DefinitionLaundry is an art and a science.It is an art because it requires a certain degree ofskill or perfection in an individual to complete thejob.It is a science because it involves the use of water,chemicals, machines and modern techniqueswhich is based on scientific principles.
Types of LaundryThere are five types of laundry1. Institutional laundry or in house laundry such as hotel and hospital laundry or any laundry which is on premise. Such laundry’s may or may not cater to customers other than to those in the institutions in which they are housed. These laundry’s are usually spread on an area measuring more than 2000 sq.ft and make uses of industrial laundry equipment. For e.g. Hyatt Regency Laundry, Bombay Hospital laundry.2. Commercial laundry or stand alone laundry are establishment which caters to anyone and everyone purely on commercial terms and conditions. These laundry’s are slightly bigger than the institutional laundry as they cater to more than one client at a time. For e.g. Akash Laundry, Leach and Weborny, Bandbox etc.,
3. Rental laundry are laundry’s that not only cleans the linens but also supplies the linens on rental basis to hotels and other institutions at a nominal charge. Such kind of laundry exists mostly in Europe and the US.4. Retail laundry are laundry’s that are very small in size and processes only personal garments or customer clothings. For e.g. Three star laundry, Beauty Arts etc.,5. Laundromat or coin operated laundry are laundry’s with washing and drying facilities which is normally operated by the customer themselves. This is a small set up usually in a mall or a petrol pump where people can walk in and wash their dirty linens. One example in India is the IFB Laundromat located at several petrol station in Mumbai.
Laundry capacityFor an housekeeper it is very important to understandthe load generations in the hotel based on which thelaundry size can be determined.Therefore one must know the following:1. Washing capacity2. Drying capacity (bath linens, uniform& guest laundry)3. Pressing capacity (staff uniforms, guest laundry)4. Ironing capacity (bed linens, f&b linens)
Washing capacity: The size of any in house laundry is directlyproportional to the number of rooms in that hotel. Therefore, if anHotel is having 300 rooms then we can do the following calculations.Ttl no. of rooms x load generation/room = total washing capacity300rooms x 10kgs = 3000kgs per dayPlease note that loads generations per room includes everythingsuch as your room linens, f&b linens, staff uniforms and also yourguest laundry.10kgs per room is an international benchmark for determining thesize of an in house laundry. Once you have identified your washingcapacity, you can now easily determined your drying, pressing andironing capacity.
Drying capacity: 60% of the washing capacity.Pressing capacity: 20% of the washing capacity.Ironing capacity: 40% of the washing capacity.Example: Hotel in house laundry is operated on a 24 hour basis.Total load per day = 3000 kgs (100% occupancy)Average wash cycle = 1.20 hrsActual washing hours in a day = 24/1.20 hrs = 20 hrsThus washing capacity required per hour = 3000kgs/20hrs150kgs per hourThe Drying Capacity required per hour (60% of washing capacity)90kgs per hourThe pressing capacity required per hour (20% of washing capacity)30kgs per hour or 30kgs x 2pcs(average 2pcs/kgs) =60pcs per hourThe ironing capacity required per hour (40% of washing capacity)60kgs per hour or 60kgs x 3.5pcs(average 3.5pcs/kgs) =210 pcs per hour
List of Laundry EquipmentsBased on the above the preceding figures laundry equipment can bedetermined.Washer Extractors:55 kgs (2nos) + 25 kgs (1 no) + 10 kgs (1no)Tumbler Dryers:35kgs (2nos) + 20 kgs (1no)Dry Clean Machine:12-15 kgs (1 no)Flat Work Ironer:3000mm x 800mm x 1 roll chest heated (1 no)Steam Utility legger:2 nosCotton Utility legger:2 nosCuff & Collar:1 no
Categories of laundryLaundry job can be categorize into three1. Flat2. Plush3. FormFlat category : All room linens, F&B linens or guest laundry thatare flat such as bed sheets, pillow covers, table clothes,napkins, etc., is washed and ironed without drying.Plush category : All bath linens such as towels, bathrobes,etc., that are washed, dried and folded and need not be ironed.Form category : All staff uniforms and guest laundry which hasgot a shape and form such as trousers, shirts, dresses which iswashed, dried and pressed.
Laundry ProcessThe following are the main process in a laundry job.1. Receiving2. Registering3. Marking4. Segregation and Weighting5. Pre-spotting6. Wetcleaning/Drycleaning7. Post spotting8. Drying9. Pressing/ironing10. Checking11. Sorting and packing12. Billing13. Delivering
Laundry elementsThe important elements for a successful laundrywash process are1. Mechanical Action2. Water3. Chemicals4. Temperature5. Time
Wash wheel Temperature ChemicalIdeal temperature will Industrial washingdepend upon the requires 9 -11 ph.fabric and soilage. Water TimeIdeal water condition It will depend uponwould be hardness the fabric and60ppm and upto 100 tds soilage.
