Stefan, Eric, Mollie and myself ( Michelle) conducted extensive secondary research to understand the marginalized populations in the global cities of D.C., London, Brussels, and Sao Paulo. While each of our individual case studies are quite unique, there is a very interesting relationship across educational attainment, spatial distribution, unemployment and displacement of marginalized populations, which we will dive into in this presentation.
We explored four global cities on three different continents, each facing unique challenges in terms of marginalized populations. However, there are also a number of similarities that tie the cites together, which we will explore throughout this presentation.
Prior to conducting the research analyses, there was an assumption that educational attainment barriers existed in London, Sao Paulo, Brussels and D.C. that created inequalities, but the barriers were unique to each city. While the research proved both assumptions, the barriers appeared to be linked strongly with developed vs. emerging markets rather than simple uniqueness across the cities.
This is most evident when looking at tertiary attainment rate by country. The graph illustrates the percent of the population that has attained at least tertiary education. As you can see, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium citizens are significantly more likely to have attained at least tertiary education than Brazil. It is interesting to point out that Belgium appears to have made tremendous improvement over the past couple decades with double the individuals ages 25-25 achieving a tertiary education. London has also made strong gains with significant changes across generations. On the other hand the United States and Brazil has made minimal progress. This slide clearly illustrates a division between cities in developed countries, like UK, US, BELGIUM, that have much higher tertiary attainment rates then Brazil with only 10% or less achieving tertiary education.
We are seeing this same trend as we look at completion rates across the markets. Once again the developed cities, Brussels, Washington D.C., and London have fairly high completion rates for Secondary School or High School. With around three-quarters having completed that level of education. However, we are seeing a very different picture in Sao Paulo, with only two-thirds having completed primary school. Sao Paulo being located in a emerging market faces very unique challenges and greater obstacles in not only increasing educational attainment rates, but also competing against global cities in developed markets.
After viewing the tertiary attainment rate by market and school completion rates, it is easy to see the correlation between education and income when looking at the GINI Coefficient across markets. Higher GINI coefficients mean greater income inequality. Once again the developed markets are on a different level with Brussels, the U.K. and the U.S. having much lower GINI coefficients than Brazil. While the GINI coefficient is not directly tied to education, it illustrates the tie to educational attainment and the importance of improving educational attainment to improve income disparity (or vice versa depending on the relationship between the two).
While there is an evident divide between developed and emerging markets, there are unique challenges to each city. While London, Brussels and D.C., seem better off in comparison there are still issues facing each city as it relates to educational attainment. Brussels is unlike many global cities with educational attainment appearing to be lower in the city then it is in the overall country including rural areas. This is quite unusual, as cities tend to have higher educational attainment than surrounding areas especially in global cities.London on the other hand is very similar to the global city model with the periphery facing greater challenges. The boroughs in outer London differ significantly from each other, but instead of the entire periphery facing educational barriers, there are specific sections with lower completion rates for secondary school.Sao Paulo: faces a number of additional barriers being in a developing country. There are strong differences between public and private education. As noted by Herran “Families in the top income decile spend more than twenty times the median value for all families, and there is a relatively flat pattern of low expenditures on education up to the seventh decile. Furthermore, education as a share of total family expenditures rises steeply among the top deciles. Interestingly, education expenditures of the poor, although quite small, are mainly represented by the purchase of books, whereas private tuition costs account for the lion’s share of educational expenditures among the top deciles.” (Herran, 2008, Pg.13)Additionally, since Sao Paulo is in an emerging market there is now just starting to be more of a push to address the education system, but it is far behind leading global cities including LondonWashington D.C. also faces discrepancy in level of education, but these challenges are created by school district and geographic location of schools within the city. Although this is a challenge D.C. faces, the next couple slides will illustrate how the geographic area discrepancies is typical challenge facing global cities today.
The most evident similarity across London, Brussels, D.C. and Sao Paulo is the fact that geographic issues face each city when it comes to educational attainment. This slides illustrates that sections of Brussels city have very low educational levels, while other sections have very high educational levels. Clearly, the populations in the locations with lowed educational levels on average face greater challenges being the marginalized population in Brussels. On the other side of the slide we see the District of Columbia. Once again we are seeing clear regional differences facing the educational system in D.C. The outer most edge of D.C. is at a disadvantage due to geographic location.
On the right hand side of this slide we see this same trend facing London with clear education disparities across sections of the city. However, London is very similar to the majority of global cities with higher education being most prominent in the inner parts of the city, where as the periphery is more likely not to seek higher education. The last country, Sao Paulo, will wrap up the similarities across the global cities, but the image is even more powerful as it relates not only to literacy rates, but also how literacy rates are associated with greater inequality. As we can see the distribution of poverty is most prevalent in the areas with the higher illiterate rates. Once again the tied between poverty, literacy rates, and thus inequalities is profound simply by studying a map of Sao Paulo.Educational attainment rates are a challenge for all four cities explored and are related to other elements of marginalized populations including displacement, unemployment and spatial distribution
Demand for a more highly skilled labor force in the face of expansion of the government services industry has spurred growth city-wide. This added demand has served to
Washington D.C., estimated as a separate unit, has a Gini coefficient of 0.530, a level of inequality that could lead to political instability if found in developing countries abroad.
