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  • 1. 2.10.2010<br />
    • ATP
    • 2. Pi to adenosine creates a phospho-anhydride bond. Instead of uniform electron distribution, when the anhydride group is made, the e- becomes more polarized. They spend more time around oxygens so breaking yields energy.
    • 3. Phospho-ester bond is phosphate to adenosine amino acid
    • 4. Breaking off yield 7.3kCal
    • 5. PEP (slide 4) phosphoenolpyruvate
    • 6. Enol group is broken and yields energy, some of which is used to make ATP
    • 7. Remaining 7.5kCal can be used to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
    • 8. Once glucose is brought into cell, g6p is used in subsequent steps of the reaction
    • 9. Also becomes trapped into the cell and cannot bind to glucose transporters.
    • 10. Phosphate added to glucose – 3.3kcal used
    • 11. -4kCal/mol is left over
    • 12. Slide 5 – Chemotrophic Energy Metabolism
    • 13. Energy yielded from catabolic reactions
    • 14. Anaerobic – fermentation products and ATP is generated
    • 15. Much less ATP
    • 16. Ethanol and CO2
    • 17. Or lactate that have used up O2 but still need to make energy
    • 18. Aerobic
    • 19. CO2 and H20 products
    • 20. From waste or respiration will be fixed in plants and bacteria and will convert to sugars in plants.
    • 21. Slide 6
    • 22. Oxidation is fundamental for processes in cellular metabolism
    • 23. Amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol all contribute to glycolysis as well as citric acid cycle and ETC in mito.
    • 24. Oxidation
    • 25. Process of removing hydrogen bonds and replacing them with Oxygen.
    • 26. Stepwise process of oxidation is favorable
    • 27. Useful in energy making
    • 28. Reduction is the opposite process
    • 29. Slide 7
    • 30. How we generate energy when O2 is present.
    • 31. A single step releases a lot of energy and the cell can’t capture that
    • 32. In sugar oxidation, the steps of glyc. And oxid. Phospho. Occur in steps with enzymes to yield energy and capture it.
    • 33. Slide 8 – Glycolysis
    • 34. Glycolysis is in the CYTOPLASM
    • 35. Know steps 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 10
    • 36. They are the steps that are highly regulate by how much sugar is available to the cell.
    • 37. 6, 7, 10 yield energy
    • 38. Step 1
    • 39. 1 molecule of glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate
    • 40. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
    • 41. Only used for glycolysis in the cell!!!
    • 42. Regulation of its production is important
    • 43. Can be split into 3C sugar, aldose
    • 44. Glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate
    • 45. Undergo the rest of steps of glycolysis to yield NADH and ATP from each giving you a net outcome of 2NADH and 2ATP
    • 46. Glucose is converted by a hexokinase to glucose-6-phosphate
    • 47. Hydrolyze ATP (use ATP to make gluc-6-phosphate)
    • 48. When it’s high in concentration, hexokinase is inhibited to phosphorylate glucose to make G6P
    • 49. Step 2
    • 50. G6P undergoes structure change to become Fructose-6-phosphate
    • 51. G6P-Hexomerase changes structure of G6P to F6P
    • 52. Step 3
    • 53. F6P is phosphorylated on first carbon to yield F-1,6-bisphosphate
    • 54. Enzyme is Fructose-6-phosphatekinase
    • 55. kinase b/c adding phosphate
    • 56. use name of preceding molecule to name it
    • 57. fundamental to glycolysis
    • 58. uses ATP
    • 59. highly regulatable
    • 60. by concentration of ATP
    • 61. if high, enzyme is inhibited, make less of F16BisPi
    • 62. activated by low concentrations of ATP, then body senses ATP is low and F6PiKinase begins glycolysis to make more ATP
    • 63. controls glycolysis
    • 64. Step 6
    • 65. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
    • 66. Generates high energy molecules used by the cell for e- transfer or ATP generation
    • 67. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
    • 68. structural changes
    • 69. converted to substrate that becomes pyruvate
    • 70. Step 7
    • 71. 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is used to generate ATP
    • 72. 1st and last carbon has phosphate, but 1st transfers Pi to make ATP.
    • 73. Now a substrate called 3-phosphoglycerate because Pi is taken off of 1st carbon and now only a Pi at the end.
    • 74. Can make 1 more ATP due to that phosphate in step 10
    • 75. Step 10
    • 76. Phosphoenolpyruvate is generated at some point
    • 77. Glycerate 3 phosphate undergoes mutation, take out a water, and end up with a C=C carbon with enolate that has high energy bond and used to make final ATP of glycolysis.
    • 78. Phosphoenolglycerate aka Phosphoenolpyruvate, the substrate that yields ATP in last step of glycolysis
    • 79. ATP + Pyruvate + O2
    • 80. Pyruvate is transferred to mitochondria
    • 81. Be aware of hexokinase and fructose one… regulated by how much energy the cell has as well as the conc. In the cells.
    • 82. From there, be aware of steps that make up carrier proteins and net results and NADH etc.
    • 83. 2ATP + 2NADH + 2pyruvate produced.
    • 84. Slide 10
    • 85. NAD+ is a coenzyme, so when it is used in these reactions, its structure is unaltered, it can be reduced or oxidized and have same structure
    • 86. (Niacin is the vitamin)
    • 87. nicotonimide is main structure for NAD and NADH
    • 88. NAD is an electron carrier
    • 89. Lactate Fermentation
    • 90. Produces ATP
    • 91. Not as much as glycolysis
    • 92. NADH electrons end up on carbonyl group of pyruvate to make lactate
    • 93. Glucose G6P
    • 94. Pyruvate has H’s added to it from NADH
    • 95. NAD+ can be regernertaed so it goes back to glycolysis
    • 96. 2 pyruvates 2 lactate + 2NAD+
    • 97. 2 ADP to 2 ATP
    • 98. pyruvate lactate
    • 99. lactate dehydrogenase
    • 100. Slide 12
    • 101. Glucose is used to make pyruvate, but instead after it accepts the H’s it yield 2 CO2 and acetyl aldehyde, which receives Hs and e- from NADH and release ethanol.
    • 102. Catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase not lactate dehydrogenase