APA Referencing Workshop


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APA Style, Title Pages, In-Text Citations, End-Text References using APA 6th Edition

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  • This slide presents the general format of an APA formatted paper: An essay should be typed and double-spaced on the standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”) with 1” margins on all sides. Times New Roman or similar font in 10-12 pt. size should be used. The document should include a page header indicating a short title of the essay and a page number in the upper right-hand of every page (including the title page).
  • This slide visually presents APA format of a title page, which consists of four major sections: a page header, a running head for publication, and a title.To create a page header, use “Insert Page Header” function of MSO Word. Choose “Insert Page Number” in the upper right-hand side and type two-three words of the title before page number. Separate the abbreviated title from the page number with five spaces.To create a running head for publication, type Running Head: ABBREVIATED TITLE on the first line, flush-left, maximum 60 characters long. Note: Although a running head section is required for manuscripts submitted for publication, it is an optional sections for students’ papers. To create a title, type—in the upper half of the page, centered– a full title of the essay, writer’s name and affiliation (college or university) on subsequent lines. Note: the instructor might also require his/her name, course title, and date in addition to affiliation. Encourage students to consult the instructor regarding specific requirements to a title section. This slide can be supplemented by the relevant section from OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
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  • This slide explains and exemplifies the specific cases of in-text citations. It might be supplemented with “Author/Authors” section from OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
  • Acquiring a rich repertoire of signal words and phrases is the key to success in representing others’ ideas in academic writing. This slide provides a few examples of those and reminds that APA requires to use the past or present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases. The facilitator might want to point to the chapter in the composition book that introduces and practices signal words.
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  • Note journal articles are usually retrieved from the internet, considered electronic source
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  • APA Referencing Workshop

    1. 1. APA Referencing and In-text Citations
    2. 2. In this tutorial… • You will learn how to format your paper • You will learn how to cite in-text • You will learn how to write a reference entry that matches your citation • You will practise writing reference entries using sample texts
    3. 3. What Is APA? • This is the system of citations you will use at JCU, regardless of your field of study. • APA stands for the American Psychological Association. • The current version is the 6th Edition.
    4. 4. General Format • be typed and double-spaced • be printed on standard-sized paper (A4) • use 1” margins on all sides (default) • use 12 pt. Times New Roman font • include a page header (title) in the upper left- hand side of every page • include a page number in the upper right-hand side of every page Your paper should:
    5. 5. Title Page Page header: (use Insert Page Header) title flush left + page number flush right. Title: (in the upper half of the page, centered) name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
    6. 6. Title To create a title, type—in the upper half of the page, centered– • The full title of the essay, • Your name and student number • JCU Singapore • Instructor‘s name • Course title • Due date • Word length CHECK with your instructor about specific requirements.
    7. 7. Running Head Your first page uses a ‗running head‘. To create a running head, type Running Head: ABBREVIATED TITLE on the first line, flush-left, & the shortened title up to 50 characters long. NOTE: On following pages, you will use the same abbreviated title, excluding ―Running Head:‖ (still in upper-case) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFo_KBQtv9o
    8. 8. In-text Citation • Information about the source of ideas in your paper that influenced your thinking. Williams (2005) defined social responsibility as “a business obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society” (p. 88). In-text citation using a quote
    9. 9. More In-text Citation Samples Wong (2012) noted that business communication becomes better when interlocutors in the communication process respect each other’s cultural backgrounds. Bachan (2012, p. 12) stated that, “Culture impacts the way people communicate with each other in an increasingly diverse society.”
    10. 10. Can we change the sentence structure? Business communication becomes better when interlocutors in the communication process respect each other’s cultural backgrounds (Wong, 2012). = parenthetical citation Bachan (2012) stated that, “Culture impacts the way people communicate with each other in an increasingly diverse society” (p. 12). = page is written at the end
    11. 11. What about this? • Bachan (2012) stated that the manner in which people interact with each other is influenced by both cultural and social norms. = quote is changed into a paraphrase (writer’s own words but meaning is retained)
    12. 12. • Use “and” in-text and the ampersand “&” in parenthetical citations (and the reference list). Example: Walters and Mackay (2008) found that even if a typhoon’s direction is predicted, it can change its course anytime. It was found that even if a typhoon’s direction is predicted, it can change its course anytime (Walters & Mackay, 2008).
