Final Notes:<br /><ul><li>Cellular Chemistry
Types of sugars
Sucrose – Aglucose + Afrucrose = alpha glycosidic
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Final notes

  1. 1. Final Notes:<br /><ul><li>Cellular Chemistry
  2. 2. Types of sugars
  3. 3. Sucrose – Aglucose + Afrucrose = alpha glycosidic
  4. 4. Lactose – Bglucose + Bgalactose = beta glycosidic
  5. 5. Maltose – Aglucose + Aglucose = alpha glycosidic
  6. 6. Types of bonds
  7. 7. DNA/nucleotides – phosphodiester
  8. 8. Maltose/disaccharide – glycosidic bond
  9. 9. Enzyme/amino acid – peptide bonds
  10. 10. Metabolism
  11. 11. Catabolic – breakdown – release heat
  12. 12. Anabolic – creation of molecules
  13. 13. Ana- means “to go back to”
  14. 14. Energy
  15. 15. G = H -TS
  16. 16. Studying Cells
  17. 17. Cell-lines
  18. 18. Some cells reach confluency – a single layer of cells, stopped growing due to social signals of the cells that there will not be enough resources if the cells keep dividing
  19. 19. Primary culture – initial cells placed on slide
  20. 20. Secondary culture – ‘immortal’ cells produced from primary cultures after confluency. (some cells die after confluency)
  21. 21. Oncogenic transformation – cells not as dependant on substrate and divide on top of one another
  22. 22. Terms used in microscopy
  23. 23. Magnification – lets you see how large you can view an object while keeping the components as distinct objects. How big can the object be while maintaining objects as distinct?
  24. 24. Resolution
  25. 25. R= (0.61*lamba)/(n * sin(angular aperture))
  26. 26. a factor that measures how close two points can be in a sample and still be distinct.
  27. 27. R=194 nm. This means that two objects that are 200nm apart can be seen as distinct objects. If they are closer than this, they will not be seen as distinct structures.
  28. 28. Different types of light microscopy
  29. 29. Cell often appears transparent when there isn’t manipulation
  30. 30. Brightfield stained
  31. 31. Contrast for organelles – must be dead
  32. 32. Brightfield unstained
  33. 33. Fluorescent
  34. 34. Stains used but can be alive
  35. 35. Tagged proteins for induced expression
  36. 36. DIC – differential interference contrast imaging
  37. 37. Insertion of nomarski optic - A prism that splits light into two separate waves through specimen. Changes wavelength of light and the interference leads to increased contrast, largest difference is the edges of cells and organelles.
  38. 38. Phase contrast
  39. 39. Differentiation of organelles and differences between them w/out fixing
  40. 40. Good way to see edges of cell
  41. 41. Vesicle transport in cells
  42. 42. Takes advantage of physics of light and the characteristics of it as a waveform. When two waves are in phase, they are at the same frequ and combine to create a better resolution. If out of phase, reduced intensity of light. When in phase, the unstained cell will disrupt one of the light waves creating a slowed speed for the wave form.
  43. 43. Confocal Imaging
  44. 44. Thicker samples and image optical layers for 3d images.
  45. 45. TEM vs SEM
  46. 46. 2d vs 3d
  47. 47. Fluorescence Microscopy
  48. 48. Lots of dyes to look at parts of cells at the same times.
  49. 49. Only limited by number of filters one can place in microscope.
  50. 50. Source of light is ultraviolet passed through an excitation filter, which removes wavelengths of light not useful in expressing the fluorescence.
  51. 51. Dyes are chemically derived that bind carbohydrates, lipids, DNA.
  52. 52. One doesn’t need to use antibodies if the dyes bind directly.
  53. 53. Proteins most often identified by fluorescently linked antibodies because few dyes directly link to proteins.
  54. 54. Primarily, the fluorescent microscope does not have a condenser like in a light microscope. Must be thin samples.
  55. 55. confocal
  56. 56. has allowed us to use laser light to image specific layers/regions within a thick sample.
  57. 57. Images individual parts and put together to rebuild the picture.
  58. 58. Membranes
  59. 59. ∆Gc = RTln[in/out] + zFVm
  60. 60. F = 23,062
  61. 61. Vm = membrane potential in volts
  62. 62. R = 1.987
  63. 63. Types of ATPases
  64. 64. P type (for phsphorylation)
  65. 65. Hydrolyze ATP
  66. 66. Na+/K+
  67. 67. V-type (vacuole)
  68. 68. Used to pump H+ across membrane for pH maintenance
  69. 69. F-type (factor)
  70. 70. ATP synthases
  71. 71. ABC-type

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