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2.12.2010

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  • 1. 2.12.2010<br />
    • Slide 14
    • 2. Other reaction pathways
    • 3. Fructose can enter and be converted to F6P to generate 2-glyc-aldeh.
    • 4. Glycerol is a storage sugar
    • 5. Can be converted to gly-3-phosp
    • 6. Mannose Mannose-6-phosphate
    • 7. Just be aware of other molecules
    • 8. Slide 15
    • 9. Polysaccharides have to undergo
    • 10. Glycogen undergoes phosphorolytic cleavage, a breakage of alpha 1,4 bond to release glucose unit.
    • 11. Slide 16
    • 12. Glycolysis can be reversed
    • 13. It requires ATP to generate glucose
    • 14. Gluconeogenesis
    • 15. Used when muscles undergo stress
    • 16. If cells are deprived of nutrients or food
    • 17. Slide 17 – The Krebs Cycle
    • 18. Pyruvate enters and mito. Matrix, it moves through facilitated diffusion due to charge.
    • 19. Conversion reaction
    • 20. Convert pyruvate to acetyl coa
    • 21. Acetyl coa is oxidized in krebs cycle and used to make CO2
    • 22. NADH contributes to ETC
    • 23. Coenzyme a is acetylated to generate acetyl CoA
    • 24. Pyruvate to acetyl CoA enzyme
    • 25. Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    • 26. Acetyl CoA generates krebs cyele
    • 27. For each pyruvate you get 3 NADH and FADH2 and 2CO2
    • 28. We also generate a GTP for each pyruvate
    • 29. Total: 6NADH 2FADH2 4CO2 2GTP
    • 30. GTP
    • 31. Sister molecule to ATP, it can transfer a Pi group to ADP as well
    • 32. E- transport carriers tranport e- to ETC
    • 33. Slide 18
    • 34. When pyruvate moves into mito, converted to acetyl CoA, krebs cycle, generates CO2 NADH, FADH2, and the e- carriers will donate e- to specific and concentrated protein in inner mito matrix
    • 35. Inner mit. Matr. Has a high ratio of proteins to lipids in membrane. 90% protein
    • 36. Citric Acid Cycle
    • 37. Generate CO2
    • 38. Tranfers protons to NAD+
    • 39. Protons come from H20, which is used to provide extra protons
    • 40. ETC, molecular O2 is used to make H20 at end of chain.
    • 41. Slide 19
    • 42. Inner membrane has cristae which increase surface are for ETC. more cristae = more ETCs/more energy made
    • 43. Matrix: enzymes to power krebs cycle, DNA, ribosomes for mito proteins
    • 44. ETC
    • 45. Involve movement of H from inner matrix to intermembrane space.
    • 46. Pyruvate dehydrogenase drives reaction of reaction and it is a complex of 3 enyzmes that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA
    • 47. Transfers Acetyl group from pyruvate to CoA and bind the two to make acetyl CoA
    • 48. Acetyl CoA can now enter Krebs cycle!
    • 49. Slide 21
    • 50. Step 1 of Krebs cycle
    • 51. Association of 3 carbon acetyl coa sugar with 4 carbon oxaloacetate
    • 52. The reaction that bring these two together generates citric acid (citrate), using H from water.