    13. 13. Sample in-text citations
    14. 14. In-text Citations: Organisations When citing an organisation, mention it fully the first time in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation. The data collected by the Food and Drug Administration (2008) confirmed that… If the organisation has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…
    15. 15. Reminders • Any author cited in-text should appear in the reference list following proper APA formatting. • The APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) says, "Each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text" (p. 174). • Thus, there is no reason to include uncited sources in the reference list. Refer to: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/02/whats-a-reference-list-for.html
    16. 16. Please study this table Type of citation First citation in- text Subsequent citations in-text First citation in- text in parenthesis Subsequent citations in-text in parenthesis One work by one author Walker (2007) said that happiness is a state of mind. Walker (2007) claimed further that happiness is also affected by external factors. Happiness is a state of mind (Walker, 2007). Happiness is also affected by external factors (Walker, 2007). One work by two authors Walker and Allen (2004) said that people who are happy are those people who are satisfied in life. Walker and Allen (2004) also stated that happy people are not easily carried by negative emotions. People who are happy are those people who are satisfied in life (Walker & Allen, 2004). Happy people are also not easily carried by negative emotions (Walker & Allen, 2004).
    17. 17. In quoting… • Without pages? Write the paragraph number! e.g. Basu and Jones (2004) went so far as to suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework… form of regulation in cyberspace” (para. 4). • Without paragraph (in-text) or page numbers? Write the heading! e.g. In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that “the level of perceived disability…less by their physical condition” (Discussion section, para. 1)
    18. 18. Image of paragraphs in-text with paragraph numbers
    19. 19. In quoting… • Without headings, paragraph numbers, or pages? Write a shortened version of the title/main heading of the article you are reading. e.g. Golan, Kuchler, and Krissof (2007) had this to say, “Empirical studies have found mixed results on the…and changing consumption behaviour” (“Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted”, para. 4). • For this, the complete title is “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives”.
    20. 20. Sample full block quote For a quote 40 words or more…
    21. 21. Long Quotations • put in a free-standing block • omit quotation marks • indent ½ inch from the left margin • indent any subsequent paragraphs within the quote ½ inch from the new margin • use double-spacing • put the parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation mark • USE SPARINGLY
    22. 22. Direct Quotation ANSWERS: Gilquin and Jacobs (2006, pp. 79-106) Or (Gilquin & Jacobs, 2006, pp. 79-106) Question 1: Write an in-text citation as a direct quotation for the following journal article. Gilquin, G., & Jacobs, G. M. 2006. Elephants who marry mice are very unusual: The use of the relative pronoun who with nonhuman animals. Society & Animals, 14(1), 79-105.
    23. 23. Indirect Quotation (Paraphrase) • Question 2: Write an in-text citation as a paraphrase for the following newspaper article. • Yonke, D. (2008, September 13). Monks on the road for peace: Tibetan Buddhists bring message that happiness is an internal event. The Blade, p. B7. ANSWERS: Yonke (2008) or (Yonke, 2008)
    24. 24. In-text Citations: Signal Words Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g. According to X. (2008), “….” (p. 3). X. (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3). X. (2008) has argued that ―……‖ (p. 3). Use signal verbs such as: acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc. Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events.
    25. 25. Footnotes & Endnotes The only use for footnotes in APA Style is to provide additional content that supplements the text (e.g., to briefly acknowledge a tangential idea that is nevertheless important to the discussion or to note copyright permission for reprinting a lengthy quote). Endnotes are never used in APA Style, but you’ll find more about content footnotes in section 2.12 of the APA Publication Manual.
