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Mobile Meow    Bring YouTube to the Mobile WebBy YouTubes Greg Schechter and Matt Ward
Greg Schechter            Matt WardThe Web Warrior        Seek Bar Engineerschechter@google.com    mattward@google.com
Video
Video
A Brief History
Video
Flash
<video>
<video>             <video>             <video>  IE                Chrome              Firefox          <video>           ...
Video
Playback Stats
Flash   Flash
Flash   Native   <video>
FlashFlash         ==   Flash
Native
Native ○   For fallbacks, use rtsp:// protocol (serving .3pg) if the     device wont support HTML5 ○   Use custom protocol...
<video>
The Different Browsers        Safari           Android
The Different Browsers                             OperaSafari    Android   Chrome                Silk                    ...
The Different Browsers                             OperaSafari    Android   Chrome                Silk                    ...
Fragmentation
By brownpau at http://www.flickr.com/photos/brownpau/533267369/
How do we start              <video>
The Source     <video src="funny_cat_video">
The Source<video src="funny_cat_video.webm/mp4/ogg">
Mobile Formats Support        Chrome       Safari           Firefox   Opera        IE   AndroidH.264WebM    Android 4+    ...
The Source   <video>    <source src="funny_cat_video.mp4">    <source src="funny_cat_video.webm">   </video>
HLS = HTTP Live Streaming   <video src="playlist.m3u8">
HLS                              video-0-1.ts              format-0.m3u8   video-0-2.ts                                   ...
HLSBig Features    ○   Live and Adaptive Streaming    ○   Built in CDN failover    ○   Metadata + Cue PointsApple App Requ...
Power
Power Consumption: H264 vs WebM                                                                              **fullscreen ...
Stick it in a page
Basic video tagSafari   ○   Renders a thumbnail poster and play button (flaky)   ○   Background is set to black and cannot...
Give it a poster and click it
Poster AttributeUse the poster attribute to get a thumbnailSafari, Chrome, Android, and Opera   ○ Preserve aspect ratio of...
Basic video tagChrome   ○ Default click to toggle play/pause   ○ Remove with an empty onclick handlerSafari   ○     Will l...
Basic video tagPro tips:   ○   Create your own cued state to convey you can play the video   ○   Set the background color ...
Controls           <video controls>
Lets get some controls
Controls             Chrome   Safari       Firefox       Opera           IE           AndroidPlay/pauseButtonVolume       ...
Fullscreen
requestFullScreen
requestFullScreen● Desktop Only  ○ Firefox, Safari, and Chrome  ○ Vendor Prefixed
Fullscreenvar elem = document.getElementById("my-element");document.onwebkitfullscreenchange = function() { // The fullscr...
What about Mobile?
Isnt it already fullscreen?
Yes (sort of)
Fullscreen● Desktop  ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile
Fullscreen● Desktop  ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile  ○ Open New Tab
Fullscreen● Desktop  ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile  ○ Open New Tab  ○ webkitEnterFullscreen       ●   Webkit only       ●   ...
Fullscreen● Desktop  ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile  ○ Open New Tab  ○ webkitEnterFullscreen       ● Webkit only       ● Vide...
@viewport { width: device-width; }
Custom Controls  Lets get some custom controls
Custom Controls● Preserve your brand● Unified experience across platforms and  browsers● Allows us to expand the set of co...
Custom Controls Pro Tips● User expect to be able to drag the progress  bar  ○ Need to remender to prevent scroll on touchs...
Custom Controls Pro Tips● Fullscreen  ○ The browsing context is always fullscreen so fake it● Dont overload clicking for b...
Custom Controls Pro Tips● Fingers are fat  ○ Average finger is 11mm so make targets at least       40px with 10px padding ...
autoplay           <video autoplay>
autoplayIn Safari on iOS (for all devices, including iPad),where the user may be on a cellular network andbe charged per d...
autoplayIn Safari on iOS (for all devices, including iPad),where the user may be on a cellular network andbe charged per d...
What about everyone else?
