Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

ICT Integration in Higher Education in Africa - Challenges and Opportunities

1,304

Published on

Saide presentation at the ICT in Higher Education Conference, 14 - 17 September 2012, Kempton Park, Johannesburg. Theme: "An African Perspective". Presentation on the challenges and opportunities for …

Saide presentation at the ICT in Higher Education Conference, 14 - 17 September 2012, Kempton Park, Johannesburg. Theme: "An African Perspective". Presentation on the challenges and opportunities for ICT integration in Higher Education. It includes case studies on PHEA ETI and OER Africa.

Published in: Lifestyle, Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,304
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • New Media Consortium (NMC) – international community of educational technology experts – research looks at impact of educational technology globally in next 5 yearsWork and learning integrated – rise of informal learningDoesn’t matter where it is stored as long as it is accessible – wherever we are and what device we useTeamwork and communication via Dropbox, Skype, GoogleDocs, wikisInformation is everywhere – make sense and evaluateBudget cuts, rise of social networks, hybrid enables best of bothConnect curriculum to real life, more student-centred approaches
  • Maintain quality while cutting costs – support growing numbers of students with fewer resources; inclusion of corporate learning institutionsCitation-based – difficult to track sharing via social media ,new reviews: link to blogs, retweetingVary rare in education – develop and use digital media literacy skillsRigid processes and practices, status quo, adoption of new technologies seen as outside of role of researcherOpen content, social media, internet access
  • 21st century skills -Critical thinking and problem solving, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity and innovation, Technology and Life skills
  • Major constraints:Bandwidth, Limited electricity, Financial resources, Human resources, Hardware, Training
  • Increases in bandwidth and computing power available have made it possible to conduct complex calculations on large data sets – data processingGreater access to academic resources, greatly enriching research possibilities, Link researchers globallyonline full text databases and digital research libraries + Google, Wikipedia - Digital searchingEmergence of social netLearning analytics – study student engagement, performance to be able to revise learning in real timeGaming – educational gaming to engage studentsVirtual Learning Environments (VLEs) Online AssessmentContent dissemination and student supportGrowing interest in the social networking in education working sites, wikis, communication tools and folksonomiesEarly uptake included systems for: admission and records, examination and transcripts, finance and management informationBetter and increased access to services and informationSocial networkingimprove on the quality and capacity of management information systems to support strategic decision-making and policy implementation;stimulate and facilitate free flow of information throughout the higher education system; respond to the needs and demands for better and increased access to university services and information
  • Provide a sense of focus and direction and spell out clearly how improving the ICT capacity of the education sector can help to address issues of access, equity and quality at all levels. Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.
  • Provide a sense of focus and direction and spell out clearly how improving the ICT capacity of the education sector can help to address issues of access, equity and quality at all levels. Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.
  • Since students are often more familiar with these technologies than they are
  • Provide a sense of focus and direction and spell out clearly how improving the ICT capacity of the education sector can help to address issues of access, equity and quality at all levels. Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.
  • Provide a sense of focus and direction and spell out clearly how improving the ICT capacity of the education sector can help to address issues of access, equity and quality at all levels. Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.
  • foster appropriate allocation of resources determine sustainable staffing issues and faculty roles Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.Funding, talentInstitutional policies and procedures for adopting and adapting technology
  • Provide a sense of focus and direction and spell out clearly how improving the ICT capacity of the education sector can help to address issues of access, equity and quality at all levels. Enable institutions to generate their own internal ICT policies, strategies and plans, they also foster an appropriate allocation of resources.Build staff capacity in the areas of ICT procurement and contracting
  • Technology is of little use if the pedagogical skills needed to effectively and optimally use it are lackingDo not underestimate the importance of the effective interaction of students with content, fellow students and teachers/tutors during the learning processHidden costs - substitution of capital costs for labourRequires a paradigm shift to a process that promotes interaction, communication, collaboration and construction
  • Technology is of little use if the pedagogical skills needed to effectively and optimally use it are lackingDo not underestimate the importance of the effective interaction of students with content, fellow students and teachers/tutors during the learning processHidden costs - substitution of capital costs for labourRequires a paradigm shift to a process that promotes interaction, communication, collaboration and construction
  • Build staff capacity in the areas of ICT procurement and contracting
  • Next Steps….
  • 26 distinct sub-projects across 7 HEIs over 3 years
  • Projects : have specific and realistic deliverables and link to already identified institutional priorities
  • Are you familiar with MIT Open Course Ware? Launched in 2001. MIT OCW is a large-scale, Web-based publication of MIT’s educationalmaterials representing 33 academic disciplines and all five of MIT’s schools. Their collection now includes 1950 published courses.OCW focuses on sharing open content that is developed specifically to instruct a course OER includes any educational content that is shared under an open license, whether or not it is a part of a course
  • OER Example
  • preferably across/within institutions;
  • Students need to be made aware that assignments etc belong to the institution and openly licensed; contracts for student support for materials development and publicationStaff employment contracts must spell out commitment to materials development as well as IP/copyright licensingKey institutional policies affected: IP, HR, QA of materials development, ICTOther stakeholders: Same QA requirements for OER-based courses as for copyright reserved
  • The integration of ICTs in higher education is inevitableICT is moving beyond personal computers to mobile technology, Virtual World, Cloud Computing Role of ICTs in improving quality, widening access and cutting costs in the teaching function
  • Transcript