    26. 26. What Are References? • References = Information at the end of your paper that enables readers to find the sources you cited in the body of your paper. • All your citations must be in your list of references, and all your references must have a matching citation in the body of your paper.
    27. 27. • A reference list looks like this. Should be upper- case!
    28. 28. Italicising •Italicise titles of longer works such as books and journals. •Do not italicise, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
    29. 29. Capitalising •Capitalise all major words in journal titles (includes titles of newspapers & magazines). •When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. •Do not capitalise the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
    30. 30. Referencing a Book • If Csikai and Chaitin (2006) are mentioned in-text, i.e. In palliative care, “medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112). • Then they will appear in the reference list as: Csikai, M., & Chaitin, S. (2006). The nature of palliative care among patients with chronic diseases (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Pearson Longman. = In this case, we are referencing a book, not a specific chapter of a book.
    31. 31. Correct answer is b. Question 4
    32. 32. Referencing e-books For e-books: • Author/s. (Year/date). Title of book. Place of publication: Retrieved from URL. • Author/s. (Year/date). Title of book. Place of publication: DOI
    33. 33. What is DOI? • Digital Object Identifier • Unique identifier that directs readers to content, regardless of where it resides • Linking mechanism embedded in the reference lists of electronic articles that allows click-through access to each reference (one click leads to the reference) • All DOIs begin with “10”
    34. 34. In referencing… • Family names appear first in Vietnam and China. However, in most countries in Asia, they follow the Western format. • Consult the author’s previous publication – check the author’s reference list! • For one author entries by the same author, arrange by year of publication – the earliest first! e.g. Upenieks, V. (2003)… Upenieks, V. (2005)…
    35. 35. Which one is the family name? A comma is used to separate the family name from the given name. Richard Smith Smith, Richard Dick van Dyke Wendy Palmer-Daniel
    36. 36. Author v. Editor Editor = a person who decides the final content of a newspaper, magazine, or multi-author book, by correcting, revising or adapting the work of authors. Author = a person who writes a book, article, or other text, sometimes as a profession. (Ed.) (Eds.)
    37. 37. Referencing a Chapter in an Edited Book (print) Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Place of publication: Publisher. Example: O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107- 123). Jakarta, Indonesia: Springer. = Since this is an edited book, pages are included
    38. 38. Correct answer is c. Question 5
    39. 39. Chapter in edited E-books • Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx • Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). doi:xxxxxxxxxx Example: • MacKay, C. (2011). What happens in the afterlife? In S. Hancocks (Ed.), Life’s reflections (pp. 200-217). Retrieved from http://www.religiontoday.com.org
    40. 40. Journal Article (print) Author’s surname, initialised first name. initialised middle name. (Year of publication). Title of article. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. Example: Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2), 7-10.
    41. 41. Correct answer is c. Question 3
    42. 42. Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(1), 1245-1273. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161 •No need to include URL if there is DOI.
    43. 43. Newspaper article (print) • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. • Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Newspaper article (online)
    44. 44. Correct answer is a. Question 6
    45. 45. Web Documents & Pages
    46. 46. Quick References: http://libguides.jcu.edu.au/apa
    47. 47. Quick References: http://apastyle.org/
    48. 48. Quick References: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
    49. 49. Where to get more help? - The appropriate style manual or guidelines • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) - Your lecturers/tutors - Your peers (with due care) - The library and library staff
    50. 50. Where to get more help? • Learning Support services online: http://www.jcu.edu.sg/Home/CampusLife/tab id/74/SuperStructureID/235/Default.aspx
    51. 51. Gavaskar, S. M. (2012). I live for mangoes. Fresno, CA: Tasty Tomes Press.
    52. 52. Nguyen, V. T., & Phan, T. H. (2011). Fifty ways to eat a mango. In J. S. Bough & G. B. DuBois (Eds.), Fruit today: Recipes from around the world (pp. 24-33). Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Pearson Education.
    53. 53. Smart, M. (2011). The Smart Group success story. Journal of Invention, 29(8), 39-54. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161