Waterfall vs. agile developmentSource: Green Line Systems, accessed 8/1/12 at http://glsystems.wordpress.com/2012/01/20/greenline-systems-inc-helping-governments-use-agile-development/
Why agile? ¤ 25% of all projects fail outright through eventual cancellation, with no useful software deployed. ¤ U.K. study showed waterfall-style scope management was the "single largest contributing factor for failure, being cited in 82% of the projects as the number one problem.” ¤ A DOD study showed "46% of the systems so egregiously did not meet the real needs (although they met the specifications) that they were never successfully used, and another 20% required extensive rework" to be usable.Source: VersionOne, Inc., accessed 8/1/12 at http://www.versionone.com/Agile101/Agile-Software-Development-Benefits/
Value of agile developmentSource: VersionOne, Inc., accessed 8/1/12 at http://www.versionone.com/Agile101/Agile-Software-Development-Benefits/
Barriers to using agile in public sector ¤ cumbersome acquisition processes ¤ complex IT development and infrastructures environments ¤ large and layered management structures ¤ the need to support policy, regulation and oversight driven department, agency and office program control effortsSource: Green Line Systems, accessed 8/1/12 at http://glsystems.wordpress.com/2012/01/20/greenline-systems-inc-helping-governments-use-agile-development/
Alternative approaches¤ In-house development¤ Staff augmentation contract¤ Software as a service (SaaS)¤ COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf) software¤ Grants¤ “Purchase of care”¤ Competitions/contests/prizes
GIS: map layers (vs. reality) ¤ Homes ¤ School districts ¤ Streets ¤ Zip codes ¤ Cities ¤ CountiesSource: Thad Wasklewicz, University of Memphis
GIS must be capable of: ¤ Capturing data (geographic/coordinate or tabular/ attribute) ¤ Storing data (vector and raster formats*) ¤ Querying data (based on attribute or location) ¤ Analyzing data (interaction of multiple datasets) ¤ Displaying data (visualization) ¤ Output (maps, reports, graphs)* Raster images are based on pixels and thus scale with loss of clarity, while vector-based images can be scaled by anyamount without degrading quality.
GIS applications in government ¤ Economic development ¤ Human Services ¤ Transportation and Service ¤ Law Enforcement Routing ¤ Land use planning ¤ Housing ¤ Parks and Recreation ¤ Infrastructure ¤ Environmental Monitoring ¤ Health ¤ Emergency Management ¤ Tax Maps ¤ GeodemographicsSource: Thad Wasklewicz, University of Memphis
Use of GIS for public participation ¤ Most information used in policymaking has a spatial component (address, zipcode, latitude/longitude) ¤ Extending the use of spatial information to all relevant stakeholders can lead to better policymaking ¤ This information can be analyzed and visualized spatially – and the resulting output (mainly maps) can persuasively convey ideas and persuade people of the importance of those ideas.Source: Renee Sieber, “Public Participation Geographic Information Systems,” Association of American Geographers (2006)
What is GPS? ¤ Global positioning system ¤ A worldwide radio-navigation system of 21+ satellites and ground stations ¤ Uses satellites as reference points, which gives every square meter on the planet a unique address ¤ Has become the most common method for field data collection in GPSSource: Jennifer Broush, “GIS/GPS for Real and in the Movies,” 4/11/2003 slide presentation.
How does GPS work? ¤ Location / navigation / tracking / mapping / timing ¤ Triangulation from satellites – measure the distance using time travel constant ¤ Where are the satellites in space (known by the government, and stored on the GPS receiver) ¤ Correction of delays experienced by the signal traveling from the satellite (atmosphere)Source: Jennifer Broush, “GIS/GPS for Real and in the Movies,” 4/11/2003 slide presentation.
GPS in transportation analysis ¤ Use of truck GPS data to analyze construction impacts / truck speeds ¤ Identify truck bottlenecks: delay, stops and speed on specific routes ¤ Quantify travel between economically important areas ¤ Explore ramp performanceSource: Edward McCormack, University of Washington, 9/16/2010
GPS in aviation, auto safety ¤ National PNT (positioning, navigation and timing) and GPS capabilities are critical to the U.S. transportation system. ¤ The FAA NextGen system will rely on GPS for navigation, surveillance and performance metrics. ¤ GPS provides the backbone for advanced navigation systems crucial for safety applications (such as IntelliDriveSM), communications and logistics.Source: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Senate Appropriations Committee Staff Briefing, 2/26/2010
NYS traffic data viewer ¤ Enables views of statewide traffic counts – a determining variable in Federal Aid funding ¤ Includes critical asset information such as bridges and hospital locations for emergency route planningSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
MassDOT bus tracker ¤ All MassDOT buses are equipped with GPS ¤ Publishes transit data through the open-source General Transit Feed Specification ¤ Partnership with NextBus provides real-time bus arrival predictions for every bus stop ¤ MassDOT Real-Time XML Feed available to third-party developers for applications ¤ 50+ independent apps use MassDOT dataSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
Speed Bump crowdsourcing app ¤ Helps residents improve their neighborhood streets ¤ As they drive, the mobile app collects data about the smoothness of the ride ¤ Data provides the City with real-time information it uses to fix problems and plan long term investments ¤ Residents use Street Bump to record “bumps” which are identified using the device’s accelerometer and located using its GPS. ¤ Bumps are uploaded to the server for analysis ¤ Likely road problems are submitted to the City via Open311, so they get fixed (e.g. potholes) or classified as known obstacles (e.g. speed bumps)Source: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012
The Digital CityIntelligent transportation, utility and water solutions
Intelligent utility networks § Advanced electric meter management systems § Network automation and analytics best practices § Power generation optimization § Utility company networked revitalization services § Customer operations transformation assistanceSource: IBM
Advanced water management § Strategic water information management of natural, utility, and enterprise water systems § Smart water infrastructure solutions (e.g. smart levees, smart storm water management) § Smart water meter management and asset management solutionsSource: IBM
Intelligent transportation systems § Road user charging and tolling practices § Integrated fare management systems § Transport information management systems § Innovations in telematics, GPSSource: IBM
Intelligent transportation systemsSource: James Pol, “The New Analytics for Transportation Management,” USDOT, 5/17/2012