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Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility
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Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility

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Accessible content is more ready to internationalization. …

Accessible content is more ready to internationalization.
Compliance to web standards can reduce possible inaccessibility from global learners.

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  • 1. Issues in Globalization of E-Learning Content and Accessibility 2004-12-13 Sung-shik Shin LG Electronics gregshin at lge dot com
  • 2. Table of Contents
    • Terminology
    • Globalization and accessibility
    • Globalization issues revisited
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • 3. Terminology
    • encompasses both internationalization and localization
    • putting into place the requisite materials, financial, and personnel resources in a global market to support your product or service on a local level
    Globalization(G11N)
    • preparation necessary for cost effective localization
    • process of planning, designing and implementing a "culturally and technically" neutral product
    • needs to be addressed in the earliest product planning stages
    • properly internationalized product is easier to localize than a non-internationalized product
    Internationalization (I18N)
    • Adapting a product to a particular language & culture
    Localization (L10N)
    • Transcribing into one's own or another language
    • part of localization
    Translation
  • 4. Globalization and Accessibility Translation burden Internationalization cost
    • Separate structure from presentation.
    • Use markup properly.
    • Keep universal design.
    General Different convention
    • Avoid time-limited response.
    • Provide tool tips.
    • Size independent design
    • Clear navigation
    Novice users the old different technology Limited bandwidth
    • Standard compliance
    • Provide multi-modal content.
    • Use interim solutions.
    Limited environment Assistive technology Different Environment
    • Provide keyboard access.
    • Use interoperable technologies.
    Physical disabilities Second language Language barrier Dyslexia Culturally different
    • Use clear language.
    • Provide culturally neutral icon, symbols.
    • Avoid animations.
    • Specify natural language.
    Cognitive/learning disabilities Dyslexic condition
    • Provide alternate text.
    • Design color independently.
    Visual impairment Hard to comprehend No sound device
    • Provide caption.
    • Provide video/audio description.
    • Provide transcripts.
    • Provide translations.
    Hearing impairment Temporal silence Global Aspects Possible Solutions Learner Aspects
  • 5. Globalization issues revisited
  • 6. Character problems
    • Always declare character encoding.
      • XML: <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>
      • HTML: <meta http-equiv=“Content-type” content=“text/html;charset=UTF-8” />
      • CSS: @charset “utf-8”;
      • JavaScript: <script type=“text/JavaScript” charset=“utf-8”>
      • HTTP header: Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
    • Numerical Character Reference(NCR) vs. literal characters
      • Only use escapes for characters in exceptional circumstances.
      • Unicode characters can be represented literally in UTF-8.
    • Markup vs. Unicode characters
      • Some Unicode characters are not suitable for use with markup.
      • Other Unicode characters are OK.
      • ‘ Compatibility characters’ vary in appropriateness.
  • 7. Language
    • Languages are different from character encoding scheme.
    • Specify natural languages
      • <html lang=“ko”>
      • <xml xml:lang=“ko”>
      • <blockquote lang=“fr-CA”>
    • Avoid abbreviations, and acronyms, jargons.
      • Na
        • Not available?
        • Numerical aperture?
        • Not applicable?
        • Sodium?
      • Use <acronym>, <abbr> markups.
  • 8. Fonts
    • Do not rely on typeface only.
      • Use semantic markup instead.
    • Always set generic font families.
      • font-family: “Times New Roman”, Times, 바탕 , Batang, UnBatang, serif;
    • Do not design font-dependent layout.
      • Different OS supports different font-size.
      • Let learners select their own preferred fonts.
    Font examples Generic font family Courier , Dotumche , Batangche Times , Batang Arial, Helvetica, Dotum Monospace serif sans-serif
  • 9. Locale specific data
    • Date & Time
      • 02/04/03?
        • Feb 4 th , 2003?, April 2 nd , 2003?, April 3 rd , 2002?,…
      • Use ISO 8601 date & time format.
        • 2004-02-03T13:20 (UTC +0900)
      • Or use Accept-Language HTTP header.
    • Numbers, Currency
      • 123,456?
    • Names, address, phone numbers
      • Nguyen Ngoc Lan?
    • Sort
      • French sorting order is different from that of English.
    • Search
  • 10. Display capacity
    • Use relative size rather than absolute unit.
      • pt, px, cm, in,…
      • em, ex, %, small, larger,…
    • Use viewport (display, voice, braille, etc) independent design.
  • 11. Pop-ups
    • Popups are big barrier
      • for the disabled
      • for the assistive technologies
      • for the unsupported user agents (such as PDA or TV web)
    • They are blocked by more user agents.
    • They are regarded awkward by many cultural groups.
    • If you REALLY want more than two windows, TITLE them properly.
  • 12. Browser compatibility Internet Explorer 6 Internet Explorer 5 Opera Mozilla Source: http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp , 2004-12-08 Netscape Navigator
  • 13. Grand design principles
    • Separate form factors from content.
      • Use style sheets and course templates.
      • Write structure (content) first, and add design templates.
      • Think versatile content for different devices, different preferences, different cultures.
    • Provide design resources, use MULTI media.
      • Layered graphics
      • Vector design (SVG, SMIL, MathML, …)
      • Programmable (parametric) design
      • Reusable resources (audio, video clips, image clips, text transcripts, titles…)
  • 14. Translation of other things
    • Screen capture
      • Is software available in all languages?
    • Graphic letters
      • Use markup instead if available.
    • Avatar, virtual human
      • Is it culturally neutral?
      • Configurable / modifiable by parameters?
    • Voice actors
      • Aren’t they too many?
    • Video, audio & flash
      • Media types: Windows Media, Real Media, QuickTime, …
      • Provide captions, collated text transcripts.
      • Separate text equivalents from video.
      • SMIL is a good alternative.
  • 15. Cultural difference
    • Don’t rely on colors only.
      • Provide alternative texts or markers.
      • Colors have different connotations in different countries.
    • Don’t rely on non-verbal cues only.
      • Provide alternative descriptions.
      • Provide orientation information.
    • Local regulations
      • Section 508(US), Disability Discrimination Act(UK, Australia)
      • Local, national certification, standards, patent/legal issues
    • Consider the cultural, religious variations.
      • Avoid culturally sensitive graphics.
      • Give access to in-country SMEs(Subject Matter Experts).
      • Use glossaries, translation memories.
  • 16. Conclusion
    • Global issues and considerations should be integrated into the early stages of content development.
    • Learners are not alike in their ability, level of motivation, preference, technology readiness, and cultural backgrounds.
    • Accessible content is more ready to internationalization.
    • Compliance to web standards can reduce possible inaccessibility from global learners.
  • 17. References
    • Date & Time(ISO 8601): http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/popstds/datesandtime.html
    • Unicode : http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode4.0.1/
    • IANA(Internet Assigned Numbers Authority): http://www.iana.org
    • I18N: http://www.w3.org/International/
    • Character Model: http://www.w3.org/charmod/
    • Personal Information Exchange: http:// www.imc.org/pdi/vcardoverview.html
    • Quality Assurance: http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-qaframe-spec-20040830/
    • Learner Profile: http:// www.imsglobal.org/profiles/index.cfm
    • IMS Accessibility: http:// www.imsglobal.org/accessibility/index.cfm
    • Multimodality: http://www.w3.org/2002/mmi/
    • Section 508: http://www.section508.gov

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