all basic economic decisions.
      • Stalin also brought agriculture under government control. He forced peasants to give up their land and live on either state-owned farms or collectives, large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group.
      • Overall, standards of living remained poor. Wages were low, and consumer goods were scarce.
      Once in power, Stalin set out to make the Soviet Union a modern industrial power. He put into place several “five-year plans” aimed at building heavy industry, improving transportation, and increasing farm output. 2
    • The Great Purge
      • At least four million people were purged during the Stalin years.
      • The purges increased Stalin’s power.
      • The victims of the purges included most of the nation’s military leadership. This loss of military leadership would weigh heavily on Stalin in 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
      Stalin harbored obsessive fears that rival party leaders were plotting against him. In 1934, he launched the Great Purge. 2
    • Leon Trotsky was a close friend of Lenin and shared idealistic ideas about the Communist state. He can be seen with Lenin in both photos. But Trotsky was deported in1929 and declared “an enemy of the State”, as a threat to Stalin’s power, so Stalin had Trotsky airbrushed out of the pix. Many others will be “ erased”. Some for real!
    • Stalin’s enemies just seem to disappear! Nikolai Yezhov, chief of the Soviet secret police knew where too many bodies were buried, so he is made to vanish. The Case of the Vanishing Commissar
    • Soviet Foreign Policy
      • Between 1917 and 1939, the Soviet Union pursued two very different goals in foreign policy.
      • As Communists, both Lenin and Stalin wanted to bring about the worldwide revolution that Marx had predicted.
      • Lenin formed the Communist International, or Comintern, which aided revolutionary groups around the world.
      • As Russians, they wanted to guarantee their nation’s security by winning the support of other countries.
      • The Soviet Union sought to join the League of Nations.
      • The Comintern’s propaganda against capitalism made western powers highly suspicious of the Soviet Union.
      2
      • The New Economic Policy a) prohibited all capitalist ventures. b) called for all businesses to be privately owned. c) allowed some capitalist ventures. d) put trade in the hands of the business class.
      • The goal of the Comintern was to a) help the Soviet Union get into the League of Nations. b) aid revolutionary groups around the world. c) create an international organization that included the western powers.
      • d) help the Soviet Union convert to a capitalist society.
      Section 2 Assessment 2
    • Section 2 Assessment
      • The New Economic Policy a) prohibited all capitalist ventures. b) called for all businesses to be privately owned. c) allowed some capitalist ventures. d) put trade in the hands of the business class.
      • The goal of the Comintern was to a) help the Soviet Union get into the League of Nations. b) aid revolutionary groups around the world. c) create an international organization that included the western powers. d) help the Soviet Union convert to a capitalist society.
      2
    • A Totalitarian State
      • Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. In this form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens.
      • To ensure obedience, Stalin used secret police (the KGB), censorship, violent purges, and terror.
      • The party bombarded the public with relentless propaganda.
      • The Communists replaced religion with their own ideology.
      3
    • Changes in Soviet Society, Comrade!
      • The Communists transformed Russian life.
      • They created a society where a few elite groups emerged as a new ruling class.
      • The state provided free education, free medical care, day care for children, inexpensive housing, and public recreation. But quality of everything was poor and the average person had no choices.
      • Women were granted equality under the law.
      • There was no place for the Church
      • in the regime.
      3
    • The Party Versus the Church To weaken the power of the Russian Orthodox Church, the party seized church property and converted churches into offices and museums. Here, Red Army soldiers carry off religious relics from a Russian church.  How might the policy of destroying churches in such a public way have backfired on the party?
    • State Control and the Arts
      • Stalin forced artists and writers to conform to a style called socialist realism. Its goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light. Lots of statues of himself were evident.
      • Government controlled what books were published, what music was heard, and which works of art were displayed. Censorship and propaganda were rampant and the State controlled all news, information, and media.
      • Writers, artists, and composers faced government persecution. They were killed or sent to Siberia, or imprisoned in a gulag .
      • Few people were allowed to emigrate and fewer people were allowed in.
      3
      • Stalin used all of the following to create a totalitarian state except a) secret police. b) propaganda. c) religion. d) censorship.
      • In Soviet society, women were a) considered second-class citizens. b) stripped of all past freedoms. c) granted equality under the law. d) only allowed to hold certain jobs.
      • Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
      Section 3 Assessment 3
      • Stalin used all of the following to create a totalitarian state except a) secret police. b) propaganda. c) religion. d) censorship.
      • In Soviet society, women were a) considered second-class citizens. b) stripped of all past freedoms. c) granted equality under the law. d) only allowed to hold certain jobs.
      Section 3 Assessment 3
    • Hitler/Soviet Pact
    • Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
    • Hitler and the Rise of Nazi Germany
      • What problems did the Weimar Republic face?
      • How did Hitler come to power?
      • What political, social, economic, and cultural policies did Hitler pursue?
      • How did Hitler take action against German Jews?
      4
    • The Weimar Republic
      • The government was weak because Germany had many small parties.
      • The government came under constant fire from both the left and the right.
      • Germans of all classes blamed the Weimar Republic for the hated Versailles treaty.
      • When Germany fell behind in reparations payments, France occupied the coal-rich Ruhr Valley.
      • Runaway inflation spread misery and despair.
      In 1919, German leaders set up a democratic government known as the Weimar Republic. The republic faced severe problems from the start. 4
    • Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power Hitler fought in the German army in World War I. In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wing extremists. Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers, or Nazi, party. In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. He was imprisoned for treason. In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology. Nazi membership grew to almost a million. In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany. Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany a one-party state and purged his own party. 4
    • The Third Reich School courses and textbooks were written to reflect Nazi racial views. The Nazis sought to purge, or purify, German culture. Hitler sought to replace religion with his racial creed. The Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology. Hitler spread his message of racism. The Nazis sought to limit women’s roles. Hitler launched a large public works program. Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty. Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the hated Treaty of Versailles. Hitler organized a system of terror, repression, and totalitarian rule. POLITICAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICIES SOCIAL POLICIES CULTURAL POLICIES 4
    • Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews. Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in other countries. In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht , or the “Night of Broken Glass.” Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state. Hitler planned the “final solution” —the extermination of all Jews. 4
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Section 4 Assessment
      • What was Hitler’s policy on religion? a) He tolerated all religions except Judaism. b) He sought to replace it with his racial creed. c) He believed religious piety strengthened the German nation.
      • d) He banned all religions except Judaism.
      • The Nuremberg laws
      • a) called for Hitler to assume absolute power in Germany.
      • b) authorized Hitler to rearm Germany.
      • c) forced Germany to pay war reparations. d) placed severe restrictions on Jews.
      4
    • Section 4 Assessment
      • What was Hitler’s policy on religion? a) He tolerated all religions except Judaism. b) He sought to replace it with his racial creed. c) He believed religious piety strengthened the German nation.
      • d) He banned all religions except Judaism.
      • The Nuremberg laws
      • a) called for Hitler to assume absolute power in Germany.
      • b) authorized Hitler to rearm Germany.
      • c) forced Germany to pay war reparations. d) placed severe restrictions on Jews.
      4
    •