Pi to adenosine creates a phospho-anhydride bond. Instead of uniform electron distribution, when the anhydride group is made, the e- becomes more polarized. They spend more time around oxygens so breaking yields energy.
Phospho-ester bond is phosphate to adenosine amino acid
Breaking off yield 7.3kCal
PEP (slide 4) phosphoenolpyruvate
Enol group is broken and yields energy, some of which is used to make ATP
Remaining 7.5kCal can be used to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
Once glucose is brought into cell, g6p is used in subsequent steps of the reaction
Also becomes trapped into the cell and cannot bind to glucose transporters.
Phosphate added to glucose – 3.3kcal used
-4kCal/mol is left over
Slide 5 – Chemotrophic Energy Metabolism
Energy yielded from catabolic reactions
Anaerobic – fermentation products and ATP is generated
Much less ATP
Ethanol and CO2
Or lactate that have used up O2 but still need to make energy
CO2 and H20 products
From waste or respiration will be fixed in plants and bacteria and will convert to sugars in plants.
Oxidation is fundamental for processes in cellular metabolism
Amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol all contribute to glycolysis as well as citric acid cycle and ETC in mito.
Process of removing hydrogen bonds and replacing them with Oxygen.
Stepwise process of oxidation is favorable
Useful in energy making
Reduction is the opposite process
How we generate energy when O2 is present.
A single step releases a lot of energy and the cell can’t capture that
In sugar oxidation, the steps of glyc. And oxid. Phospho. Occur in steps with enzymes to yield energy and capture it.
Slide 8 – Glycolysis
Glycolysis is in the CYTOPLASM
Know steps 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 10
They are the steps that are highly regulate by how much sugar is available to the cell.
6, 7, 10 yield energy
1 molecule of glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate
Only used for glycolysis in the cell!!!
Regulation of its production is important
Can be split into 3C sugar, aldose
Undergo the rest of steps of glycolysis to yield NADH and ATP from each giving you a net outcome of 2NADH and 2ATP
Glucose is converted by a hexokinase to glucose-6-phosphate
Hydrolyze ATP (use ATP to make gluc-6-phosphate)
When it’s high in concentration, hexokinase is inhibited to phosphorylate glucose to make G6P
G6P undergoes structure change to become Fructose-6-phosphate
G6P-Hexomerase changes structure of G6P to F6P
F6P is phosphorylated on first carbon to yield F-1,6-bisphosphate
Enzyme is Fructose-6-phosphatekinase
kinase b/c adding phosphate
use name of preceding molecule to name it
fundamental to glycolysis
by concentration of ATP
if high, enzyme is inhibited, make less of F16BisPi
activated by low concentrations of ATP, then body senses ATP is low and F6PiKinase begins glycolysis to make more ATP
Generates high energy molecules used by the cell for e- transfer or ATP generation
converted to substrate that becomes pyruvate
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is used to generate ATP
1st and last carbon has phosphate, but 1st transfers Pi to make ATP.
Now a substrate called 3-phosphoglycerate because Pi is taken off of 1st carbon and now only a Pi at the end.
Can make 1 more ATP due to that phosphate in step 10
Phosphoenolpyruvate is generated at some point
Glycerate 3 phosphate undergoes mutation, take out a water, and end up with a C=C carbon with enolate that has high energy bond and used to make final ATP of glycolysis.
Phosphoenolglycerate aka Phosphoenolpyruvate, the substrate that yields ATP in last step of glycolysis
ATP + Pyruvate + O2
Pyruvate is transferred to mitochondria
Be aware of hexokinase and fructose one… regulated by how much energy the cell has as well as the conc. In the cells.
From there, be aware of steps that make up carrier proteins and net results and NADH etc.
2ATP + 2NADH + 2pyruvate produced.
NAD+ is a coenzyme, so when it is used in these reactions, its structure is unaltered, it can be reduced or oxidized and have same structure
(Niacin is the vitamin)
nicotonimide is main structure for NAD and NADH
NAD is an electron carrier
Not as much as glycolysis
NADH electrons end up on carbonyl group of pyruvate to make lactate
Pyruvate has H’s added to it from NADH
NAD+ can be regernertaed so it goes back to glycolysis
2 pyruvates 2 lactate + 2NAD+
2 ADP to 2 ATP
Glucose is used to make pyruvate, but instead after it accepts the H’s it yield 2 CO2 and acetyl aldehyde, which receives Hs and e- from NADH and release ethanol.
Catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase not lactate dehydrogenase