Autoplay            Chrome   Safari   Firefox   Opera   IE   AndroidAttributeScripted                                     ...
autoplay
autoplay       <video onclick="this.play()">
autoplayfunction someClickEvent(evt) {  // In a user initiated thread.  myVideoElement.load();  getVideoData(); // Trigger...
autoplayfunction someClickEvent(evt) {  // In a user initiated thread.  myVideoElement.load();  getVideoData(); // Trigger...
autoplay   setMediaPlaybackRequiresUserAction
Embeds
Embeds <script>
Embeds <script>   ○ We need our content to be sandboxed   ○ More than just a video tag
Embeds <script>   ○ We need our content to be sandboxed   ○ More than just a video tag <object>
Embeds <script>   ○ We need our content to be sandboxed   ○ More than just a video tag <object>   ○ Can load content with ...
Embeds <iframe>
Embeds <iframe>    ○ Allows our content to be sandboxed    ○ JavaScript API communication
Embeds<iframe type="text/html"  width="640"  height="385"  frameborder="0"  src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/VIDEO_ID"  a...
Daily impressions of EmbedTotalobjectiframe    April 2011                                April 2012
EmbedsPro tip: Plan for the future (if you can)<iframe type="text/html"  width="640"  height="385"  frameborder="0"  src="...
Embeds Pro Tips:html {  /** Hack to fix iPhone resizing. */  overflow: hidden;}
Embeds Pro Tips:body {  /** Dymanic Resizing **/  background-color: #000;  height: 100%;  width: 100%;  /** Remove highlig...
API
API Communication
API Communication● Poll the URL fragment?  ○ http://youtube.com/embed/video_id#fragment
API Communication● Poll the URL fragment?  ○ http://youtube.com/embed/video_id#fragment● Messages are one dimensional.● Po...
API Communication● Better idea: PostMessage API  ○ someWindow.postMessage(message, targetOrigin);
API Communication● Better idea: PostMessage API.  ○ someWindow.postMessage(message, targetOrigin);● Uses JSON for native e...
Remember all communication is      asynchronous
Testing
Testing: The Old Fashioned Way ●   Device lab      ○ accurate      ○ costly      ○ space inefficient      ○ boring
Testing: With Software ● Hardware Emulators / Simulators    ○ available for major systems    ○ approximation varies    ○ s...
Testing: With Software ● Browser Simulators   ○ Poorer approximation ● Opera Mobile Simulator   ○ missing video tag suppor...
Testing: Automation ● Selenium!   ○ use with simulated or real devices   ○ not boring
Testing: Automation ● Android Webdriver    ○ Still no video support ● iOS Webdriver    ○ Need to register as ios dev    ○ ...
Testing: Automation ● Chrome, Opera   ○ Driver APIs built-in   ○ Remote debugging ● FFMobile   ○ No webdriver APIs
Testing: Automation Strategy ● Test API methods in mobile context first   ○ cheap   ○ can approximate video playback by vi...
Testing: Automation Strategy ● More sophisticated tests to follow   ○ screenreader ● Screen cap processing   ○ check for d...
Testing: Automation Strategy ● Screen cap processing
Testing: Hardware Assistance
The Future Cats in Space by WF&TD
Or
PointerEventshttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/hh673557(v=vs.85).aspx
http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/in_ur_reality.png
Track<video> <track src="cats_meow" kind="subtitles"></video>
getUserMedia
More to learn ● HTML5 Video Spec   ○ http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec-author-view/video.html ● Browser Blogs   ○ http://dev.op...
Questions?     can haz question?            By cloudzilla http://www.flickr.com/photos/cloudzilla/378829651/schechter@goog...
Web DU Mobile Meow
Web DU Mobile Meow
Web DU Mobile Meow
Web DU Mobile Meow
Web DU Mobile Meow
Web DU Mobile Meow
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Web DU Mobile Meow

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This is the story of the glory and struggle of bringing a high quality YouTube experience to the mobile web. Once upon a time there was a web developer who wanted to play videos on the web. So he filmed a cat and wrote a Flash and a HTML5 player. He spent many hours making it work on his favorite desktop browsers and even the one his grandfather still used. People could watch his cat video, he smiled, and the world was good. Then one day someone put a browser in a phone and soon there were many phones with many different browsers. This new set of environments were even harder to develop for and had a slew of new terrifying bugs. The web developer was miserable knowing people couldn’t watch his cat video. With much time and effort he figured out many of the secrets needed to combat the evils of the different mobile platforms. Once again people could watch his cat video, he smiled, and the world was good. The end.

