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1.29.2010

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  • 1. 1.29.2010 - Lipids<br />
    • Plasma membrane
    • 2. Compartmentalize
    • 3. Used by organelle membranes as well
    • 4. Made of lipids, a major constituent
    • 5. Not formed by linear polymerization of a smaller lipid monomer
    • 6. Used for energy storage
    • 7. Important for membrane structure
    • 8. Can be used as signaling molecules
    • 9. Provide ability for fluidity of the membrane
    • 10. Allows for expansion
    • 11. Not just fats and oils
    • 12. Types of Lipids
    • 13. Fatty acids
    • 14. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic end
    • 15. Hydrophilic is the COOH end
    • 16. 16-18 carbons on average (12-20 range) is the average length of the carbon chain
    • 17. saturated FA is CnH2nO2
    • 18. Phospholipids
    • 19. Membrane structure
    • 20. 2 classes of PL
    • 21. phosphoglycerides
    • 22. glycerol + Pi + R group + hydrocarbon chains
    • 23. sphingolipids
    • 24. amino group + hydrocarbon chain + R + O
    • 25. Serine, ethanolamine, choline, inositol can be broken down or be used for signaling or both
    • 26. Triglycerides
    • 27. Have fatty acids in them
    • 28. A glycerol molecule through dehydration/condensation is linked to three fatty acids
    • 29. Energy storage and insulation
    • 30. Solid fats are saturated,
    • 31. Margarine made from unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogenating it
    • 32. Oils, unsaturated fatty acids
    • 33. Glycolipids
    • 34. Sugar group attacted to glycolipid molecule
    • 35. Glycosphingolipid
    • 36. Glycosphingosine
    • 37. R groups with 1 to 6 monosaccharide units
    • 38. Terpenes
    • 39. Carotenoid
    • 40. Plastoquinone
    • 41. Vitamin a
    • 42. Coenzyme Q
    • 43. Steroids
    • 44. Cholesterol
    • 45. Most common in animal cells found in the PL bilayer
    • 46. Amphipathic
    • 47. Hydrophilic end is facing out or inside of cell, not in between
    • 48. Important in regulating lipid fluidity
    • 49. Terpenes
    • 50. Bilayers form Spontaneously
    • 51. Favorable for cell to have membrane form a spherical shape
    • 52. Injury?
    • 53. Phospholipids inserted to repair tear
    • 54. If can’t be repaired by insertion, round in on itself instead
    • 55. Lipid Bilayer
    • 56. Import and export of molecules
    • 57. Signaling/activation by extracellular ques
    • 58. Motility
    • 59. Made of phospholipids with embedded fatty acids/cholesterol/and proteins
    • 60. Boundary for things
    • 61. If cholesterol is embedded, space reduced between fatty acids and restricts what moves in and out, such as ions
    • 62. Organization and localization of function of organelles
    • 63. Allow for regulated transport processes
    • 64. Membrane allows to bind to EXC factors because of proteins in the membrane
    • 65. GFs
    • 66. Cell-Cell communication
    • 67. Signaling molecules interact by EXC contact, and activate signaling on either side
    • 68. Gap junctions
    • 69. Proteins that allow direct communication between cells so cytoplasm of two cells are like one
    • 70. Fluid Mosaic Model
    • 71. PL Bilayer is fluid and not rigid
    • 72. Using FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching), how fluid is the membrane
    • 73. Label the cell surface with fluorescent dyes
    • 74. Took laser and bleached spot on membrane
    • 75. Looked over time how quickly fluorescent molecules repopulated bleached area
    • 76. There is PL motility
    • 77. Mechanisms of movement
    • 78. Rotation
    • 79. Lateral movement
    • 80. Move by diffusion, so no energy is needed
    • 81. Flipases
    • 82. Enzymes that drive the flipping of PLs
    • 83. PL Bilayer
    • 84. The EXC and cytosolic side are different
    • 85. Immune system responds to certain things on the outside of the cell
    • 86. When PL are exposed that are normally on the cytosolic side, immune cells phagocytose b/c it’s a signal of a dead or dying cell
    • 87. Membrane Fluidity
    • 88. Tm is the temp at which membrane transitions from gel to fluid
    • 89. Lets say 28 degress C
    • 90. If past, more fluid
    • 91. If lower, more solid
    • 92. What changes Tm is strength of van der wall interactions of fatty acids in PL bilayer
    • 93. The more linear, the stronger the van der walls forces and the higher the Tm
    • 94. More carbons increases Tm
    • 95. Steroids/Sterols
    • 96. In the PM affect fluidity
    • 97. As place in PL bilayer, there is an equal amount in both layers of the bilayer
    • 98. Cholesterol stabilizes membrane
    • 99. Hydroxyl groups forms H bond with carboxyl group
    • 100. Decrease fluidity
    • 101. Holds structure better
    • 102. Phytosterol is in plants instead of cholesterol
    • 103. Different Lipids in the Membrane
    • 104. Study them by using Thin Layer Chromatography
    • 105. Separate lipids based on polarity
    • 106. Lipid Distribution
    • 107. Phosphatidyl ethanolamine and serine are in the cytosol
    • 108. Negatively charged and point to cytosol
    • 109. Choline and spingomyelin are on the EXC side
    • 110. Have sugar moieties resulting in EXC love
    • 111. Lipid Raft
    • 112. Concentrated area of PL and cholestoerl and protein embedded in membrane brought together in rigid structure.
    • 113. More cholesterol and more saturated fatty acid tails so interaction is very tight
    • 114. With embedded proteins, forms solid structure that moves as a unit
    • 115. Signaling molecules are all held together
    • 116. Glycolipids attract signaling molecules in the cell, lectins
    • 117. Often signaling receptors on EXC
    • 118. Results in an intracellular change
    • 119. Help localize the functional embedded proteis to signaling molecules in the cells.

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