    • 53. Step 2
    • 54. Citrate converted to isocitrate
    • 55. Step 3
    • 56. Iso is alpha-keto
    • 57. Generated one NADH
    • 58. Step 4
    • 59. Another NADH is produced
    • 60. Step 5
    • 61. Succinyl CoA to succinate
    • 62. GDP becomes GTP
    • 63. Coenzyme A is produced
    • 64. Used again at conversion reaction to make acetyl CoA
    • 65. Succinate will continue to produce oxaloacetate
    • 66. 2 turns of the citric acid cycle produces 6NADH 2FADH2 2GTP
    • 67. NADH is a reduced b-vitamin
    • 68. FADH2 is a riboflavin, reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide, which arises from b vitamin riboflavin
    • 69. Slide 22
    • 70. 1 glucose yield 6CO2 2ATP 2GTP 10NADH 2FADH2
    • 71. 12 high energy e- carrie molecules to inner matrix of mito
    • 72. Slide 23
    • 73. Niacin reduced to make NADH
    • 74. FADH2 also made from riboflavin
    • 75. Hot-potatoe protons
    • 76. Loses H readily in inner mitochondrial matrix
    • 77. Powers ETC
    • 78. GTP
    • 79. Guanine instead of adenine (ATP)
    • 80. Regulatory Steps of Krebs Cycle
    • 81. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is activated by low levels of ATP and vice versa
    • 82. Hexokinase converts glucose to G6P
    • 83. In citric acids cycle - 3 steps
    • 84. Conversion of isocitrate to alpha-ketogluterate is regulated by the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase which produces the first NADH
    • 85. INHIBITED BY HIGH LEVELS OF NADH AND ACTIVATED BY HIGH LEVELS OF ADP
    • 86. Converstion of alpha-keto to succinyl coa
    • 87. Alphaketo dehydrogenase puts H of NAD+ and regulated by high levels of NADH or high levels of succinyl CoA, if high, will shut don enzyme
    • 88. Malate to oxaloacetate
    • 89. When NADH is high, maltate dehydrogenase is inhibited, which converts maltate to oxaloacetate.
    • 90. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • 91. ETC generates a proton motive force used to power ATp synthase to make ATP
    • 92. High energy e- transfer from FADH2 to O2
    • 93. At the end of the ET water will be produced and ~34 ATP are produced due to ETC
    • 94. For a singe NADH, 1/2 O2 and H removes H from NADH to make water
    • 95. The last structure of ETC can hold O2 until the O2 obtains both e- to make H20, same for FADH2, instead of releasing a reactive ion.
    • 96. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • 97. Electron Chemical Gradient
    • 98. Makes Chemiosmotic Coupled system
    • 99. The unequal distribution of Hydrogen ions and charge across the membrane in which ATP synthase sits
    • 100. NADH and FADH2 are in the inner mitochondrial membrane and they’re donating the electron hot potatoe hydrogens and the e-s that go along with them.
    • 101. As e-s are donated, the proteins and complexes pump out H into the intermembrane space from membrane space across inner membrane
    • 102. More positive charge is out of matrix and moved to inter membrane space
    • 103. E-s transported provide mechanism of energy to move H and create a chemisomotic gradient w/ negative charge on inside.
    • 104. The driving force that goes through the ATP synthase is so large that it doesn’t require energy to make ATP.
    • 105. Uses protons to rotate and that rotation sucks in ADP
    • 106. Concentration gradient is less
    • 107. pH differential across membrane
    • 108. more acidic in intermembrane space than in matrix space
    • 109. ETC Proteins
    • 110. There are 4 protein complexes that accept high energy e-s
    • 111. They are complexes, not individual proteins
    • 112. Complex I and II refer to the NADH dehydrogenase complex
    • 113. Ubiquinone is an intermediate e- transfer protein is aka coenzyme Q
    • 114. Tranfers 2 hydrogens from intermembrane space
    • 115. For transfer of 2 e- from NADH 4 protons across the membrane
    • 116. Cytochrome b-c1 is the complex III
    • 117. Cytochrome c is another intermediate
    • 118. Does not transport H
    • 119. 2 H move
    • 120. Cytochrome oxidase complex IV
    • 121. Makes water and holds oxygen until all H and e-s are transferred
    • 122. 2 H move
    • 123. 10 total H moved across membrane
    • 124. we have dehydrogenated NADH
    • 125. as we remove from NADH, you convert into a H+ proton, 2 e- and the 2- are transported along the complexes, and at each stage H are pumped, and eventually allow the transfer of molecular H2 to make water.
    • 126. Reduction Potentials (slide 29)
    • 127. NADH dehydrogenase has the largest reduction
    • 128. The energy left is used by cytochrome oxidase complex to make H20
    • 129. Coenzyme Q and cytochrome c
    • 130. Cytochrome c is embedded in the membrane
    • 131. Does not transport H across, simply accepts e-s
    • 132. Has an iron heme that hold e-s that is linked to a copper ion that allows that O2 to be held until enough H has moved through complex 4 to make water stable
    • 133. Complex 4 is important to make sure cell isn’t damaged by the oxidative phosphorylation

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