Global cities and ecology

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Group presentation for The Global City, Northwestern University, MPPA program, Summer 2011.

Group presentation for The Global City, Northwestern University, MPPA program, Summer 2011.

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  • This a presentation by Nicole Gattuso, Fred Jackson, Travis Lovett, and Jason Osborn regarding global cities and ecology. This presentation looks at three global cities and their efforts to limit impacts on the environment. The Cities of New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago are global cities in the United States, the Country with the highest per capita energy consumption (The World Bank, 2011). This presentation will discuss air quality, sprawl, congestion pricing, and sustainable agriculture.
  • New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago are the three largest cities in the United States.
  • Here’s New York, if you can make it here, you can make it anywhere. This presentation covers innovative approaches to lessen and mitigate New York’s impacts to the environment. The environmental initiatives are hard fought in this town and the lessons learned should be noted by everyone.
  • Los Angeles has a bad reputation as a polluted, superficial, car-oriented city. After this presentation, you will appreciate Los Angeles as anything but. The City and its inhabitants are perhaps more serious about ecological issues than any other city on the planet.
  • Chicago has a knack for layering government agency on top of government agency making it as complicated as the most advanced computer chip. This giant in America’s heartland gave the world the first modern skyscraper and the first atomic reaction. Lately, it has begun to turn its ambitious rusty eye towards being green.
  • The world’s population had not exceeded 1 billion until the late 19th century. Today, the world’s population is nearly 7 billion (US Census). The exploding population is increasingly concentrated in and adjacent to specialized resource management centers called global cities (Sassen, 2006). In the 1800s, only 2.5% of the world’s population lived in cities (Luke, 2006, p. 279). Today, over half of the worlds’ population lives within cities.It is in areas that the risk taking and entrepreneurial attributes of humanity converge to creatively use the advantage of these areas (Brugmann, 2010, p. 54). In global cities, the inhabitants find ways to access new and greater amounts of material inputs across the planet to consume locally (Luke, 2006, p. 276).
  • The scale of the forces creating and sustaining global cities is so intense that they have transformed the Earth’s ecology (Brugmann, 2010, p. 13). This phenomenon is overpowering the Earth’s natural ecology and threatening the sustainability of ecosystems across the planet (Luke, 2006, p. 276). The United States consumes twice as much electricity of the typical European country and over four times as much energy as the China or Brazil.
  • On any given day, the United States consumes more oil than India, Russia, Brazil, Germany, Saudi Araabia, South Korea, and Canada combined. It consumes more than twice as much as China and four times as much as Japan.
  • The United States is by far the largest consumer of petroleum on the planet. Congestion pricing is a relatively straight forward, fairly simple to implement, and economical sound tool that could help reduce the amount of fuel wasted in the United States. It has been proposed in New York, Chicago, and in Los Angeles and has yet to take hold. On the left you see a poster from efforts back in 2008 to implement congestion pricing in the New York City Region. The t-shirt on the right encourages the public to ask the person why they support congestion pricing.
  • Here are three reason’s why one might consider congestion pricing on highways. On any given day, the United States consumes 19 million barrels of oil. 72% of this is burned in cars, planes and trains in general; about 50% for gasoline alone. (U.S. Energy Information Administration; http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=oil_home#tab2)
  • To answer how and why congestion pricing works. We need to understand basic economics. In an economy, prices are used to signal the value of something to others. Without a price, real things or goods can be underused or overused. When you can’t stop someone from consuming a good and when one additional person consuming that good can do so without changing the levels of consumption by others, this can be considered a public good. A classic example of this is a fire-works display. Now, when the consumption of a good by one individual reduces the ability for someone else to consume and you still can’t exclude people from the good, this type of good is a common resource.Roads are special in that they can be either public goods or common resources. When uncongested, they are not rival in consumption and are public goods. When congested, the road yields a negative externality, a cost that is not included in the operational and maintenance costs of the facility such as wasted time). At this point, a road becomes a common resource (Mankiw, 2008, p. 234). This is a very important to keep in mind. A road might be a public good at 2:00 a.m. and then a common resource at 7:00 a.m.
