Introduction, ask questions:How much thought is put into getting ready in the morning? How do you pick out your clothes? How many blue shirts do the guys own? How many black dresses can women own?This is now the norm. You can have 18 blue shirts, 7 black dresses and still need to go shopping for another blue shirt or black dress.Why is this the norm and why can they all be the same and yet different?
Textile Industry and the Power Loom1813, France C. Lowell introduced the power-loom to New England.Power-loom was not well received in England and had a lot of problems that needed to be worked out.Americans, such as Lowell and his business partners were willing to give it a try and to improve the power-loom.At the same time, cotton production was starting to develop itself in the south.No one thought that cotton would catch on because it was a new product and considered inferior to linen.Lowell improved the power-loom. Made textile of the same quality that you would get from a hand-loom. Yet, no one wanted to buy an untried product. They also didn’t see any value in mass producing textiles. WHY: Clothes were made by going to a tailor or seamstress and ordering an item, as needed. The other choice was to make it your self.The power-loom was an innovation that was a head of it’s time.
Invented in France, improved in America, sold to the English and flourished in America.Since 1755, Austria, England and Germany had been working on an acceptable sewing machine.1830, French Tailor Barthelemy Thimonnier (BT) patented the first workable sewing machine.BT’s chain-stitch, one-thread machine was used to manufacture uniforms. MASS PRODUCED CLOTHES WERE FOR MILITARY USE. BT was nearly stoned to death, because of his sewing machine. 200 Parisian tailors felt that his machine would put them out of work.By 1848, American Elias Howe improved the two-thread machine invented by fellow American Walter Hunt. No one in American wanted the machine, so he sold it to William F. Thomas of Cheapside, London.Two years later, Howe is fired, goes home to American and files a lawsuit against Singer, Wheeler & Wilson and Grower & Baker who had been producing his machine during this absence.10 years later: 1860 the clothing manufacturers started using the sewing machine. (paper pattern also supported this movement)THEORY APPLIED: Christensen, “Disruptive Technologies: Catching The Wave” (original HBR article, 1995, eReserve) and Chapter 5 The Innovation-Decision Process from Rogers (eReserve)Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, ConfirmationLowell and Howe saw a need, they knew they had to persuade other and once the decision was made it was just a matter of time (about 10+ years for the implementation and confirmation of their innovations)
Purpose of Power Loom & Sewing Machine? Mass production of uniforms for SoldiersWWI & WWII --- women started to enter the workforce as men went to war. In addition to nursing, women started to work in offices and factories. In 1900, one in five women were in the paid labor force. In 1940, one in four women.“But by mid-century, women’s labor force participation rates began to climb, reaching 60 percent in 1998. (Farnsworth Riche, 2000)Clothing started to change, it became simplified and easier to mass produce.Automobiles and movies --- you no longer had to go where the train took you. Plus you could see your favorite movie star on the silver screen and what they are wearing.Clothing manufactures started mass production, mass variation and as technology speed up, so did the fashion industry and demand for new clothes, new styles.Moduler clothing production is seen as an effort to speed up the clothing production and we see a trend in customize clothing by “mix and match”. (Land’s End, Banana Republic)Change in production due to new manufacturing technologies ( CAD, CAM, FMS) and increased pace of technological change --- shortening product life cycles (Kotha, 1995).Citation: Farnsworth Riche, M. (2000). America's diversity and growth: Signposts for the 21st century [special topic]. Population Bulletin. 55 (2). Kotha, S. (1995). Mass Customization: Implementing the Emerging Paradigm for Competitive Advantage. Strategic Management Journal. 16, 21-42.
Going Digital, Customization, 3D Printing, Body Scanning1995 Levi Strauss & Company buys --- custom fit software“To illustrate, the recent foray by Levi Strauss & Company into mass customization of women’s blue jeans indicated that an external software firm, Custom Clothing Technology Inc. was instrumental in developing the ‘system’ that permits Levi Strauss to adopt mass customization of jeans.” (Koth, 1995).Switching from traditional to electronic purchases: “52 percent tendency to switch from off-line to on-line” (Gupta, et al, ).“Body scan technology applications will continue to evolve as scanner technology costs go down, just as computer and communications technology has before it.” (Loker, et al, 2004).Citation: Gupta, A., Su, B.-c., & Walter, Z. (2004). An Empirical Study of Consumer Switching from Traditional to Electronic Channels: A Purchase-Decision Process Perspective. International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 8 (3), 131-161.Kotha, S. (1995). Mass Customization: Implementing the Emerging Paradigm for Competitive Advantage. Strategic Management Journal. 16, 21-42.Loker, S., Cowie, L., Ashdown, S., & Lewis, V. (2004). Female Consumers&rsquo; Reactions to Body Scanning. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. 22 (4), 151-160.
Merger of mass production and customization, body scan on file, order clothes any time and any whereLevi Strauss and Theories: Christensen, “Disruptive Technologies: Catching The Wave” (original HBR article, 1995, eReserve) and Chapter 5 The Innovation-Decision Process from Rogers (eReserve) --- Knowledge, Persuasion, Decision, Implementation, Confirmation1995 Levi Strauss buys custom fit software --- are they a head of their time?They know that they need to reach a fragmenting market. Studies are being done in all areas of manufacturing to see how and if mass production and mass customization can be done. Consumers are already asking for more control of their final product (t-shirts and shoes). The decision has been made to start customizing products and some implementations have been made. Since consumers are buy the modular aspect of mix and match suites, etc., by size and color…when will we have more control over our final clothing product?Prediction: body scanning for size will be common practice and at some point you will be able to do it from home. Thus enabling you to continue shopping on-line.
What We Wear: Technology & the production of clothing
Auburn University Special Collections & Archives. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://media.duc.auburn.edu/media/881789710015.jpg Slide 2 Photo of man working on a traditional handloom. Levi Strauss. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.levistrauss.com/ Slide 5, partial screen shot of Levi Strauss website. University of North Texas: The North Texan Online. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.unt.edu/northtexan/timetracks-moonmaids-sewing.htm Slide 3 Photo of women sewing. Taken as a planned advertisement for Singer Sewing Machine Co. Wordle.net. (n.d.). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.wordle.net/ Slide 6, wordle image can be accessed at: http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/1732045/Untitled Credits Present by Elizabeth G. Noagi Contact Information: email@example.com or www.gretionthego.wordpress.com Winter 2010: The Evolution and Trends in Digital Media Technologies University of Washington MCDM Program