2.10.2010

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2.10.2010

  1. 1. 2.10.2010<br /><ul><li>ATP
  2. 2. Pi to adenosine creates a phospho-anhydride bond. Instead of uniform electron distribution, when the anhydride group is made, the e- becomes more polarized. They spend more time around oxygens so breaking yields energy.
  3. 3. Phospho-ester bond is phosphate to adenosine amino acid
  4. 4. Breaking off yield 7.3kCal
  5. 5. PEP (slide 4) phosphoenolpyruvate
  6. 6. Enol group is broken and yields energy, some of which is used to make ATP
  7. 7. Remaining 7.5kCal can be used to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
  8. 8. Once glucose is brought into cell, g6p is used in subsequent steps of the reaction
  9. 9. Also becomes trapped into the cell and cannot bind to glucose transporters.
  10. 10. Phosphate added to glucose – 3.3kcal used
  11. 11. -4kCal/mol is left over
  12. 12. Slide 5 – Chemotrophic Energy Metabolism
  13. 13. Energy yielded from catabolic reactions
  14. 14. Anaerobic – fermentation products and ATP is generated
  15. 15. Much less ATP
  16. 16. Ethanol and CO2
  17. 17. Or lactate that have used up O2 but still need to make energy
  18. 18. Aerobic
  19. 19. CO2 and H20 products
  20. 20. From waste or respiration will be fixed in plants and bacteria and will convert to sugars in plants.
  21. 21. Slide 6
  22. 22. Oxidation is fundamental for processes in cellular metabolism
  23. 23. Amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol all contribute to glycolysis as well as citric acid cycle and ETC in mito.
  24. 24. Oxidation
  25. 25. Process of removing hydrogen bonds and replacing them with Oxygen.
  26. 26. Stepwise process of oxidation is favorable
  27. 27. Useful in energy making
  28. 28. Reduction is the opposite process
  29. 29. Slide 7
  30. 30. How we generate energy when O2 is present.
  31. 31. A single step releases a lot of energy and the cell can’t capture that
  32. 32. In sugar oxidation, the steps of glyc. And oxid. Phospho. Occur in steps with enzymes to yield energy and capture it.
  33. 33. Slide 8 – Glycolysis
  34. 34. Glycolysis is in the CYTOPLASM
  35. 35. Know steps 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 10
  36. 36. They are the steps that are highly regulate by how much sugar is available to the cell.
  37. 37. 6, 7, 10 yield energy
  38. 38. Step 1
  39. 39. 1 molecule of glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate
  40. 40. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
  41. 41. Only used for glycolysis in the cell!!!
  42. 42. Regulation of its production is important
  43. 43. Can be split into 3C sugar, aldose
  44. 44. Glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate
  45. 45. Undergo the rest of steps of glycolysis to yield NADH and ATP from each giving you a net outcome of 2NADH and 2ATP
  46. 46. Glucose is converted by a hexokinase to glucose-6-phosphate
  47. 47. Hydrolyze ATP (use ATP to make gluc-6-phosphate)
  48. 48. When it’s high in concentration, hexokinase is inhibited to phosphorylate glucose to make G6P
  49. 49. Step 2
  50. 50. G6P undergoes structure change to become Fructose-6-phosphate
  51. 51. G6P-Hexomerase changes structure of G6P to F6P
  52. 52. Step 3
  53. 53. F6P is phosphorylated on first carbon to yield F-1,6-bisphosphate
  54. 54. Enzyme is Fructose-6-phosphatekinase
  55. 55. kinase b/c adding phosphate
  56. 56. use name of preceding molecule to name it
  57. 57. fundamental to glycolysis
  58. 58. uses ATP
  59. 59. highly regulatable
  60. 60. by concentration of ATP
  61. 61. if high, enzyme is inhibited, make less of F16BisPi
  62. 62. activated by low concentrations of ATP, then body senses ATP is low and F6PiKinase begins glycolysis to make more ATP
  63. 63. controls glycolysis
  64. 64. Step 6
  65. 65. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
  66. 66. Generates high energy molecules used by the cell for e- transfer or ATP generation
  67. 67. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
  68. 68. structural changes
  69. 69. converted to substrate that becomes pyruvate
  70. 70. Step 7
  71. 71. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is used to generate ATP
  72. 72. 1st and last carbon has phosphate, but 1st transfers Pi to make ATP.
  73. 73. Now a substrate called 3-phosphoglycerate because Pi is taken off of 1st carbon and now only a Pi at the end.
  74. 74. Can make 1 more ATP due to that phosphate in step 10
  75. 75. Step 10
  76. 76. Phosphoenolpyruvate is generated at some point
  77. 77. Glycerate 3 phosphate undergoes mutation, take out a water, and end up with a C=C carbon with enolate that has high energy bond and used to make final ATP of glycolysis.
  78. 78. Phosphoenolglycerate aka Phosphoenolpyruvate, the substrate that yields ATP in last step of glycolysis
  79. 79. ATP + Pyruvate + O2
  80. 80. Pyruvate is transferred to mitochondria
  81. 81. Be aware of hexokinase and fructose one… regulated by how much energy the cell has as well as the conc. In the cells.
  82. 82. From there, be aware of steps that make up carrier proteins and net results and NADH etc.
  83. 83. 2ATP + 2NADH + 2pyruvate produced.
  84. 84. Slide 10
  85. 85. NAD+ is a coenzyme, so when it is used in these reactions, its structure is unaltered, it can be reduced or oxidized and have same structure
  86. 86. (Niacin is the vitamin)
  87. 87. nicotonimide is main structure for NAD and NADH
  88. 88. NAD is an electron carrier
  89. 89. Lactate Fermentation
  90. 90. Produces ATP
  91. 91. Not as much as glycolysis
  92. 92. NADH electrons end up on carbonyl group of pyruvate to make lactate
  93. 93. Glucose G6P
  94. 94. Pyruvate has H’s added to it from NADH
  95. 95. NAD+ can be regernertaed so it goes back to glycolysis
  96. 96. 2 pyruvates 2 lactate + 2NAD+
  97. 97. 2 ADP to 2 ATP
  98. 98. pyruvate lactate
  99. 99. lactate dehydrogenase
  100. 100. Slide 12
  101. 101. Glucose is used to make pyruvate, but instead after it accepts the H’s it yield 2 CO2 and acetyl aldehyde, which receives Hs and e- from NADH and release ethanol.
  102. 102. Catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase not lactate dehydrogenase

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