  • Users have an incentive to free fide when a public good is provided. For this reason governments tend to provide public goods such as roads. As a road gains more users, government must add lanes to keep the roadway a public good. If congestion conditions occur, the road becomes a common good. If there is no charge for a common resource, it will be used excessively (Mankiw, 2008, p. 238). “When the demand for roads rises above a certain level, road users impose additional costs (externalities) on others leading to a divergence between the private and the social marginal costs of road usage. External congestion costs include increased travel times, increased fuel and operating costs, and pollution. (Tutor2, 2011)”
  • Even a roadway with few cars has negative externalities. The pavement sheds storm water at high rates and volumes that can disrupt water quality. Additionally, storm water washes motor oil, engine coolants, de-icing salts, crack-sealing materials (tar), road striping (used to be lead based paint now acrylic in the U.S.), and road gravel off the roadway. The road acts as a barrier for all animals including humans. Turtles are often flipped by the curbs, deer can get tangled in fencing, and smaller animals expose themselves to predators such as hawks by crossing. The roadway itself requires site excavation and leveling, the extraction of materials from gravel pits, the production of asphalt and/or concrete, the noise, dust, and noxious smell of construction. As traffic increases, animals are killed at high rates. These collisions damage vehicles and sometimes cause to personal injury or driver fatality. Eventually, more lanes are added to the roadway. But, those benefits might not last. At severely congested levels, cars idle and waste fuel, some cars overheat and leak fluids onto the pavement, travel times become unpredictable, businesses and factories relocate to more predictable transportation areas. On average, a mile of travel emits about 1 pound of carbon dioxide (Metro, 2010, p. 15). Congestion leads to wasted fuel and releases more carbon dioxide then if traffic was moving smoothly.
  • An efficient way to address congestion on highways is to charge higher tolls during peak hours to provide an incentive to alter schedules (Mankiw, 2008, pp. 235-236). Transportation experts at the Federal Highway Administration have evaluated congestion pricing case studies and a review of the literature regarding those case studies. The FHWA studied congestion pricing in Singapore, London, and Stockholm.
  • Without exception, congestion pricing reduced congestion and sustained congestion relieve over long periods. Travel speeds inside and outside the priced zones increased, many shifted to use public transit or car pools, and these benefits have not faded.
  • Without exception, congestion pricing reduced fuel consumption, had positive benefit/cost rations, and helped improve air quality.
  • According to the Texas Transportation Institute, New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago are at the top of the list for commuters wasting time and gas as a result of congestion. Chicago tied with D.C. last years as the city with the most hours of delay resulting from congestion. Chicago ranked second in terms of waster fuel resulting from congestion. In Chicago and Los Angeles, the average driver wastes about 5 fill-ups at the gas station each year due to traffic delay (assumes 10 gallons per fill-up).New York’s superior transit system can compensate only so much for it’s lack of highway capacity.
  • New York City has two of the slowest highways in the United States and five of the worst traffic bottlenecks. For most drivers, the best idea is to avoid driving and use New York’s vast transit services. In 2007, having been inspired by the congestion pricing results in London and with support from regional planning association and transit, pedestrian, and biker advocates, Mayor Bloomberg proposed charging congestion prices to vehicles traveling to the core of Manhattan.The Deputy Commissioner for Planning and Sustainability for the New York City Department of Transportation, Bruce Schaller, evaluated the cities 2007 congestion pricing proposal after it had failed to gain legislative acceptance in 2010.
  • Despite opposing and passionate arguments, there was broad consensus for sustainable modes of transportation and initially the press was generally positive towards the proposal. Supporters of the proposal said it would reduce traffic congestion, help fund improved mass transit, and clean the air. Opponents believed it targeting working class people, is a type of social engineering, didn’t address the problem of taxis and delivery trucks in Manhattan, and that the additional revenues for the MTA would be misused and not worth the time savings.
  • Bruce Schaller offers this advise to cities wishing to implement congestion pricing. He says that the New York experience highlights how important it is to build support for the pricing proposal. He sighted that continued and steadfast leadership willing to champion the cause is important as well as linking the proposal to broader transportation, climate change, and land use goads. He says extensive public education and outreach and allowing the public to shape the proposals is needed. Additionally, strategic use of civic, business, labor, environmental, and advocacy group leaders is needed.Even with all this support, the pricing proposal has to be designed in such a way as to take into account what legislative body is responsible for implementation and how is this body influenced by the various stakeholders. He recommends crafting the proposal to better suite the realities of these influences. He says ultimately, full blown mileage based pricing might be easier to sell to all parties than congestion pricing alone as it would apply everywhere. He suggests it would be easier to then build off of mileage based pricing schemes to focus on different prices for certain places and times.