    • 1. ICT Integration in Higher Education:Challenges and Opportunities Greig Krull Saide 15 August 2012
    • 2. Agenda • Context – Motivators and Constraints • ICT Integration in the areas of Higher Education – Research, Teaching, Administration • Challenges and Opportunities – Environmental, Institutional, People, Technology, Learning • Case Studies – Partnership for Higher Education – OER Africa • Discussion
    • 3. Key Trends in Higher EducationPeople expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever andwherever they want toTechnologies used are increasingly cloud-based, and notions of ITsupport are decentralisedWorld of work is increasingly collaborative, driving changes in the waystudent projects are structuredAbundance of resources / relationships via the Internet is increasinglychallenging us to revisit our roles as educatorsShifting education paradigms to include online learning, hybrid learningand collaborative modelsNew emphasis on more challenge-based and active learning The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition
    • 4. Significant Challenges Economic pressures and new models of education are bringing greater competition to higher education Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag the emergence of new scholarly forms of authoring, publishing, and researching Digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline Institutional barriers present formidable challenges to moving forward with emerging technologies Challenges for libraries and university collections: how scholarship is documented, and the business models to support these activities The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition
    • 5. Context1. What is your biggest motivator to integrate ICT into your teaching and learning?2. What is your biggest constraint to integrate ICT into your teaching and learning?
    • 6. Motivators and Constraints
    • 7. ICTs in Higher Education Areas Research Teaching Administration
    • 8. How do you use ICT in? 1. Research 2. Teaching 3. Administration
    • 9. ICTs in Higher Education
    • 10. Types of Challenges Environment Institutions People Technology Learning
    • 11. Environmental Challenges • People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want to • Limited Regional Infrastructure – Electricity – Access to resources • High cost of bandwidth • Sustainability • Lack of national development, education and ICT policies
    • 12. Environmental Interventions • Articulate a vision and a strategic framework for harnessing the potential of ICTs to address a countrys development challenges • Government focus on overarching and guiding national telecommunications and ICT policies, particularly as they relate to ICTs in education • Increase access to broadband • Partnerships between institutions, governments and businesses
    • 13. People Challenges • Not all staff are ICT literate and can teach using ICT tools • Extra effort and time involved in using technologies • Lack of readiness of students to use technologies • Shortage of people with technical skills to maintain ICT systems
    • 14. People Interventions • Develop internal capacity in the use of ICT • Staff – Implement incentive systems that promote the use of ICTs – Provide prior training for faculty when introducing ICTs • Students – Provide support and training for students
    • 15. Institutional Challenges • Major financial investment needed • High cost of acquiring and maintaining ICTs • High cost of content (e-journals, digital libraries) • Some substitution of capital costs for labour • Consistency across departments
    • 16. Institutional Interventions • Vision and commitment of the leadership to deploying ICTs • Require strong institutional policy (resource allocation) • Regional approach for joint negotiations on the cost of bandwidth • Promote collaboration among higher education institutions in all ICT-related activities • Identify ways in which the application of ICTs will significantly enhance the research and teaching capabilities • Look for freely available resources e.g. e-journals
    • 17. Technology Challenges • Reliability and Security • System / Data Integration • Limited bandwidth • Inexperience in procuring appropriate ICT products and services • Use of unlicensed software can be very problematic
    • 18. Technology Interventions • Create a technology plan that includes long term budgeting • Funds and staff available to sustain investments in ICT infrastructure and support systems • Enhance bandwidth/connectivity through the acquisition of suitable infrastructure • Understand total ownership cost (acquisition, installation, power supply, maintenance, replacement, training etc) • Piloting (test the efficacy of a technology) • Possible sharing or coordination of ICT usage with other institutions
    • 19. Learning Challenges • Delivery methods – online, blended etc • Learning technology that is not used effectively • “Dumping” content • Content not adapted to the technology and context • Limited interaction between students and teachers/tutors
    • 20. Learning Interventions • Review student needs, technology and content availability • Customise learning content appropriately • Produce high quality content with sound instructional design • Effective interaction of students with content, fellow students and teachers/tutors during the learning process
    • 21. Summary • HEIs should integrate emerging technologies into their policies and programmes • Identify the specific roles of ICT in enhancing research and learning capabilities • Provide for adequate infrastructure backed by capacity building • Enhance ICT though inter-institutional collaboration • Success depends on sound financial and pedagogical planning • Wide adoption of ICTs calls for mindsets and skill sets that are adaptive to change
    • 22. Case Studies Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) Educational Technology Initiative (ETI)
