2.24.2010<br /><ul><li>Smooth ER
Lipid, Steroids, cholesterol synthesis
Ca2+ storage
Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
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2.24.2010

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2.24.2010

  1. 1. 2.24.2010<br /><ul><li>Smooth ER
  2. 2. Lipid, Steroids, cholesterol synthesis
  3. 3. Ca2+ storage
  4. 4. Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
  5. 5. Detoxification of alcohol and drugs via hydroxylation
  6. 6. Endomembrane System
  7. 7. Movement can occur anterograde and retrograde
  8. 8. Rough ER
  9. 9. Lipid synthesis
  10. 10. Rough = ribosomes studded on the membrane of the ER
  11. 11. Important for synthesizing proteins.
  12. 12. All endomembrane proteins, secreted proteins, plasma membrane proteins are generated in the lumen of the ER
  13. 13. Cytosolic proteins are made in the cytosol by free ribosomes
  14. 14. Post translational modifications
  15. 15. N-glycosylation
  16. 16. N-glycosylation is the addition of oligosaccharides to terminal nitrogen of an asparagine amino acid. This process begins in the rough ER
  17. 17. Reducing environment of the RER allows for disulfide bonds to be made.
  18. 18. Chaperone proteins
  19. 19. Needed to complete protein folding so protein can function properly. They bind to proteins to allow for 2, 3, 4 structures
  20. 20. Calnexin
  21. 21. Calreticulin
  22. 22. Lipid Synthesis
  23. 23. Cytosolic side of RER or ER because that’s where the enzymes are
  24. 24. Slide 4
  25. 25. Fatty acyl Coenzyme A and glycerol-3-phosphate
  26. 26. As lipids are generated, phosphotitic acid is generated as fatty acids are taken from fatty acyl CoA and put them on G3P
  27. 27. Acyl transferase is involved in transferring fatty acids to GP to generate Phosphotitic acid which is then embedded into the membrane.
  28. 28. Hydrophobic fatty acids help embed phosphotitic acid into membrane
  29. 29. Other enzymes generate the subsequent phospholipids in the membrane
  30. 30. Phosphotase that takes off Pi form phosphositic acid that makes diacyl glycerol that is an important signaling molecule
  31. 31. Diacyl glycerol has signal regions in hydrocarbon regions but when flipped, exposed to luminal side.
  32. 32. Phosphotidle chloline
  33. 33. CDP
  34. 34. Cytodine di/bis phosphate that is joined to diacyl glycerol by this enzyme, cholin phospho transferase, transferase takes component of molecule and transfer to another
  35. 35. Phosphotidal choline embedded into membrane after being converted form diacyl glycerol
  36. 36. ____________________________________________
  37. 37. As phospholipids are generated, phosphoatic acid (listen to lecture 11:50)
  38. 38. Fatty acyl coenzyme A
  39. 39. Acyl transferase >>> G3P
  40. 40. Glycerol-3-phosphate
  41. 41. CDP – cytodine-di/bis-phosphate
  42. 42. Joined to diacyl glycerol by choline-phopho-transferase
  43. 43. CPH – converts diacyl glycerol to
  44. 44. Phosphoticid acid – ph
  45. 45. _____________________________________________________________________
  46. 46. Slide 5
  47. 47. Family of Flippases
  48. 48. Proteins called scramblases
  49. 49. Phospholipid Transporters
  50. 50. can flip phospholipids in only one direction but at other times, flip back and forth
  51. 51. Golgi Stack
  52. 52. Post translational modifications of proteins
  53. 53. Three regions
  54. 54. Cis region
  55. 55. N-glycosylation
  56. 56. Medial region
  57. 57. Phosphorylation
  58. 58. O-glycosylation
  59. 59. Oligosaccharides placed onto the O of OH on a serine/threonine
  60. 60. Trans region
  61. 61. Made of flattened cisternae
  62. 62. Sugars on the proteins also protect the protein from degredation
  63. 63. N and O glycosylation is done on phospholipids of lysosomes because they are exposed to harsh environments/ enzymes in the lysosomes
  64. 64. Receptors that recognize specific signal sequences in transport vesicles.
  65. 65. As vesicles bud, they are trafficked to specific organelle, plasma membrane, or secreted.
