The Rise of Openness and Online Learning


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Presentation at the eLearning Update Conference 22 July 2014, Emperors Palace, Johannesburg. Focuses on open educational practices and online learning.

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  • “Openness” can now be associated with learning materials, platforms and practices

    Downes – first admissions were open, then educational resources and now whole courses are open. Proponents demand that learning be free of charge and that materials can be reused

    Image: Teaching Open Source Practices, Open Source. Com CC-BY-SA

  • A major problem is still access and cost (Downes)

    Image: Ward Rounds, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, University of Ghana, CC-BY-NC
    University of Ghana improved student access to materials by providing case studies and demos (paper and video) and making these OER.
  • Why is it important? Openness tackles the challenge of widening access to information and knowledge.

    Sharing – without sharing there is no learning and knowledge can be given without giving away
    Educational sharing means adapting or changing, but copyright restricts this

    Open Education encompasses resources, tools and practices that employ a framework of open sharing to improve educational access and effectiveness worldwide. (van Valkenburg)

    Image: Sarah Browning - Open Book [CC-BY-NC]
  • Retain - the right to make, own, and control copies of the content (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage)
    Reuse - the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)
    Revise - the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
    Remix - the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
    Redistribute - the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)

    Openness gives us permission to make changes and improvements (Wiley)

    Image by Sunshine Connelly [CC-BY] adapted from original by RecycleThis [CC-BY]

  • T&L: OERs can form a part of the content of teaching and learning, MOOCs can be a part of OERs
    Research: Open access can be a part of research
    MOOCs intersect with Research as most MOOCs do not contain OER, some are a research exercise

  • Open Learning: Approach to education that seeks to remove barriers to learning, while aiming to provide students with a reasonable chance of success in an education system centred on their particular needs. Gives students flexibility and choice over what, when, where, at what pace, and how they learn

    Commonwealth of Learning notes that open learning gives learners choices about: Medium or media (for example, print, on-line, television, or video); Place of study (at home, in the workplace, or on campus); Pace of study (closely paced or unstructured); Support mechanisms (for example, tutors on demand, audio conferences, or computer-assisted learning); Entry and exit points

    Image: JISC [CC-BY-NC-ND]
  • Success through learner support, contextually appropriate resources and sound pedagogical practices
    Learner-centred: Encourage active engagement leading to independent and critical thinking
    RPL: wherever possible; arrangements for credit transfer and articulation between qualifications facilitate further learning

    Image: Lane Hartwell “Mini Wikipedia globe” CC-BY-SA
  • Educational provision includes the development of resources designed for independent and collaborative learning. A logical place to start when considering the resources needed to support the curriculum is to consider what already exists.
    OER goes beyond just sharing materials. By openly licensing these materials it enables others to remix, repurpose, improve, and redistribute educational materials.
  • Open educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks, streaming videos, multimedia applications, podcasts, or any other materials designed for use in teaching and learning) that are openly available for use by educators and students, without the need to pay royalties or license fees.
    OER can exist as smaller, stand-alone resources (reusable learning objects) that can be mixed and combined to form larger pieces of content or as larger course modules or full courses. OER can also include simulations, virtual laboratories, collections, journals, and tools. These materials are considered open if they are released under an open license such as a Creative Commons license.
  • Without pay or permission, these licences allow you to copy and distribute the material.
    Authors retain copyright
  • Without pay or permission, these licences allow you to copy and distribute the material.
    Authors retain copyright with CC licenses
  • The problem MOOCs succeed in solving is: to provide free university teaching for highly qualified professionals but we need to find innovative ways of teaching and learning to cope with expanding need for education (and the cost thereof if able to find more teachers) (Laurillard in Downes).
    Why are institutions running MOOCs? (extend reach, build brand, reduce costs, improve outcomes) (Downes)

    Image: Mathieu Plourde “MOOC Poster” CC-BY
  • The ‘disruptive’ in MOOCs is not size or pedagogy or even internet (though all are changed) – it’s that they are free and open
  • Categories of MOOCs by CILT
  • MOOCs tend to occupy the more informal space of education, but this is starting to change
  • Software distributed along with its source code. Well-known open source projects are the Linux operating system, the Mozilla Firefox Web browser, and the productivity suite

    Image: Per Erik Strandberg – A Toolbox – [CC-BY-SA}
  • Image: Adapted from: Fred Cavazza, Social Media Landscape [CC-BY-NC-SA]
  • Image: Why Open Access Matters, Kingsley and Brown, CC-BY
    Rising prices of academic journals have meant some too expensive to access
    Open Access: articles that are freely and openly available for reading, reviewing and distributing derivative works
    Benefits: Increase exposure, increased citations

  • Open Access - – Canada McGill Uni (1m)