  • The City of Los Angeles has made great strides to reduce roadway congestion. In 2003, the Texas Transportation Institute estimated the average driver in Los Angeles lost 93 hours due to traffic congestion (Economist, 2005). By 2009, this number had been reduced to 63 hours (Texas Transportation Institute, 2010). However, this still adds up to over 515 million hours every year being lost because of traffic jams.
  • Los Angeles clearly learned from the New York experience.In July 2011, the Mayor Villaraigos announced that 25 miles of the existing car pool lanes on the Interstate 10 and Interstate 110 freeways would be converted to high occupancy toll lanes. To assist with the low income households of $35,000 or less the pilot program will offer a $25 discount off the $75 deposit required to set up a prepaid toll.In New York, there was great skepticism that congested would be relieved or that the additional revenues would go to appropriate expenditures. The Mayor’s proposal was crafted as a “pilot” meaning to some that if all else fails, this doesn’t have to be permanent. This helps diffuse the skeptics by transforming the question from “do you want to do this?” to “do you want to try this?”. Additionally, the mayor helped addressed one of the greatest concerns of the New York experiment, that the working class was being targeted. The discount off of the deposit sounds fair as $75 dollars is expensive.
  • In 2010, Chicago was tied with Washington D.C. as the most congested region in the United State. (Texas Transportation Institute 2010). In the last fifty years, automobile use has skyrocketed in the region. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority has been operating in the Chicago area since 1959. The system operates throughout Northeastern Illinois from Rockford in the west to Indiana in the east. In 1959, the system had 899 total lane miles and the average number of vehicle trips on the system was 62,000. In 2010, the system had more than doubled in terms of lane miles (2,049) but the number of vehicle trips had increased over 23 times (1,445,000 vehicle trips were using the system each day). To put this growth in perspective, there were 69 trips per lane mile in 1959 and there were 705 trips per lane mile in 2010. The construction of new lanes on the highway is not keeping pace at all with this exploding growth in use. As such, it is not a surprise to anyone in Chicago that the city would top the congestion charts.
  • Deputy Commissioner Bruce Schaller from New York advised that those wanting to implement congestion pricing better have an outstanding amount of support. In 2010, that’s what happened in Illinois.In July 2010, RaghuKowshik, a consultant from Wilbur Smith Associates, Rocco Zucchero of the Toll Highway Authority and Peter Skosey of the Metropolitan Planning Council completed a congestion pricing study for the Chicago region (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010). This study focused on congestion pricing as a tool to address the Chicago region’s crippling traffic congestion. The benefits measured for appyling congestion-pricing were great and that previously perceived negatives, such as diversions to local roads, were none-existant if the pricing came with a new travel lane (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010, p. 15). A very comprehensive outreach effort stemming from that research was undertaken. Step One was to present these findings and provide additional briefs. Step Two was to hold elected and stakeholder workshops. Step Three was to hold focus groups with different types of users such as automobile and trucking. Step Four has to compile a state preference survey. 85% said they would pay an extra toll it assures me mytravel won’t be slowed by traffic conditions40% said they are able to access a sufficient numberof transit routes from my neighborhood82% said I support using tolls to pay for highwayimprovements that relieve congestion97% said I’ll use a toll route if the tolls are reasonableand I save timeVirtually none of the mayors in the region wanted to make all the tolls subject to congestion pricing (Skosey, personal communication, July 14, 2011). New managed lanes, separate lanes with higher or premium toll prices, were preferred. The preference was to tie the implementation of congestion pricing with an increase in transit services in the same area to lessen the effects of persons being priced off the highways.Also in 2010, an ad hoc Strategic Advisory Team consisting of a broad range of regional and local interestscharted a path for a future in which the Toll Highway will use congestion pricing as a cost-effective solution to avoid huge costs of widening and adding new toll roads (IlllinoisTollway Strategic Advisory Team, 2010, p. 12).