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Transcript of "Web DU Mobile Meow"

  1. 1. Mobile Meow Bring YouTube to the Mobile WebBy YouTubes Greg Schechter and Matt Ward
  2. 2. Greg Schechter Matt WardThe Web Warrior Seek Bar Engineerschechter@google.com mattward@google.com
  3. 3. Video
  4. 4. Video
  5. 5. A Brief History
  6. 6. Video
  7. 7. Flash
  8. 8. <video>
  9. 9. <video> <video> <video> IE Chrome Firefox <video> <video> Opera Safari
  10. 10. Video
  11. 11. Playback Stats
  12. 12. Flash Flash
  13. 13. Flash Native <video>
  14. 14. FlashFlash == Flash
  15. 15. Native
  16. 16. Native ○ For fallbacks, use rtsp:// protocol (serving .3pg) if the device wont support HTML5 ○ Use custom protocol / URL scheme to launch your own Android, iOS native app (no Windows Phone yet) ■ youtube://video_id
  17. 17. <video>
  18. 18. The Different Browsers Safari Android
  19. 19. The Different Browsers OperaSafari Android Chrome Silk Mini Firefox Opera IE
  20. 20. The Different Browsers OperaSafari Android Chrome Silk Mini Firefox Opera IE AMP LE S
  21. 21. Fragmentation
  22. 22. By brownpau at http://www.flickr.com/photos/brownpau/533267369/
  23. 23. How do we start <video>
  24. 24. The Source <video src="funny_cat_video">
  25. 25. The Source<video src="funny_cat_video.webm/mp4/ogg">
  26. 26. Mobile Formats Support Chrome Safari Firefox Opera IE AndroidH.264WebM Android 4+ Android 4+ Android 4+HLS Android 3+ Platform Versions and Distribution
  27. 27. The Source <video> <source src="funny_cat_video.mp4"> <source src="funny_cat_video.webm"> </video>
  28. 28. HLS = HTTP Live Streaming <video src="playlist.m3u8">
  29. 29. HLS video-0-1.ts format-0.m3u8 video-0-2.ts ... video-1-1.ts index.m3u8 format-0.m3u8 video-1-2.ts ... video-2-1.ts format-0.m3u8 video-2-2.ts ...
  30. 30. HLSBig Features ○ Live and Adaptive Streaming ○ Built in CDN failover ○ Metadata + Cue PointsApple App Requirements ○ > 10 minutes in duration or 5 mb in 5 minutes ○ at least one 64 kbps or lower stream requiredTools and more information on Apples website:Apples Using HTTP Live Streaming
  31. 31. Power
  32. 32. Power Consumption: H264 vs WebM **fullscreen flash **windowed flashResearch done by Yossi Oren For more information visit http://iss.oy.ne.ro/
  33. 33. Stick it in a page
  34. 34. Basic video tagSafari ○ Renders a thumbnail poster and play button (flaky) ○ Background is set to black and cannot be overwritten ○ If a parent element has display:none set at any point the video fails to playback properlyOpera ○ Gives video dimentions black background if the information is available ○ Has issues with stretching WebMIE and Android ○ Play button/film icon for all video tags regardless if browser can play the format ○ Background is set to black/grey and cannot be overwritten
  35. 35. Give it a poster and click it
  36. 36. Poster AttributeUse the poster attribute to get a thumbnailSafari, Chrome, Android, and Opera ○ Preserve aspect ratio of poster imageIE and Firefox ○ Stretch image to size of video tagIE ○ Keeps poster as paused stateAll Others ○ Replace video with the paused frame
  37. 37. Basic video tagChrome ○ Default click to toggle play/pause ○ Remove with an empty onclick handlerSafari ○ Will launch any supported video with or without an onclick handlerAndroid and IE ○ Shows click interactions but does not play with empty onclick
  38. 38. Basic video tagPro tips: ○ Create your own cued state to convey you can play the video ○ Set the background color to black for continuity across platforms
  39. 39. Controls <video controls>
  40. 40. Lets get some controls
  41. 41. Controls Chrome Safari Firefox Opera IE AndroidPlay/pauseButtonVolume Only in Mute toggle Dont work inControls Fullscreen only Android 4Seek barFullscreen Button Gesture ButtonbuttonPlayback Both Fullscreen Inline only Determined Fullscreen BothType only by hardware only
  42. 42. Fullscreen
  43. 43. requestFullScreen
  44. 44. requestFullScreen● Desktop Only ○ Firefox, Safari, and Chrome ○ Vendor Prefixed
  45. 45. Fullscreenvar elem = document.getElementById("my-element");document.onwebkitfullscreenchange = function() { // The fullscreen element: // document.webkitFullScreenElement; console.log ("We went fullscreen!");};elem.webkitRequestFullScreen();
  46. 46. What about Mobile?
