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Overview of Energy Industry

Overview of Energy Industry

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  • 1. Population Growth By Region
  • 2. Per Capita Carbon Emissions
  • 3. For Climate Change Skeptics; its not about climate!
    World GDP
    Global Carbon Emissions
  • 4. Energy Sources
  • 5. Use of Cars
  • 6. Technology Demands
  • 7. Fossil Fuel Uses
  • 8. Turning to Cities
  • 9. Per Capita Consumption of Energy
  • 10. Energy Consumption by Source
  • 11. Oil
  • 12. What Is Oil Used for Anyway?
  • 13. Oil Demand and Consumption by Nation
  • 14. How many years of oil are left?
  • 15. Hubbert’s Peak
  • 16. Demand for Oil Inelastic
  • 17. Oil Prices
  • 18. Production in Decline
  • 19. World Energy Use by Non-Alternative Fuels and Oil Resources Use by Region
  • 20. How does oil get to us?
  • 21. Oil Sands
  • 22. Natural Gas Reserves by Region
  • 23. Natural Gas Flows
  • 24. Coal Reserves in US
  • 25. Electricity Essential for Economic Growth
  • 26. 26
    R
    e
    s
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    n
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    (
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    3
    %
    Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.
    Data source: US Energy Information Administration.
    80204-1
    Electricity and Carbon Emissions
    NAP_NAG_ConfCall_040308
  • 27. Electricity is Big Money
    We Spend About $300 Billion
    On Electricity Each Year
    Fuel
    Generation (Installed MWs)
    Transmission
    Distribution
    Trading & Other
    $92 Billion
    Market Value of Fuel Use for Generation
    $106 Billion
    Value Added
    $24 Billion
    Value Added
    $67 Billion
    Value Added
    $296
    Billion
    (Average Revenue per kWh: $0.081)
    $7 Billion
    Value Added
    COAL
    1,038 MM Short Tons
    ($31 Billion)
    NATURAL GAS
    5,679 Bcf
    ($51 Billion)
    313 GWCoal
    386 GWNatural Gas
    61 GWPetroleum
    100 GWNuclear
    98 GWHydro
    24 GWRenewables
    Total: 982 GW
    OIL
    214 Million Barrels
    ($12 Billion)
    Annual
    Consumption:
    3,660 TWh
    NUCLEAR
    ($5 Billion)
    FUEL COST DEFERRALS
    ($7.5 Billion)
    U.S. Electric Value Chain, 2005
  • 28. National Fuel Mix
  • 29. Aging Infrastructure
  • 30. Cost of Energy Infrastructure Overhaul
  • 31. Thinking about Costs
  • 32. 32
    Combustion Turbine
    Combined Cycle
    Supercritical Coal
    Nonfirm Wind
    Geothermal
    Biomass
    Solar CSP
    Solar PV
    50
    75
    100
    125
    150
    175
    200
    225
    250
    275
    Levelized Cost of Electricity
    (2007 dollars per MWh)
    Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.
    Notes: See next slide for capital cost and operating cost assumptions. Wind utilization rate range is 20–40 percent, and cost range includes PTC benefits.
    Natural gas price range of $6–$8 per MMBtu assumed for combustion turbine and combined-cycle units. Renewable energy production and investment tax credits included.
    80109-5
    Levelized Cost of Electricity for Conventionaland Renewable Power Options
    CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008
  • 33. Cost of Nuclear
  • 34. Increasing Cost of Electricity
  • 35. Matching Supply and Demand
  • 36. Misaligned Incentives-Regulated Monopolies
  • 37. Undoing Monopolies
  • 38. Misaligned Incentives- IPPs
  • 39. Regional Power Generation
  • 40. 40
    Source: GE Power Systems Energy Consulting, The Effects of Integrating Wind Power on Transmission System Planning, Reliability and Operations,
    a report prepared for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, 2004. Used with permission.
    80109-6
    Wind Output Does Not Match Load
    CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008
  • 41. Wind Power in the US
  • 42. 42
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    Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory database, US Department of Energy.
    71108-6
    Reported Wind Turbine Prices—United States
    CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008
  • 43. Pollution Points
  • 44. Air Pollution
  • 45. Air Pollution Impacts
  • 46. Pollution Controls, Cap and Trade Has Worked
  • 47. 47
    New Power Generation Capacity Characteristics and Costs
    Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates.
    Notes: Combustion turbine design basis assumes 2 x 7F, dual fuel capable, nominal 340 MW. Combined-cycle gas turbine design basis assumes 2 x 2 x 1 7F, dual fuel capable, nominal 500 MW, closed-loop wet cooling. Supercritical coal unit design basis assumes nominal 600 MW unit with double reheat.
    Capital cost figures include owner's costs (development/permitting, land acquisition, construction G&A, financing costs, interest during construction, etc.), but exclude contractor risk premiums. Fixed O&M includes property tax and insurance as well as other fixed operating expenses (labor, maintenance materials, ongoing capital, etc.). Variable production cost includes fuel (natural gas at $6.00 per MMBtu, coal at $1.60 per MMBtu, and biomass at $2.00 per MMBtu) and variable O&M costs. Biomass design assumes a dedicated wood combustion facility. Solar PV cost estimate is based on utility scale installations.
    CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008
  • 48.
  • 49. Wind
    Wind Resource Map: Potential forUtility-Scale Wind Power Development (U.S. Annual Average Wind Power)
  • 50. How Do Solar Panels Work
  • 51. Solar Methods
  • 52. Solar Thermal
  • 53. Solar
  • 54. 54
    Source: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE).
    *Previous Minnesota RPS was a nonbinding goal except for Xcel Energy.
    **Wisconsin requires all utilities to increase renewables contributions by 6 percent over the 2001–03 average level by 2015 and has a nonbinding goal of 10 percent by 2015.
    ***Vermont’s voluntary standard becomes mandatory in 2013 if it is not met by 2012.
    ****California: IOU = investor-owned utility; ESP = energy service provider; CCA = community-choice aggregator.
    *****Virginia: 2007 sales less the average annual percentage of power supplied from nuclear generators between 2004 and 2006.
    60502-2_1207
    Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and Purchase Obligations by State
    CERA_NAP_ConfCall_032008
  • 55. The Future?
  • 56. Technology to Save Us?
  • 57. How do we rethink meeting our needs?