    • 23. Project Objective “To support interventions in universities to make increasingly effective use of educational technology to address some of the underlying educational challenges facing the higher educational sector in Africa”The strategic objectives of the PHEA ETI are to:• Support teaching and learning initiatives that integrate educational technology• Promote collaborative knowledge creation and dissemination• Refine institutional systems so that they support teaching and learning more directly• Research and report on educational technology activity in African universities
    • 24. Universities Involved University of Education Winneba (Ghana) Kenyatta University University of Jos Makerere (Kenya) (Nigeria) University University of Dar es University of (Uganda) Salaam (Tanzania) Ibadan (Nigeria) Catholic University of Mozambique
    • 25. Project Examples• ICT and Elearning Policies• Implementation of Moodle VLE• Online courses and interactive e-content• Portfolios• Digitisation of Exam Papers and Theses• Migration of courses from Blackboard to Moodle• Open Courseware• Video and Audio Lectures• Executive Information Systems• Research Papers: Gender ICT Perceptions, Elearning Adoption
    • 26. Achievements• Institutional commitments to ICT growing – has led to policies at some institutions• Strong focus on deployment of ICT to tackle teaching and learning challenges: • All institutions using Moodle • Some deployment of other technologies (mobile, radio, e-portfolios) • Extensive growth in number of online courses produced • Growing use of online courses on campuses• Research via case studies and external evaluation
    • 27. Lessons Learnt• Working through rigid hierarchies creates problems in communication and implementation• Often Educational Technology units are marginalised• Capacity development is a key need, including ability to design projects• Lack of institutionalised incentives for academic staff to engage with educational technology• Limited ICT infrastructure remains a major barrier• Institutional commitment to ICT needed through presence of supportive ICT policies and ICT Funding
    • 28. Conclusions • Basic problems such as limited bandwidth and intermittent electricity place significant limitations on the potential for growth • However… • Telecommunications capacity is growing rapidly • Expanding range of devices at reducing costs • Explosion of available quality content online that educators and students can link to • Need governments and institutions to continue investment and focus on ICT use in higher educationSee the results: www.oerafrica.org (follow links to the PHEA Educational Technology Initiative)
    • 29. Open Educational Resources
    • 30. A resource Citation: Tony Mays 2011
    • 31. An Educational Resource • What is the name of the bird in the foreground of the picture? • Can you name 3 other varieties of this kind of bird? Citation: Tony Mays 2011
    • 32. An OER • What is the name of the bird in the foreground of the picture? • Can you name 3 other varieties of this kind of bird? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License Citation: Tony Mays 2011
    • 33. A remixed OER • The yellow hornbill shown left is one of four varieties of hornbills common across sub- Saharan Africa. The other varieties are the grey- and red- hornbills and the much larger ground hornbill. • As the name suggests, the large horny bill is the key characteristic of the species. What does this suggest about their typical diet? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License Citation: John Doe 2012 Photo: Tony Mays 2011
    • 34. Definition “Open educational resources are educationalmaterials and resources offered freely and openly for anyone to use and under some licenses to remix, improve and redistribute.” Wikipedia: OER, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources
    • 35. MIT OpenCourseWare, http://ocw.mit.edu/
    • 36. OER has the Potential to1. Increase availability of high quality, relevant and need- targeted learning materials2. Reduce the cost of accessing educational materials3. Allow adaptation of materials and possibly contribute to enabling learners to be active participants in educational processes4. Achieve collaborative partnership of people working in communities of practice5. Provide educators with access, at low or no cost, to the tools and content required to produce high quality educational materials
    • 37. Creative Commons Licenses
    • 38. A spectrum of rights Public Domain least restrictive X XX most restrictive All Rights Reserved
    • 39. Challenges Licensing and Finding relevant / Copyright quality resources Clearance Policy implications Adapting or for ICT and remixing resources Intellectual Property
    • 40. Summary• Technology must be seen as a supportive tool• The use of technology needs to add value• Adequate infrastructure is needed• Capacity building is a key focus• Collaborate with others and learn from experience• Emergence of OERs can support the trend to introduce elearning• Become adaptive to change
    • 41. Discussion Thank you greigk@saide.org.za greigk_za Greig Krull www.saide.org.za www.oerafrica.org This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
    • 42. References • Johnson, L, Adams, S, and Cummins, M (2012). The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. • Isaacs, S and Hollow, D, (eds) 2012. The eLearning Africa 2012 Report, ICWE: Germany. • Commonwealth of Learning. 2009. ICTs for higher education: background paper from the Commonwealth of Learning. World Conference on Higher Education, Paris. • OER Africa: http://www.oerafrica.org/ • PHEA ETI: http://www.oerafrica.org/phea/PHEAETIProjectHome/tabid/170/Default. aspx • Tony Mays, Saide, 2012, Recapping OER Presentation • Catherine Ngugi, OER Africa, 2012, Introduction to OER Africa Presentation

    ×