CAUS ESReaction against Puritanism:Oliver Cromwell was astaunch puritan andpropagated Puritanism. Buthe was at the same timehonest and sincere, otherpuritans were not so. Theywere selfish, greedy anddishonest. Because of theirmean diplomacy the peoplewere depressed andunhappy. They wanted to putan end to Puritanism wereweak and as soon asCromwell died, the path formonarchy was cleared.
Cromwells Despotism:Oliver Cromwell establisheddespotism with the help of thearmy. He taxed people as hewished and introduced religiousreforms. He also restrictedsocial and entertainingpractices of the people.This very much touchedpersonal life of the masses forwhich they were not prepared.The people were fed up withthis sort of Government andcame to hate the Governmentof Cromwell. Thus thecommonwealth lost peoplessympathy. After Olivers deathhis son, Richard was made theprotector and the commander.He was not a soldier andtherefore failed.
Richards Rupture withParliament:After Oliver Cromwells death,his son became the protectorand Commander. However, thenew Protector, Richard Cromwellpicked up a quarrel with thearmy. It proposed to appointFleetwood as their Commander.Richard turned down thissuggestion with contempt.
This led to a quarrel betweenParliament and army. At thispoint the Parliament wasdominated by the Republicans,who also turned against thecommonwealth. In the end,Richard dissolved theParliament. Thus Parliamentand army both girded up theirloins against the protector. AParliament was called by thearmy which compelled Richardto resign in 1659. RichardCromwell had proved an utterfailure.
Stages towards Restoration:Before his death, OliverCromwell had nominated hisson, Richard, as his successor.But he proved to be aworthless person. Since hewas not a soldier, army officerstook under advantage of thesituation. They did not obeyhim and started behaving in anarbitrary manner. The resultwas corruption and disorder.The situation was getting frombad to worse. Therefore, somehigh officials revolted againstRichard Cromwell under theleadership of General Monk. In1659 a parliament was called.
In this, the members of theHouse of Commonsquarreled with the armyofficers on the prevailingsystem of governance inthe country. After thedissolution by the protector,some members of theParliament collectedthemselves at Westminster, into a ramp andcaptured political power.However, soon it becameclear that the Parliamentwould not be able to pull onfor long. General Lambertdissolved the Parliamentand proposed to set upmilitary rule.
EFFECT SInauguration of a limitedmonarchy:Monarchy was establishedagain in 1660. The Stuartswere reseated on the Englishthrone. However, theirpowers were restricted. Thisnaturally gave recognition toParliament.
Emergence of apowerful Parliament:By the Restoration,Parliament came to have asay over the king. In otherwords, along with themonarchy, Parliament wasalso restored. The powersof the Parliament wereextremely limited duringthe rule of thecommonwealth andprotectorate. Besides, theHouse of Lords was doneaway with.
Recognition of oldreligion:The old Anglican Churchwas taken by theParliament under itscontrol. Before this, thecontrol used to beexercised entirely by theking. Before theParliament had a majorityof the kings supporters,therefore the convictionParliament was dissolvedand the cavalierParliament wasconstituted.The restoration of theAnglican Church wasmother result of thisRestoration.
Changes in social life:In order to raise the level oflife, Oliver Cromwell hadplaced limitation on themeans of entertainment.However, as soon asCharles II ascended thethrone all such restrictionswere lifted. Peoples lifeonce again became colorfuland romantic. In socialfield, the people startedfeeling as comfortable asthey did before the civilwar.
However, this had adegrading influence onthe clergy. Instead ofpenance theclergymen gavethemselves togambling, wine andwomen. Peoplebecame lazy andimmoral. High idealswere replaced by lowideals, Thus besidesother monarchical andParliamentarychanges, there werereaching andsweeping changes inthe social field also.
Restoration of Money andProperty:During the commonwealthsrule the properties andestates of the royalists wereforfeited. Besides, those whoopposed Cromwell in any wayor showed their inclination formonarchy were givenpunishments.When monarchy was restoredin the country the forfeitedlands and properties wererestored to the owners. Thusthe position of the high classfarmers and landlords werere-established. People startedfeeling more comfortable asthe English people areconservative by temperament.