    Other useful videos:
    - Scientist meets Publisher - (2m 58s) (value of video is that it is questioning something that we thought we did not have a choice about previously…)
    - Open Access Explained! (8 min)
  • Image: “Open Here” JISC. CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Image: “Playing with Media” Wesley Fryer CC-BY
    Strategy to use learning technologies in support of enhancing T&L …
  • Image: “Flipped Learning Design in VET” Vanguard Visions [CC-BY]
    BM: What kind of teacher How do we need to change the way we teach & learn?
  • Changed licence to 4.0
  • The Rise of Openness and Online Learning

    1. 1. The Rise of Openness and Online Learning Greig Krull and Brenda Mallinson 22 July 2014 eLearning Update Conference Emperors Palace, Kempton Park
    2. 2. • Open education • Open learning • Open online courses • Open educational resources • Open licensing • Open access • Open source Open CC-BY-SA Adapted from Czerniewicz (2012) CC-BY-SA Openness???
    3. 3. What challenges are we facing? University of Ghana CC-BY-NC
    4. 4. Why the need for openness? Browning [CC-BY-NC]
    5. 5. • Free to Retain • Free to Reuse • Free to Revise • Free to Remix • Free to Redistribute Wiley 5Rs framework What does “openness” mean?
    6. 6. Open Education Teaching and Learning Research Open Educational Resources Open Access Open Courseware MOOCs Open Educational Systems and Technology
    7. 7. What is Open Learning? JISC CC-BY-NC-ND • Remove barriers to learning • Provide students reasonable chance for success • Centred on learner needs • Flexibility and choice
    8. 8. Principles for Open Learning • Opportunities and capacity for lifelong learning • Learner-centred • Flexibility: increasingly determine where, when, what & how • Recognise prior learning & experience • Conditions for fair chance of learner success Hartwell [CC-BY-SA]
    9. 9. Open Educational Resources (OER) “Teaching and learning resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others” Hewlett Foundation
    10. 10. OER examples include textbooks, videos, podcasts, simulations, websites, course materials and more
    11. 11. Open Licenses Open licenses allow you to copy and distribute material, without requiring payment or permission
    12. 12. A Spectrum of Licenses
    13. 13. Mathieu Plourde CC-BY What are MOOCs?
    14. 14. The rise of Openness… “The real revolution is that universities, with scarcity at the heart of their business models, are embracing openness” Sir John Daniel (2012)
    15. 15. Introduce fields and support for undergraduates Develop skills and introduce topics for postgraduates Special interest topics for postgraduates Continuing education and qualifications Introduce topics with high-profile presenters Deacon, A, Small, J and Walji, S (2014) [CC-BY-SA]
    16. 16. Course Landscape in Higher Education Deacon, A, Small, J and Walji, S (2014) [CC-BY-SA]
    17. 17. MOOC Platforms & Portals
    18. 18. Free and Open Source Software Strandberg [CC-BY-SA] • Lower-cost technology options • Able to use and/or modify the code
    19. 19. Platforms RSS Content Curation Discussion Groups Blog and Microblog Social Networks Multi- media Sharing Virtual Meeting Rooms Free and Open Source Tools Adapted from: Cavazza, Social Media Landscape [CC-BY-NC-SA]
    20. 20. Open Access
    21. 21. McGill University [CC-BY] Why Open Access?
    22. 22. Questions for Reflection…
    23. 23. 1. Do you have a plan or strategy for opening your education provision? JISC CC-BY-NC-ND
    24. 24. 2. Do you have a plan or strategy for learning technologies or new methods of delivery? Fryer CC-BY
    25. 25. 3. How do we teach and learn when learning becomes open and online? Vanguard Visions [CC-BY]
    26. 26. Thank You! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. and greigk_za Greig Krull and Brenda Mallinson
    27. 27. References • Bates, T and Sangra, A (2011) Managing Technology in Higher Education: Strategies for Transforming Teaching and Learning. John Wiley & Sons. • Butcher, N and Hoosen, S (2014). A Guide to Quality in Post-Traditional Online Higher Education. Academic Partnerships [CC-BY-SA] • Czerniewicz, L. 2012. Open Education: Why it matters to South Africa [CC-BY] • Daniel, J (2012). Making Sense of MOOCs: Musings in a Maze of Myth, Paradox and Possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. [CC-BY] • Deacon, A, Small, J and Walji, S (2014). Developing World MOOCs: A workshop on MOOCs in Africa. e/merge Africa. [CC-BY-SA] • Downes, S (2014). Beyond Free: Open Learning in a Networked World. [CC-BY-NC-SA] • Saide (2012). Empowering Learners through Open Learning. [CC-BY] • Wiley, D (nd). The 5 Rs Framework • Van Valkenburg, W (2014). Open Education Workshop for the International Conference on E-learning. OpenEducation Consortium [CC-BY]
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