  • Previous analysis has shown that a priced lane on I-90 could reduce travel times from Illinois Route 31 (the Elgin/Algonquin area) 21 miles to O’Hare Airport by 38 minutes over the no build option for those using the congestion-priced lane and 22 minutes less for the regular toll users (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010, p. 15). These are staggering reduction numbers for a 21 mile stretch. Bruce Schaller from New York advised allowing the public to shape the proposals is needed with strategic use of civic, business, labor, environmental, and advocacy group leaders.Two months ago, on May 26, 2011, the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority announced the creation of an I-90 Corridor Planning Council to guide a plan for the I-90 Corridor including the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway from Rockford to O’Hare Airport and the Kennedy Expressway from O’Hare Airport to the loop (Illinois Tollway, 2011). The plan will be developed with assistance from the Regional Transportation Authority to target transit improvements. It will develop a cost estimate for a new congestion-priced lane using existing highway shoulder where possible. This lane will be dedicated to express bus service and users willing to pay a premium toll. Unlike most add lane projects where the increased capacity is all too often simply filled with more vehicles, the managed lane approach offers a mechanism to retain these benefits. Peter Skosey from the Metropolitan Planning Council said that the project will look at a managing the toll fares on this lane in a manner to maintain freeflow or uncongested conditions in that lane (personal communiciation, July 14, 2011).

Transcript

  • 1. Presented by: Nicole Gattuso, Fred Jackson, Travis Lovett, Jason Osborn
    Global cities and ecologyNew York, Los Angeles, Chicago
  • 2. Chicago
    New York
    Los Angeles
    Source: US Census Bureau
    http://www.census.gov/geo/www/maps/2010_census_nighttime_map/nighttime_map_2010.html
  • 3. New York
  • 4. Los Angeles
  • 5. Chicago
  • 6. World Population 1750-2050
    Source: World Bank
    http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/beyond/beyondco/beg_03.pdf
  • 7. Energy Consumption (Kwh/capita)
    Source: World Bank
    Electric Power Consumption http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/beyond/beyondco/beg_03.pdf
  • 8. Oil Consumption(Barrels/Day)
    Source: Index Mundi, World Oil Consumption; http://www.indexmundi.com/energy.aspx
  • 9. Air Quality within Urban Environments
    Without air we would not be able to survive
    Photo: New York (from Ecoficial, 2010)
    http://www.ecoficial.com/epa-proposes-stronger-air-quality-standards-for-sulfur-dioxide-589/
  • 10. Air Pollution
    Carbon Dioxide/Monoxide
    Sulfur Oxides/Diesel Fuel
    Nitrogen Oxides
    This graph provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Source: NOAA; http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
  • 11. Nature can no longer manage air pollution without our help.
    Pollution and Global Cities
  • 12. According to the American Lung Association:
    • People 65 years and older
    • 13. Low income families
    • 14. People with existing lung problems
    • 15. Children
    Who is the most threatened?
  • 16. What are the health effects?
    http://hubpages.com/hub/air
  • 22. NYC, LA, and Chicago Comparison
    Air Now http://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=airnow.local_city&zipcode=10026&submit=Go
  • 23.
    • American Lung Association ranked Los Angeles worst polluted ozone.
    Los Angeles Air
  • 24.
    • Roughly 3.3 million jobs directly or indirectly related to the Port.
    • 25. Generates around $5.1 billions in annual state and local taxes
    • 26. Generates $21.5 billion taxes nationwide
    • 27. Value of global trade is estimated to be $250 billion per year.
    The Port of Los Angeles
    Air Monitoring Stations in Port
    http://www.portoflosangeles.org/
  • 28. 44% of all imports to the USA
    90% of all trade from East Asia
  • 29. New York’s Air
    The 2011 State of the Air ranked, New York’s air pollution amongst the worst in the county. (American Lung Association, 2011)
    • 1.4 million live with cardiovascular disease live within unhealthy levels
    • 30. 460,000 Adults and 160,000 Children with Asthma
    (http://www.stateoftheair.org/2011/city-rankings/most-polluted-cities.html)
  • 31. New York’s Air
    Photo: Bronx with Manhattan in Background By Witzen
  • 35. In April, 2011, New York Times noted troubling levels of diesel pollution in Little Village, Lincoln Park, Ukrainian Village, Wicker Park, Pilsen, and other areas.
    Chicago’s Air
  • 36. The Clean Air Task Force (a public health advocacy group) estimates in the Chicago Metro Area particulates from diesel emissions cause:
    • 723 premature deaths
    • 37. 1,125 heart attacks
    • 38. 28,201 asthma attacks each year.