Laundry spotting chemicalsLaundry spotting chemicals are used based on the nature of thestain, fabric and colour.Aqueous and Non-aqueousAqueous spotting chemicals are used for water based stains suchas blood, food, rust, dyes, earth etc., For e.g. ammonia, hydroflouricacid, bleach, oxalic acid, acetic acid, sodium hydrosulphide, sodiumthiosulphate.Non-aqueous spotting chemicals are used for oil based stainssuch as ink, grease, paints, lip-sticks etc., For e.g. amyl acetate,carbon tetrachloride, thinner and other forms of solvent.Reputed brands available in the market are A.L.Wilson, Bussats,Rexodan, Ecolab.In India most of the chemicals are home made such as Greenmixture, BSR, HF, Cuff&Collar, Hydro powder etc.,
Typical washing formulaWhile making any washing formula one needs to consider thequantity, soilage, fabric content and the colour. A simple F&Blinens wash formula would consists of the following steps.1. Pre wash/Emulsifications2. Main wash3. Bleach4. Rinse 15. Rinse 26. Neutralizing/Sour7. Starching8. Final Extract
Wash steps Steps Time Water Level Temp Chem ProcessPrewash 5 min Warm Medium 40 C Clax 200s EmulsifyingMain wash 12 min Hot Medium 80 C Clax 100 OB Washing Clax Build Bleach 6 min Warm Medium 45 C Chlorine Bleaching Bleach Rinse 1 3 min Cold High n.a. n.a. Rinsing Rinse 2 2 min Cold High n.a. n.a. Rinsing Sour 5 min Cold Medium n.a. Clax Neutralizin neutralizer g Starch 4 min Warm Medium 40 C Maize starch Starching powder Extract 6 min n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Extracting
Laundry EquipmentsThe most commonly used laundry machines are1. Washer/Extractor Auxiliary equipment2. Dryers 1. Boiler3. Dry clean machine 2. Compressors4. Marking Machine 3. Dry set vacuum5. Spotting machine6. Cuff & Collar press Supporting Plant7. Body & Bosom press 1. Water softening/RO plant8. Mushroom press 2. Effluent treatment plant9. Cotton utility legger10. Steam utility legger Transporting11. Form finisher 1. Wet Linen Trolleys12. Touch up board 2. Dry Linen Trolleys12. Flat work ironer 3. Mobile Linen Trolleys13. Bed sheet folder 4. Folding Tables14. Bagging machine 5. Linen Flapping Trolley15. Shirt Body Unit 6. Pigeon Holes Rack16. Towel Folder17. Uniform conveyor
FabricsFor a successful laundry operation it is very important tohave a good knowledge about the fabrics because that isthe main responsibility of the laundry.There are various kinds of fabrics that are used in thehotels for different purposes such asLinens - used for making especially room linens such as bed sheets, pillow covers, duvet covers etc., This is mostly derive from the flax plant.Cotton - used for making towels and especially F&B linens such as table cloths, dinner napkins, trolley covers etc., This is derive from the cotton plant.
Blend – These fabrics are mixture of synthetic and natural or two different kinds of synthetic yarns used mainly for stitching uniforms, upholstery and drapery. For e.g. polycotton, terrycotton, polyviscose, etc.,Classifications of fabricsFabrics are classified into the followingNatural – Silk, Cotton, Wool, Linen, JuteSynthetic/man-made – Polyester, Nylon, Spandex,Regenerated – Viscose
Linen Basics It is important to know the basic parameters while selecting any linens for use. Bed linen –1. Count This determine the fineness of the fabric. The higher the count, the finer the fabric. The acceptable standard in a star hotel is 40/40.2. Reed pick (weft) This determine the strength and the stability of the fabric. The higher the reed pick better the quality. The acceptable standard is above 300 reed pick per square inch for bed sheets and around 250 for f&b linens. Here it is important that the threads counts are equal vertically and horizontally to maintain the dimensional stability.
Toweling- Toweling fabrics are specially made as it consists of a base clothes and a piled surface. Therefore, a good toweling cloth will have the following parameters.2. Base cloth The base cloth must have a minimum reed pick measuring 115 to 118 counts per square inch.3. Piles length The piles length must be minimum 5.2 to 5.5 mm in height.4. GSM It is also know as grams per sq.meter. Higher the GSM thicker the towel. Hotels normally use 600 to 650 GSM. For bath mat the GSM will be slightly higher around 800 GSM.