2.17.2010

203
-1

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
203
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2.17.2010

  1. 1. 2.17.2010 – Cytoskeleton<br />Continuation of cellular respiration<br /><ul><li>Diseases Associated with Mutations in cellular Respiration
  2. 2. Leigh Syndrome – decreased activity in cytochrome c oxidase
  3. 3. Brain tissue loss and muscular deficiency
  4. 4. terminal
  5. 5. Complex II deficiency
  6. 6. Short stature, seizures, mild swelling in and around the brain, encephalopathy
  7. 7. Not terminal
  8. 8. Beriberi
  9. 9. Lack of thiamine, vitamin B1
  10. 10. Decreased activity in pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase (regulatory enzyme in krebs cycle)
  11. 11. Can take thiamine supplements
  12. 12. w/out B1, krebs cycle can work as well
  13. 13. nervous system disorders.
  14. 14. The cytoskeleton regulates
  15. 15. cellular mitosis
  16. 16. meiosis
  17. 17. cell motility (entire cell)
  18. 18. Motility and trafficking of proteins, organelles, RNA in the cell
  19. 19. Cell-cell adhesion
  20. 20. Counterparts in Bacteria – slide 2
  21. 21. Microtubules (formed by dimmers of the tubulin monomers) – counterpart in bacteria, FtsZ gene
  22. 22. cell division
  23. 23. Actin (microfilaments) – counterpart in bacteria, MreB
  24. 24. DNA segregation
  25. 25. Intermediate Filaments – counterpart in bacteria Crescentin
  26. 26. Maintaining shape
  27. 27. Properties of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
  28. 28. Microtubules
  29. 29. Growing and shrinking end
  30. 30. Formed by the dimer tubulin monomer
  31. 31. Function
  32. 32. Organized into structure that allows for a specific motility
  33. 33. Axoenemal
  34. 34. Whip-like movement such as sperm cells.
  35. 35. Make up much of the cytoplasm to make a dense environment
  36. 36. Chromosomal movement
  37. 37. Microfilaments/Actin filaments
  38. 38. Actin is smallest
  39. 39. Makes microfilaments
  40. 40. Link g-actin together non-covalently
  41. 41. Cell division
  42. 42. Amoeboid Movement
  43. 43. Cytosol of an amoeba is a gel, or plasma gel. The gel is converted to plasmasol, so it’s more fluid and the movement is more fluid
  44. 44. If you have a structure like an amoeba, the cytosol is more gel like than water, so plasma gel. For movement, the gel is converted to plasmasol, so it’s more fluid and the movement is more fluid, which tends to create a force or pressure along membrane as force is mediated
  45. 45. Intermediate Filaments – structure and support for cells
  46. 46. No polar sides! So very good at structural support system for cells.
  47. 47. Structural support
  48. 48. Maintain shape
  49. 49. Nuclear lamina
  50. 50. Just on the inside of nuclear envelope
  51. 51. Strengthening of nerve cells
  52. 52. Desmin helps maintain muscle cell shape when undergoing mechanical movement
  53. 53. Not as dynamic as microfilaments and microtubules
  54. 54. Rope-like structures
  55. 55. Cytoplasmic filament (slide 3) have concentrated areas in sites called desmosomes, which provide linkage between cells to hold them. Proteins make desmosomes, but the filaments hold the cells together by interacting with desmosomes. They don’t hold directly to cells, but link to one another to hold cells together in a tissue structure.
  56. 56. Nuclear lamins (blue area around nucleus)
  57. 57. Can help regulate what goes in and out of nucleus
  58. 58. (Slide 4) 8-12nm. Begins with assembly of alpha helix monomer, made of four alpha helices with 3 regions that separate the monomer itself. 310-318 amino acids, all of which are hydrophilic. At the end, amino and carboxy terminus, hydrophobic, tend to be regions that associate with other types of proteins.
  59. 59. Coiled-coil dimers come together in a staggered position for amino and carboxy terminus do not overlap, and this allows the tetramers to pack together at the heads, through non-covalent bonding. Eight tetramers are brought together and form a rope-like structure.
  60. 60. Classes of Intermediate Filaments
  61. 61. Specificity of intermediate filaments can help us identify cells and localize the filaments in the cell.
  62. 62. Slide 6 is trying to show intermediate filaments at the desmosomes
  63. 63. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex
  64. 64. K14 gene generates two types of Keratin, class I and II.
  65. 65. Any amount of stretching will rip epithelial cells apart and can lead to blistering.
  66. 66. Neurofilament diseases
  67. 67. Epidermalisis – lysing of the epidermis below cymplex
  68. 68. Mutation in keratin – k14 gene – that is responsible for generating two classes of keratin, I and II, when they can’t function they can’t hold selves together, so blistering wounds can be found on the skin.
  69. 69. Lou Gerhig’s Disease (ALS – Armyotropic Lateral Sclerosis)
  70. 70. NF-H, Peripherin
  71. 71. Protein that is mutated as well as neuro fiaments
  72. 72. Sometimes not terminal, depends of genetics of person
  73. 73. Cardiomyopathies – desmoplakin, which can induce heart failure.
  74. 74. Nuclear Lamins is formed by lamin proteins
  75. 75. Polarized cell.
  76. 76. Found under the nuclear envelope, and separating the chromatin from the envelope.
  77. 77. Laminopathies
  78. 78. Lipodystrophy
  79. 79. Fat cells are abnormally deposited
  80. 80. Heart attacks, high BP etc
  81. 81. ADLD – Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy
  82. 82. Loss of myelin mutation in Lamin A
  83. 83. Can lead to loss of motor control/paralysis
  84. 84. Assembly of microtubules (Slide9)
  85. 85. Alpha and beta dimers
  86. 86. Oligomer
  87. 87. Nucleation site
  88. 88. AREAS WHERE MORE DIMERS CAN ADD ON AND LENGTHEN THESE OLIGOMERS into a protofilament.
  89. 89. 13 protofilaments form a microtubule when they close
  90. 90. once closed, either end can be an end where dimmers come on or off so either end can be plus or minus end.
  91. 91. Either end can grow and shrink
  92. 92. Line up so plus and minus ends are in same region of the cells, - at nucleus, plus at end of axon where growing takes place.

×