  47. 47. Isnt it already fullscreen?
  48. 48. Yes (sort of)
  49. 49. Fullscreen● Desktop ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile
  50. 50. Fullscreen● Desktop ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile ○ Open New Tab
  51. 51. Fullscreen● Desktop ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile ○ Open New Tab ○ webkitEnterFullscreen ● Webkit only ● Video element only ● metadata must be loaded
  52. 52. Fullscreen● Desktop ○ requestFullScreen● Mobile ○ Open New Tab ○ webkitEnterFullscreen ● Webkit only ● Video element only ● metadata must be loaded● Pro Tip: Remember size context changes so use viewport to scale icons and controls
  53. 53. @viewport { width: device-width; }
  54. 54. Custom Controls Lets get some custom controls
  55. 55. Custom Controls● Preserve your brand● Unified experience across platforms and browsers● Allows us to expand the set of controls and add our own ○ annotations ○ playlist ○ captions ○ more
  56. 56. Custom Controls Pro Tips● User expect to be able to drag the progress bar ○ Need to remender to prevent scroll on touchstart● Volume cant be set everywhere and users are accustomed to using device controls ○ So dont build controls for it
  57. 57. Custom Controls Pro Tips● Fullscreen ○ The browsing context is always fullscreen so fake it● Dont overload clicking for both play/pause and show/hiding controls● Dont trigger content with hover
  58. 58. Custom Controls Pro Tips● Fingers are fat ○ Average finger is 11mm so make targets at least 40px with 10px padding ○ Use SVGs so icons can be scaled and shared with desktop application ○ Do what you can in css
  59. 59. autoplay <video autoplay>
  60. 60. autoplayIn Safari on iOS (for all devices, including iPad),where the user may be on a cellular network andbe charged per data unit, preload and autoplay aredisabled. No data is loaded until the user initiates it.
  61. 61. autoplayIn Safari on iOS (for all devices, including iPad),where the user may be on a cellular network andbe charged per data unit, preload and autoplay aredisabled. No data is loaded until the user initiates it.
  62. 62. What about everyone else?
  63. 63. Autoplay Chrome Safari Firefox Opera IE AndroidAttributeScripted Buggy
  64. 64. autoplay
  65. 65. autoplay <video onclick="this.play()">
  66. 66. autoplayfunction someClickEvent(evt) { // In a user initiated thread. myVideoElement.load(); getVideoData(); // Triggers an ajax call.}function onGetVideoDataReturned(data) { // Not in a user initiated thread. setVideoElementSrc(data); myVideoElement.load(); myVideoElement.play();}
  67. 67. autoplayfunction someClickEvent(evt) { // In a user initiated thread. myVideoElement.load(); getVideoData(); // Triggers an ajax call.}function onGetVideoDataReturned(data) { // Not in a user initiated thread. setVideoElementSrc(data); myVideoElement.load(); // For Android window.setTimeout(function() { myVideoElement.play(); }, 0);}
  68. 68. autoplay setMediaPlaybackRequiresUserAction
  69. 69. Embeds
  70. 70. Embeds <script>
  71. 71. Embeds <script> ○ We need our content to be sandboxed ○ More than just a video tag
  72. 72. Embeds <script> ○ We need our content to be sandboxed ○ More than just a video tag <object>
  73. 73. Embeds <script> ○ We need our content to be sandboxed ○ More than just a video tag <object> ○ Can load content with the data attribute ○ But no way to interact with it via JavaScript
  74. 74. Embeds <iframe>
  75. 75. Embeds <iframe> ○ Allows our content to be sandboxed ○ JavaScript API communication
  76. 76. Embeds<iframe type="text/html" width="640" height="385" frameborder="0" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/VIDEO_ID" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  77. 77. Daily impressions of EmbedTotalobjectiframe April 2011 April 2012
  78. 78. EmbedsPro tip: Plan for the future (if you can)<iframe type="text/html" width="640" height="385" frameborder="0" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/VIDEO_ID" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  79. 79. Embeds Pro Tips:html { /** Hack to fix iPhone resizing. */ overflow: hidden;}
  80. 80. Embeds Pro Tips:body { /** Dymanic Resizing **/ background-color: #000; height: 100%; width: 100%; /** Remove highlight when use clicks **/ -webkit-tap-highlight-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0);}
  81. 81. API
  82. 82. API Communication
  83. 83. API Communication● Poll the URL fragment? ○ http://youtube.com/embed/video_id#fragment
  84. 84. API Communication● Poll the URL fragment? ○ http://youtube.com/embed/video_id#fragment● Messages are one dimensional.● Polling eats up CPU and is not instant.● Both directions of communication use the same fragment.