  66. 66. Two types of movement from the golgi
  67. 67. Constitutive
  68. 68. Movement of lysosomal enzymes that are generated in ER then trafficked to golgi, then trafficked to lysosomes
  69. 69. Regulated
  70. 70. Intermittently
  71. 71. Specific signal stimulates synthesis
  72. 72. A regulated pathway
  73. 73. Transition vesicles take proteins that will undergo post-translational modification as well as then be tranfficked to particular regions after the golgi, then they move them to the golgi
  74. 74. From golgi to membrane, or organelles etc, are called secretory vesicles.
  75. 75. Lysosomes
  76. 76. Acid environment (5.5ish)
  77. 77. Made of more than 40 different enzymes that can break apart molecules that are no longer toxic to cell or can be reused by cells.
  78. 78. Nucleases
  79. 79. Nucleic acids to nucleotides
  80. 80. Proteases
  81. 81. Protieins to amino acids
  82. 82. Glycosidases
  83. 83. Disaccharides/polysaccharides to monosaccharides
  84. 84. Lipases
  85. 85. Phosphatases
  86. 86. Phosphates from protein groups
  87. 87. Sulfases
  88. 88. Break down sulfate groups
  89. 89. Phospholipases
  90. 90. Breaks down phospholpids
  91. 91. ATP hydrolysis and continual transport, active, of protons into lysosome.
  92. 92. Acidic environment is necessary for these enzymes
  93. 93. Requires energy to bring in H+
  94. 94. Contain Metabolic transporters
  95. 95. Pumps out individal materials, such as amino acids etc, into cytosol to be used by the cell
  96. 96. Need facilitated diffusion for this, a protein
  97. 97. Slide 11
  98. 98. Early endosomes are a sorting place for many components, they can act as a retrafficking/reuse receptor site that go to the membrane and bring ligands back to the cell, or continue to late endosomes, ~6.5ph as compared to cytosol 7ish
  99. 99. In late endosome, become more acidic 6ish, hydrolases are found in late endosomes, but less acidic that lysosomes
  100. 100. For complete degredation, late endosomes fuse with lysosomes and the lysosomes are sites with highly acidic environenment.
  101. 101. Vesicles undergo endocytosis
  102. 102. Endocytic vesicles are transported to early endosomes, a sorting place for many componenets
  103. 103. Can go to a late endosome which has a more acidic environment ~6
  104. 104. Mannose-6-phosphate receptors
  105. 105. Manose receptrs outside are recognized by this and when they are bound they bud to endosomes and released due to acidic environment and then are broken down. Carried to late endosome or lysosomes
  106. 106. Slide 12
  107. 107. Autophagy
  108. 108. Cell surrounds constituents within cytoplasm through outpocketing of endoplasmic reticulum around the outside of dead old or dying organelles and creates a vacuole called an autophagosome, and it fuses with lysosome to make an autophagolysosome and enzyme of that can degrade organelle.
  109. 109. Phagocytosis
  110. 110. Means for cell to extend pseudopodia out and around foreign particles, bacteria, dying cells, and engulfed and fused. Formed into a vacuole that is called a phagosomes.
  111. 111. They are trafficked and fused to lysosomes to make a phago-lysosome.
  112. 112. Now the organelle can digest foreign material
  113. 113. Isolated organelles self-repliacate
  114. 114. Peroxisomes have characteristics of both categories of organelles
  115. 115. Can bud off of endomembrane system
  116. 116. Undergo fission event that allows the cell to make more of them, making them isolated organelles
  117. 117. Peroxisomes are:
  118. 118. Like lysosomes
  119. 119. Have an oxidative rather than acidic environment
  120. 120. Oxidizes particular constituents in cell that are toxic or to byproductst that are not toxic to be used
  121. 121. Catalase alters H2O2 so the cell can handle it.
  122. 122. Breaks down to H20 and O2
  123. 123. Take off H from organic compounds and generate H20 and an organic compound not damaging

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