    Chicago’s Air
  • 39. Clean Air Act – Created in 1970
    In 1990 after the Act was in place for 20 years, it is estimated that it prevented more than 200,000 premature deaths and almost 700,000 cases of chronic bronchitis were avoided. ( United States, EPA, 2010)
    Decades of Progress
  • 40. In 2009, the state of New York adopted additional clean air policies more stringent than the Clean Air Act.
    New York Initiatives
  • 41. Clean Trucks Program-
    • Requires all 16,000 trucks at the Port to be compliant
    • 42. Will reduce diesel emissions by 80%
    (City of Los Angeles, 2011)
    Los Angeles Initiatives
  • 43. Alternative Fuel Vehicles
    By 2012-2013, L.A. plans to covert 85% of all fleet to be powered by alternative fuel.
    Los Angeles Initiatives
    L.A.’s last diesel bus
    One of L.A.’s compressed natural gas buses
  • 44. The Port’s “Triple Bottom Line Approach”
    Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP)
    The plan is set to reduce:
    • Diesel particulate matter by 47%
    • 45. Nitrogen oxides by 45%
    • 46. Sulfur oxides by 52%
    L.A. Initiatives
  • 47. SPRAWLNew York City, Los Angeles, Chicago
    OBJECTIVES:
    What is sprawl
    Issues created from sprawl
    Combating sprawl
    Conclusion
  • 48. SPRAWL
    Became possible in 1814 in NYC
    Spreading outwards of a city
    Specifically, it is considered the rapid expansion of a metropolitan area
    Leads to suburbanization
    Creates small communities on the outskirts of the central city
    Environmental Problems
    Over consumption of resources
  • 49. Issues created from Sprawl
    Increase reliance on automobiles results in
    Health hazards such as:
    Air Pollution
    Motor vehicle crashes
    Pedestrian injuries and fatalities
  • 50. Issues created from Sprawl cont.
    EFFECTS OF LAND USE
    Newhall Ranch: Largest housing development ever approved in Los Angeles—for 70,000 people
    “While the population of the seven-county Chicago metro area experienced a growth rate of 63 percent between 1950 and 2006, that rate jumps to 261 percent by removing the city of Chicago from the equation” (Zekas, 2010)
    Clearing of a forest for development impacts water quantity and quality
  • 51. Issues created from Sprawl cont.
    • “Unrelenting pressure of suburbanization is not only transforming some of the region’s most important open spaces, but threatening to weaken New York City’s critical mass over long-term” (Goldstein, 2003).
  • Issues created from Sprawl cont.
    Heat Island Effect:
    Cause by two factors
    1. Dark surfaces (roofs & roadways) absorb heat and reradiate it
    2. Sprawl limits natural vegetation
  • 52. Combating Sprawl
    “Chicago must immediately make green infrastructure a priority” (Lyderson, 2010)
    The solutions for sprawl rest upon the same actors—individuals, businesses and governing policies—that create sprawl
    Smart growth encourages more mixed-use and compact development, investments in infill development projects in inner cities
  • 53. Combating Sprawl cont.
    Smart Growth in NYC- Supporting the purchase of farmland development rights and other farming preservation efforts
  • 54. Combating Sprawl cont.
    Smart Growth in LA- agreement making area westward of the Newhall Ranch off-limits for development
  • 55. Combating Sprawl cont.
    Smart Growth in Chicago- plans to redevelop the historic freight and commuter rail assets in southern Chicago
  • 56. Combating Sprawl Conclusion
    Sprawl is an ever compounding problem in NYC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.
    It strains vital city resources and creates health hazards
    Through smart growth efforts sprawl can be limited.
  • 57. Transportation Congestion Pricing
    Source: http://sustainableflatbush.org/2008/03/27/congestion-pricing-countdown/
  • 58. Why Support Congestion Pricing
  • 59. Public Good versus Common Good
    Public Good
    Common Resource
    Photo: New Delhi, AP Photo, Manish Swarup
  • 60. Market Failure
    Public Good
    No User Fee
    Free Riders
    Common Good
    No User Fee
    Excessive Use
    Vs.
    http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/transport/transport_congestion.htm
  • 61. Negative Externalities
    Digital Vision/Getty.
  • 62. Market Solution
    Public Good
    No User Fee
    Free Riders
    Common Good
    User Fee
    More Efficient Use
    Vs.