  85. 85. API Communication● Better idea: PostMessage API ○ someWindow.postMessage(message, targetOrigin);
  86. 86. API Communication● Better idea: PostMessage API. ○ someWindow.postMessage(message, targetOrigin);● Uses JSON for native encoding and decoding of data.● No polling.● Native event listeners.● Communications are sandboxed per-window.● Calls are asynchronous.● Great for Mobile, but desktop support is missing in IE7
  87. 87. Remember all communication is asynchronous
  88. 88. Testing
  89. 89. Testing: The Old Fashioned Way ● Device lab ○ accurate ○ costly ○ space inefficient ○ boring
  90. 90. Testing: With Software ● Hardware Emulators / Simulators ○ available for major systems ○ approximation varies ○ still boring ● Android Emulator ○ bulky, slow, no video codecs ● iOs Simulator ○ both tablet and phone
  91. 91. Testing: With Software ● Browser Simulators ○ Poorer approximation ● Opera Mobile Simulator ○ missing video tag support ● Fennec (FF) Simulator ○ poor touch control mapping ○ sends desktop user agent
  92. 92. Testing: Automation ● Selenium! ○ use with simulated or real devices ○ not boring
  93. 93. Testing: Automation ● Android Webdriver ○ Still no video support ● iOS Webdriver ○ Need to register as ios dev ○ Intermittent issues with playback ● IE ○ No webdriver APIs for mobile
  94. 94. Testing: Automation ● Chrome, Opera ○ Driver APIs built-in ○ Remote debugging ● FFMobile ○ No webdriver APIs
  95. 95. Testing: Automation Strategy ● Test API methods in mobile context first ○ cheap ○ can approximate video playback by video. currentTime
  96. 96. Testing: Automation Strategy ● More sophisticated tests to follow ○ screenreader ● Screen cap processing ○ check for distortion ○ playback accuracy
  97. 97. Testing: Automation Strategy ● Screen cap processing
  98. 98. Testing: Hardware Assistance
  99. 99. The Future Cats in Space by WF&TD
  100. 100. Or
  101. 101. PointerEventshttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/hh673557(v=vs.85).aspx
  102. 102. http://imgs.xkcd.com/comics/in_ur_reality.png
  103. 103. Track<video> <track src="cats_meow" kind="subtitles"></video>
  104. 104. getUserMedia
  105. 105. More to learn ● HTML5 Video Spec ○ http://dev.w3.org/html5/spec-author-view/video.html ● Browser Blogs ○ http://dev.opera.com/ ○ http://hacks.mozilla.org/ ○ http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/ ○ http://peter.sh/ ● Documentation ○ https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/ ● Other ○ http://developer.apple. com/library/safari/#documentation/AudioVideo/Conceptual/Using_HT ML5_Audio_Video/Device-SpecificConsiderations/Device- SpecificConsiderations.html
  106. 106. Questions? can haz question? By cloudzilla http://www.flickr.com/photos/cloudzilla/378829651/schechter@google.commattward@google.com
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