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    2.10.2010 2.10.2010 Document Transcript

    • 2.10.2010<br />
      • ATP
      • Pi to adenosine creates a phospho-anhydride bond. Instead of uniform electron distribution, when the anhydride group is made, the e- becomes more polarized. They spend more time around oxygens so breaking yields energy.
      • Phospho-ester bond is phosphate to adenosine amino acid
      • Breaking off yield 7.3kCal
      • PEP (slide 4) phosphoenolpyruvate
      • Enol group is broken and yields energy, some of which is used to make ATP
      • Remaining 7.5kCal can be used to convert glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.
      • Once glucose is brought into cell, g6p is used in subsequent steps of the reaction
      • Also becomes trapped into the cell and cannot bind to glucose transporters.
      • Phosphate added to glucose – 3.3kcal used
      • -4kCal/mol is left over
      • Slide 5 – Chemotrophic Energy Metabolism
      • Energy yielded from catabolic reactions
      • Anaerobic – fermentation products and ATP is generated
      • Much less ATP
      • Ethanol and CO2
      • Or lactate that have used up O2 but still need to make energy
      • Aerobic
      • CO2 and H20 products
      • From waste or respiration will be fixed in plants and bacteria and will convert to sugars in plants.
      • Slide 6
      • Oxidation is fundamental for processes in cellular metabolism
      • Amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol all contribute to glycolysis as well as citric acid cycle and ETC in mito.
      • Oxidation
      • Process of removing hydrogen bonds and replacing them with Oxygen.
      • Stepwise process of oxidation is favorable
      • Useful in energy making
      • Reduction is the opposite process
      • Slide 7
      • How we generate energy when O2 is present.
      • A single step releases a lot of energy and the cell can’t capture that
      • In sugar oxidation, the steps of glyc. And oxid. Phospho. Occur in steps with enzymes to yield energy and capture it.
      • Slide 8 – Glycolysis
      • Glycolysis is in the CYTOPLASM
      • Know steps 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 10
      • They are the steps that are highly regulate by how much sugar is available to the cell.
      • 6, 7, 10 yield energy
      • Step 1
      • 1 molecule of glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate
      • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
      • Only used for glycolysis in the cell!!!
      • Regulation of its production is important
      • Can be split into 3C sugar, aldose
      • Glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate
      • Undergo the rest of steps of glycolysis to yield NADH and ATP from each giving you a net outcome of 2NADH and 2ATP
      • Glucose is converted by a hexokinase to glucose-6-phosphate
      • Hydrolyze ATP (use ATP to make gluc-6-phosphate)
      • When it’s high in concentration, hexokinase is inhibited to phosphorylate glucose to make G6P
      • Step 2
      • G6P undergoes structure change to become Fructose-6-phosphate
      • G6P-Hexomerase changes structure of G6P to F6P
      • Step 3
      • F6P is phosphorylated on first carbon to yield F-1,6-bisphosphate
      • Enzyme is Fructose-6-phosphatekinase
      • kinase b/c adding phosphate
      • use name of preceding molecule to name it
      • fundamental to glycolysis
      • uses ATP
      • highly regulatable
      • by concentration of ATP
      • if high, enzyme is inhibited, make less of F16BisPi
      • activated by low concentrations of ATP, then body senses ATP is low and F6PiKinase begins glycolysis to make more ATP
      • controls glycolysis
      • Step 6
      • Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
      • Generates high energy molecules used by the cell for e- transfer or ATP generation
      • 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
      • structural changes
      • converted to substrate that becomes pyruvate
      • Step 7
      • 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is used to generate ATP
      • 1st and last carbon has phosphate, but 1st transfers Pi to make ATP.
      • Now a substrate called 3-phosphoglycerate because Pi is taken off of 1st carbon and now only a Pi at the end.
      • Can make 1 more ATP due to that phosphate in step 10
      • Step 10
      • Phosphoenolpyruvate is generated at some point
      • Glycerate 3 phosphate undergoes mutation, take out a water, and end up with a C=C carbon with enolate that has high energy bond and used to make final ATP of glycolysis.
      • Phosphoenolglycerate aka Phosphoenolpyruvate, the substrate that yields ATP in last step of glycolysis
      • ATP + Pyruvate + O2
      • Pyruvate is transferred to mitochondria
      • Be aware of hexokinase and fructose one… regulated by how much energy the cell has as well as the conc. In the cells.
      • From there, be aware of steps that make up carrier proteins and net results and NADH etc.
      • 2ATP + 2NADH + 2pyruvate produced.
      • Slide 10
      • NAD+ is a coenzyme, so when it is used in these reactions, its structure is unaltered, it can be reduced or oxidized and have same structure
      • (Niacin is the vitamin)
      • nicotonimide is main structure for NAD and NADH
      • NAD is an electron carrier
      • Lactate Fermentation
      • Produces ATP
      • Not as much as glycolysis
      • NADH electrons end up on carbonyl group of pyruvate to make lactate
      • Glucose G6P
      • Pyruvate has H’s added to it from NADH
      • NAD+ can be regernertaed so it goes back to glycolysis
      • 2 pyruvates 2 lactate + 2NAD+
      • 2 ADP to 2 ATP
      • pyruvate lactate
      • lactate dehydrogenase
      • Slide 12
      • Glucose is used to make pyruvate, but instead after it accepts the H’s it yield 2 CO2 and acetyl aldehyde, which receives Hs and e- from NADH and release ethanol.
      • Catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase not lactate dehydrogenase