The Gini for the state as a whole is currently 0.50, while the central area of the municipality of São Paulo has a Gini coefficient of0.57Rapid development then halt in development by elite society led to a lack of infrastructure around the periphery
The slowing down of growth rates has also led to a rather unexpected result over the last two decades: spatial segregation of the population according to income, although still high, did decrease in the period between 1977 and 1997GINI: Sao Paulo 0.61 2005
While a credible argument could be made that Britain’s significant investments in East London, the city’s transportation system and in low-wage workers benefit most significantly the marginalized populations of the country
Group Case Study: Margins 1Stefan MartinovicEric PhillipsMollie SpurlockMichelle Woodruff D.C./ London/ Brussels/ Sao Paulo
2 Washington, D.C. Brussels, Belgium Margins Sao Paulo, Brazil London, England
Educational Attainment Barriers 3 “And in inner London the problems of urban education seem particularly acute, with exam results much lower and truancy much higher than the national average. But so far repeated initiatives have struggled to make a significant impact on standards which the prime minister has conceded remain "unacceptably low“(BBC, 2003). “São Paulo has enjoyed better performance on educational indicators than other regions, but it still faces major challenges to educating all of its citizens equitably.” (UN-HABITAT, 2010.) “Brusselsis characterized by impoverished neighborhoods and an inherent overrepresentation of people with a lower diploma level. The fact that the educational level of young people strongly correlates to that of their parentsillustrates the fact that the level of education is still carried over from one generation to the other and that the social mobility of education in Brussels is rather limited.” (Brussels Studies, 2009) “DC’s graduation rate – both the state-reported and the independently-reported – demonstrates how the education system is not working for all students.” (American Youth Policy Forum, 2011)
Tertiary Attainment by Country 4 *Population that has attained at least tertiary education (OECD, 2007)
Education Completion Rates – Worlds Apart 5 Secondary/ High School Primary School 71% in Brussels 72% in Washington D.C. 85% in London 66% in Sao Paulo
Education and Income Disparity GINI Coefficient: Measures inequality of income 6
Global Cities Face Unique challenges. Brussels:
Secondary school graduates are lower in Brussels than in Belgium.
17% of individuals ages 20-24 do not have secondary education diplomas in Belgium, whereas Brussels rate rises to 28%.
The boroughs in outer London face significant variation in secondary school completion rates.
SaoPaulo spends $800 per pupil compared to New York City $11,000 per pupil each year
Level of education varies significantly by school districts
Education by Region 8 Brussels District of Columbia Educational Needs Index. (2011). ENI Calculations for District of Columbia. R. Janssens, D. Carlier and P. Van de Craen, “Citizens’ forum of Brussels. Education in Brussels”, Brussels Studies, Synopsis nr.5, 19 january 2009.
Education by Region 9 Sao Paulo London Distribution of poverty & literacy rate Participation of local areas in higher education Geocommons. (2011). Distribution of poverty and literacy rate in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Washington DC 10 “The average income of the top fifth of the District’s households — $186,830 in 1999 — was 31 times higher than the average income of the bottom fifth of households —$6,126. The gap between high-income and low-income households in the District is as wide or wider than in any of the central cities of the nation's 40 largest metro areas” (Lazere, 2004).
Washington DC Spatial Income and Racial Distribution 11 DC% Change by Ward 1980-2009 “Washington, D.C., on the other hand, is significantly more unequal (0.537), which is reflected in the spatial division of the U.S. capital by both wealth and race factors, with its significant, and largely poor, African American and Hispanic communities concentrated in certain areas.”
Sao Paulo 12 “A rapid process of peripheral development continued through the 1980s, creating two distinct social spaces differentiated geographically and economically: a tale of two cities. Lower-class workers were pushed out to the undeveloped periphery, while the middle and upper classes enjoyed the well-developed services of some parts of the city centre.” (UN-Habitat, 2010) “the elite society…[imposed] a permanent break on development, resulting in lower per capita income and a very high income concentration in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region…This leads to marked spatial differentiation over the metropolitan area, as reflected, for example, in the spatial segregation of the population according to income.” (Carmona, 2001)
Sao Paulo – Spatial Considerations of Housing Inequity 13 “the explosion of favelas and densification of cortiços brought poor citizens into closer proximity with wealthy city dwellers” (UN-Habitat, 2010)
London 14 “One of the defining features of London is that low incomes sit alongside very high incomes. While boroughs in Outer London tend to have either rich or poor wards, Inner London boroughs tend to have both rich and poor wards.” (Trust for London, 2010) “I didn't bid for the Olympics because I wanted three weeks of sport. I bid for the Olympics because it's the only way to get the billions of pounds out of the Government to develop the East End. It's exactly how I played it to ensnare the Government to put money into an area it has neglected for 30 years.” (Beattle, 2008)
Brussels 15 “The concentration of Muslim populations in Brussels is then due to the social-spatial and residential structure of Brussels as an urban area. In fact, Muslim migrants have moved into affordable, working class urban residential areas.” (Torrekens, 2007)