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Margins group 1 part 3

Margins group 1 part 3



Group presentation for The Global City, Northwestern University, MPPA program, Summer 2011.

Group presentation for The Global City, Northwestern University, MPPA program, Summer 2011.

Part 3 of 3.



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    Margins group 1 part 3 Margins group 1 part 3 Presentation Transcript

    • A Global Overview of Displaced Populations
      Fact: 2.5 million residents displaced annually in the U.S.
      Atkinson, R. (2000). Professionalization and displacement in Greater London
      Fact: More than 10 million residents worldwide displaced by redevelopment efforts
      Stanley, J. Development-induced displacement and resettlement
      FACT: While urban renewal displacements receive global attention, thousands of people each year are displaced to make way for rural mineral development
      Meher, R. (2009). Globalization, Displacement and the Livelihood Issues of Tribal and Agriculture Dependent Poor People
      Religious / Ethnic Conflict
      Urban Redevelopment
      Major Events (e.g. Olympics)
      Natural Resource Cultivation
    • Brussels, Belgium
      Important Stat: 90% of housing market is private, unregulated
      Major displacement patterns:
      In-migration of young, middle class tenants and out-migration of urban poor to industrial and impoverished neighborhoods within the city

      Reason: Highly mobile adults leads to rapidly rising inner-city rent levels in unregulated market, government redevelopment policies have aided this trend
      Influx of wealthy, educated professionals moving to already wealthy neighborhoods in “Europeanization” of city

      Reason: Establishment of Brussels as the center of European Union infrastructure and the service providers that are tied to that migration
      Van Criekingen, M. (2008). Towards a geography of displacement. Moving out of Brussels’ gentrifying neighborhoods
    • Brussels, Belgium
      “Low-income households’ access to housing in the inner city blue-collar neighbourhoods has thus become much more problematic over the past decade.” - Mathieu Van Criekingen (2006)
      Government reactions:
      Government redevelopment efforts aim to attract wealthier residents through property rehabilitation policies and retail and cultural developments geared towards reinvigoration add fuel to the increasing displacement pattern and clustering of low-resource individuals in industrial sites in and around Brussels
      Brussels Capital Region Portal
    • Sao Paulo, Brazil
      Important Stat: 20% of total municipal population live in substandard, slum housing
      Major Displacement Patterns:
      Massive growth in population over the last half-century creates severe housing shortage and push residents into slum conditions in inner and outer-city

      Reason: Migrants from impoverished areas of northeastern Brazil

      Displacement of low-income families to poor, urban sprawl districts
      Reason: Economic expansion has created significant wealth in the central portion of the city, housing many elites that work in the city’s growing financial infrastructure
      Hewitt, W. E. (2002). Lessons on public housing from Singapore
    • Sao Paulo, Brazil
      “…land speculation generally has caused an impoverishment of life quality for the poorest sectors of the population, through eviction and diversion of resources.” – Eduardo A. C. Nobre (1998)
      Government Reactions:
      In 1990s, ProjectoCingapura aimed to provide more than 100,000 units of vertical, public housing; cost overruns hamper project and limit production to 14,000 units
      Hewitt, W. E. (2002). Lessons on public housing from Singapore
      In 2001, the government invested $200 million in loans to the city for rehabilitation of buildings and housing geared toward current, low-income families, rather than new, wealthier tenants
      Inter-American Development Bank. (2003)
    • Major Displacement Patterns:
      Washington, D.C.
      Three decades ago, gentrification hits city and begins displacing residents in poorer parts of DC – infrequently to the suburbs because of the already high cost of suburban DC housing stock; “flipping” and speculating to blame

      Reason: influx in professionals seeking urban living arrangements close to their work locations causes housing prices to skyrocket
      Goldfield, D. R. (1980). Private neighborhood redevelopment and displacement

      Modern displacement of predominately African American residents by redevelopment efforts
      Reason: is occurring as a result of skyrocketing housing prices in areas traditionally lived in by working class blacks – pushing the community to cheaper suburbs
      Kellogg, A. (2011, February 15). D.C., long ‘chocolate city,’ becoming more vanilla
    • Washington, D.C.
      “…private neighborhood redevelopment in Washington has generated a vicious side effect: the displacement of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of poor, black households by middle-income black and white newcomers.” – David Goldfield (1980)
      “The government reduced their commitment by 49% so that has to be taken on by socially conscious developers and non-profits because people don’t make money as developers develop low income housing so it has to be a commitment to social justice.” -anti-homelessness activist Donald Whitehead (Seed, 2010)
      Government Reactions:
      Historic establishment of public housing as the answer – problems emerge
      United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
      Modern government policies have failed to adequately address affordable housing, partly because of derailed financial obligations due to the national economic climate
      Orr, B., & Rivlin, A. M. (2011). Affordable housing in the district – where are we now?
    • London, England
      Important Stat: Hundreds of Londoners have been displaced as a result of the 2012 Olympics
      Major Displacement Patterns:
      The 2012 Olympic Summer Games have displaced hundreds of Londonders

      Olympic development sites are being located on the land of marginalized populations
      Cheyne, J. (2008, June 2). Displaced by London’s Olympics
    • London, England
      “We're the first people to be told to leave and I suppose it's because they thought we would be the easiest to move. We still have no idea where we are going to go,” - Mary Ellen Reilly, displaced London resident (Campbell, 2006).
      “This is about regenerating east London, but not for the people who live there now. It's being done for a completely new population, a much richer population...,” - Julian Cheyne, displacement former resident of the Clays Lane Estate (Cheyne, 2008)
      Government Reactions:
      London mayor puts forward multi-million dollar bidding process for the post-Olympics redevelopment process, a move he claims will assist the displaced and marginalized victims of the Games
      Beard, M. (2011, March 9). Boris Johnson invites bids for first Olympic Park neighborhood
    • 10
      Washington, D.C.
      Brussels, Belgium
      Sao Paulo, Brazil
      London, England
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