4.16.2010<br /><ul><li>Recap from last lecture
Proteoglycan structure in cartilage
Aggrecan
Hyaluronate core with proteoglycans linked to it.
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4.16.2010

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4.16.2010

  1. 1. 4.16.2010<br /><ul><li>Recap from last lecture
  2. 2. Proteoglycan structure in cartilage
  3. 3. Aggrecan
  4. 4. Hyaluronate core with proteoglycans linked to it.
  5. 5. Made of hyaluronate, a GAG, linked to proteoglycans
  6. 6. Made of hyaluranate, a GAG, linked to lots of proteoglycans
  7. 7. GAGs form proteoglycans
  8. 8. Chrondroitin Sulfate
  9. 9. One choice is N acetyl galactosamine is the amino sugar
  10. 10. Can be used to make GAGs
  11. 11. Keratan
  12. 12. Another choice in the keratin sulfate is N acetyl gluconate (N acetyl glycosamine)
  13. 13. Can be used to make GAGs
  14. 14. Link with sugar acids that help form GAGs
  15. 15. Galactose
  16. 16. Glucyronate
  17. 17. Hyaluronate is a galactosamine itself in repeating units
  18. 18. Linked up with proteoglycans
  19. 19. Integrins
  20. 20. Made of two subunits
  21. 21. Alpha
  22. 22. 9 different alpha subunits identified
  23. 23. Beta
  24. 24. 24 different ones
  25. 25. can also have many forms
  26. 26. The EXC receptor
  27. 27. Extracaellular
  28. 28. Globular region for RGD sequence or binding sites on laminin
  29. 29. Alpha Helix
  30. 30. Transmembrane region
  31. 31. Binding site for talin
  32. 32. A5B1 ubiquitous
  33. 33. Fibronection component of matrix below lamina
  34. 34. LFA-1
  35. 35. Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
  36. 36. WBC can’t migrate to tissue to deal with infection
  37. 37. Neutrophiles move to the site first
  38. 38. If they can’t migrate, then the bacteria, or viral, infection has an increasesd chane of infecting host cells.
  39. 39. Epithelial hemidesmosomes
  40. 40. A6B4
  41. 41. Targeted that results in blistering of the skin
  42. 42. Mutation in either alpha or betaa subunit.
  43. 43. Autoimmune response
  44. 44. Picture of adhesion and integrins
  45. 45. Blue = cytoplasm
  46. 46. Alpha actinin
  47. 47. Ras pathway can Pi molecules that drive actin formation
  48. 48. Focal adhesion
  49. 49. Sites that allow to adhere to EXC Matrix
  50. 50. FAK – Focal Adhesion Kinase
  51. 51. Drives depolymerization of focal adhesions
  52. 52. Drives depolymerization of actin and breakdown of Focal Adhesions (FA)
  53. 53. FA must first be made and then broken down
  54. 54. In order to be mobile, the cell must remove a FA and reform another at the point it adheres to the ECM
  55. 55. IRE – Integrin Receptor Kinase
  56. 56. Hemidesmosome
  57. 57. Basal lamin has embedded EXM proteins, laminin is the most common’
  58. 58. A6B4 is found in hemidesmosomes in epithelial cells
  59. 59. mechanical stress functions of the matrix
  60. 60. Plectin
  61. 61. Associates with the
  62. 62. Plaqu
  63. 63. Made of plectin proteins
  64. 64. Link with integrins
  65. 65. BPAG – bullbous phemphigoid antigen
  66. 66. First identified in
  67. 67. Intermediate filaments are disrupted and
  68. 68. Immune system attacks BPAG antigoig
  69. 69. Immune cells recognize antigen and recognize it as a threat
  70. 70. Tissue Organization
  71. 71. Simple
  72. 72. Stratified
  73. 73. Columnar
  74. 74. Cuboidal
  75. 75. Squam
  76. 76. Basal Lamina
  77. 77. E – epithelial
  78. 78. Thin layer is basal lamina
  79. 79. Loose connective tissue, pictured below
  80. 80. 50nm in width
  81. 81. spans intermediate zone of whatever the tissue is
  82. 82. separates epithelial cells from structural tissue
  83. 83. creates permeable layer
  84. 84. Functions of the Basal Lamina
  85. 85. Structural
  86. 86. Permeability Barrier
  87. 87. Organization of cytoskeleton
  88. 88. Scaffolding function
  89. 89. Regeneration
  90. 90. Cut skin
  91. 91. Ulcer
  92. 92. Tissue can heal, but only if basal lamina provides a scaffolding for the division
  93. 93. Picture
  94. 94. PM
  95. 95. Integrins – green
  96. 96. Many proteins bind to each other
  97. 97. Perlecan links with type IV collagen and lamini
  98. 98. Perlecan and nidogen do not link up
  99. 99. Cell Adhesion
  100. 100. Three classes of adhesion
  101. 101. Occluding Junctions
  102. 102. Sites hwere cells adhere to one another and inhibit the movement of different molecules either across the CM or between the CMemebrane
  103. 103. Tight junctions
  104. 104. Apical side of cells
  105. 105. Adherin Junctions/Anchoring Junctions
  106. 106. Hemidesmosomes
  107. 107. Link with intermediate filaments
  108. 108. Desmosomes
  109. 109. “” on lateral side
  110. 110. Adherin junctions
  111. 111. Link with components of cytskeleton
  112. 112. Communicating Junctions
  113. 113. Gap junctions
  114. 114. Act like shutters on a camera
  115. 115. Driven by specific signaling
  116. 116. Highly expressed in cardiac cells
  117. 117. Structures of junctions
  118. 118. Formation of the adherins junctions
  119. 119. Cadherins
  120. 120. Function when they bind to cadherins of
  121. 121. Homophilic binding
  122. 122. E-cadherins
  123. 123. Only these will link with another E-cadherin
  124. 124. Binding of Ca2+
  125. 125. N-cadherins
  126. 126. Neuronal cells
  127. 127. Require Ca2+ for binding
  128. 128. Ca2+ binding sites are bound
  129. 129. Protein becomes more rigid
  130. 130. More interaction
  131. 131. Form a dimer
  132. 132. Allow PM to be brought the PM to be brought together.
  133. 133. Catenin is the linker protein that binds the PM of the cadherins and links to
  134. 134. Actin filaments in belt like structure
  135. 135. Desmosomes
  136. 136. Plaque proteins organize intermediate filaments
  137. 137. Epithelial cells – keratin
  138. 138. Desomglein and desmocollin – have both EXC and Cytosolic sides

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