The impacts of spatial and educational marginalization are readily apparent in the economic condition of marginalized populations and are reflected in high unemployment rates. Often, the unemployment rate for marginalized populations is higher than that of other areas within a city, and without easy access to stable and high-paying jobs, there is an increase in informal economic activity. Informal activity includes off the books service jobs, for maids, gardeners, and laborers, as well as domestic work and illegal activities. It has also been argued that increases in unemployment bring up crime rates, which, at a topical level, appears to be true.
Before the global economic crisis 2008, there were four consecutive years of net decreases in global unemployment. On the eve of the global crisis in 2007, world unemployment totaled 178 million, jumping to 212 million in late 2009 according to International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates. With the exception of Brazil, who had a higher unemployment rate before 2007, the UK, the US, and Belgium were all adversely affected. When looked at broken down further, unemployment impacts different regions and cities within larger countries in different ways, often concentrating in metropolitan areas. For cities who keep detailed unemployment data, such as London, Washington DC, and Brussels, we can look at how unemployment and recession impact specific populations.
London, particularly inner London and the East End, has consistently displayed higher unemployment rates that that of England as a whole over the past two decades. 46% of work force are under 35 Highest unemployment in the East End Percentage of working-age people who are employed, 2002:80% of Whites54% of Pakistanis47% of Bangladeshis
2009: 10.2 v 10.42008: 5.3 v. 8.02007: 5.6 v. 5.5The unemployed in D.C., nearly 71% of whom are black, are disproportionately more likely to have worked low-wage jobs prior to being unemployed, and about a third of them have been looking for work for more than six months.
Brussels is the third richest region of the EU, with a BBP/person of €53.381, twice the European average. It is also home to one of the largest foreign born populations in Europe. About 46 percent of its one million large population is foreign-born, 55 percent of which is European. White, rich, regions coincide with the residence place of the migrants from North-West Europe, United States, Japan and Oceania; while the red, poorer, areas are almost a watermark of the living place of migrants coming from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey and MoroccoEmployment in Brussels is characterised by high qualification requirements. Approximately 52 % of jobs in Brussels are held by workers with university degrees, while the figure for the country as a whole is 38 %. Paradoxically, while there is a good deal of employment concentrated in the Brussels Region, it is also affected by a high level of unemployment. The Region’s unemployment rate remains high and is considerably above the European average. In February 2011, the unemployment rate was 20.8 % for the Brussels Capital Region, 8.8 % for Belgium and 9.5 % for the EU.
Margins group 1 part 2
Economic Marginalization<br />1<br /> “At an inter-urban scale, the concentration of ethnic minorities in particular geographical areas is likely to affect their employment opportunities simply because some local labor markets are declining whilst others are growing.” (Fieldhouse, 1998).<br />“There is a complex interrelationship between unemployment, ethnicity, and spatial location which is mediated by the local context.” (Fieldhouse, 1998).<br />“The community and neighborhood economy, plus some illegal work, are an essential part of the survival strategies of low-income groups, especially those from ethnic minorities.” (Kesteltoot & Meert, 1999).<br />“A rise in unemployment will lead to an increase in prison commitments because the policy of deterrence dictates an intensification of punishment in order to combat increased temptation to commit crime” (Michalowski & Carlson,1999).<br />
National Unemployment<br />2<br />Unemployment is an economic condition in which individuals actively seeking jobs remain un-hired<br />Source: Global Finance, 2011<br />
Unemployment in Context<br />Sao Paulo: increased economic polarization despite intensive government programs and polices<br />Washington, D.C.: pronounced divisions of unemployment between Latino, African American, and White neighborhoods<br />London: high levels of first and second generation immigrant unemployment<br />Brussels: traditional immigrant familial roles result in high informal activity<br />London, Washington, D.C., Brussels, Sao Paulo: <br />Higher Urban Unemployment<br />3<br />
London<br />4<br />Unemployment: Inner, Outer, and <br />Rest of England<br />Trust for London New Policy Institute (2010). London’s Poverty Profile.<br />Unemployment, Pre and Post Recession by <br />Ethnicity, Country of Birth, and Gender<br />
Washington, D.C.<br />5<br />“You Can't Talk About Race In D.C. Without Talking About Unemployment.” – Adam Serwer<br />Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Databases, Tables, & Calculators<br />Map of Washington, <br />D.C. Wards<br />Sewar, A. (2010). The American Prospect.<br />
Sao Paulo<br />7<br />Kowarick, L. (2004). Housing and Living Conditions in the Periphery<br /> of Sao Paulo: an Enthnographic and Sociological Study<br />Fix, M., Arantes, P. & Tanaks, G. (2003) <br />The case of Sao Paulo, Brazil<br />
Challenges<br />8<br />Riots in London<br />"We know we have been victimized by this government, we know we are being neglected by the government, how can you make one million youths unemployed and expect us to sit down?“ –Tottenham Resident<br />“For all its dynamism and status as the centre of Brazilian economy, São Paulo is still part of Brazilian society, with all its contradictions of a colonially-rooted elite society.” <br />Holden, M. & Croft, A. (2011). Fears of more violence after worst London Riots for years.<br />Carmona, Marisa & Burgess. (2001). Strategic Planning & <br />Urban Projects: Responses to Globalization from 15 Cities<br />Perception Problems<br />“But yet, when you walk around here in Washington, D.C., you don’t see people getting laid off, you don’t see, you know, anyone suffering, you don’t see the foreclosures.” –Rep. Allen West, R-FL<br />Serwer (2010). Paging Marion Berry.<br />
Displacement of Marginalized Populations<br />9<br />“The traditional form of displacement involved the direct removal of low-income families from their homes to make way for a highway or an urban renewal project. Such direct displacement by government or private action often caused great hardship for poor families…” – Lance Freeman & Frank Braconi (2002) <br />“The redevelopment process can create winners and losers, with the losers too often racial and ethnic minorities and the economically disadvantaged.” – C. Theodore Koebel (1996) <br />“There are some broad benefits [of revitalization displacement), but largely these benefits will be aimed at wealthier people because of the new housing and the new retail. This is an old story of regeneration.” – Peter Fussey, British author (Kirka, 2011) <br />