    Photo: New Delhi, AP Photo, Manish Swarup
  • 63. Lessons Learned by FHWA London, Singapore, and Stockholm
    Faster Traffic
    More
    Transit
    Less Congestion
  • 64. Lessons Learned by FHWA London, Singapore, and Stockholm
    Greater Economic Returns
    Cleaner Air
    Less Oil
  • 65. Do these apply to NY, LA, and Chicago?
    Source: Texas Transportation Institute, 2010
  • 66. Life is Better Underground–New York has the two slowest highways in the United States and five of the worst traffic bottlenecks. The subways are a superior choice (Van Zyl, 2010).
    New York
    Photo: AP Photo/Bill Kostroun
  • 67. New York – Deputy Commissioners Report
    Opponents
    • Targets the Working Person
    • 68. Is Social Engineering
    • 69. Doesn’t address Taxi and Truck Problems
    • 70. MTA can’t be trusted to use the funding wisely
    • 71. Transit is not viable
    • 72. Time Savings (if any) not worth the price.
    Supporters
    • Reduces Traffic Congestion
    • 73. Funds Mass Transit
    • 74. Reduces Air Pollution
  • New York – Deputy Commissioners Report
    Advise
    • Build support for the pricing proposal
    • 75. Vision and Top-Level Leadership
    • 76. Linking it to broader transportation, climate change, and land use goals
    • 77. Let the public shape the final plan
    • 78. Do extensive public education and outreach
    • 79. Leverage leadership from civic, business, labor, environmental and advocacy groups.
    • 80. Design the pricing proposals to win
    • 81. Understand who has authority
    • 82. Understand how they might be influenced by small opposition groups
    • 83. Design the proposal accordingly
  • Lost Time - Commuters are delayed over 515 million hours every year because of traffic jams (Van Zyl, 2010).
    Los Angeles
    Photo: AP Photo/Reed Saxon
  • 84. Good Idea - Convert existing car-pooling lanes to toll lanes
    Los Angeles – A Winning Proposal
  • 85. The Second City is Number 1- Chicago was tied with Washington D.C. as the most congested region in the United State. (Texas Transportation Institute 2010).
    Chicago
  • 86. Chicago – Sought Input
    85%
    I will pay an extra toll it assures me my
    travel won’t be slowed by traffic conditions
    40%
    I’m able to access a sufficient number
    of transit routes from my neighborhood
    82%
    I support using tolls to pay for highway
    improvements that relieve congestion
    97%
    I’ll use a toll route if the tolls are reasonable
    and I save time
    • Step One
    Briefings/Case Studies
    • Step Two:
    Elected Official and Stakeholder Workshops
    • Step Three:
    Focus Groups
    (automobile and trucking)
    • Step Four:
    Stated Preference Survey
  • 87. Chicago – Shaped by the Public
    Use this shoulder as a lane
    and charge a Premium price.
  • 88. Sustainable Agriculture
    • As global cities have grown and expanded, there is an increasing demand for natural resources which creates tension between natural and social environments.
    • 89. Since 1940, agricultural industrialization has significantly increased our food supply to meet global population demands
    • 90. Scientists and environmental advocates argue that fundamental shifts in agricultural food production systems are vital to sustaining future generations
    Retailers, such as Wal-Mart, can drastically alter the marketplace for local produce with their purchasing power. Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/03/the-great-grocery-smackdown/7904/
    Click the icon to the left to hear why sustainable agriculture is critical to the future development of global cities
  • 91. Agricultural Production Challenges
    • Food insecurity is going to be one of the biggest challenges for global cities in the next 50 years; centralized, concentrated food production sites are susceptible to acts of terrorism and widespread contamination.
    • 92. Natural resources are being depleted at rates that are currently unsustainable long-term
    • 93. Large-scale factory farms have significantly increased food production over the last generation, but natural resources have been drained significantly; lack of diversity in food sources also poses serious health risks
    • 94. Americans currently throw out about 14% of the food they buy
    The map above, provided by Food and Water watch, highlights the presence of factory farms (red indicates farm areas with extremely high animal concentrations) – Source:
    http://www.factoryfarmmap.org/#animal:all;location:US;year:2007
    Click the icon to the right to hear about agricultural production challenges
  • 95. Sustainability in Practice
    • Scientific breakthroughs in urban farming practices have led to the creation of several resource-efficient urban farms in unconventional locations, including building facades and rooftops.
    • 96. By the year 2050, Columbia Professor Dickson Despommier calculated that “the world will need 1 billion more hectares of arable land by 2050 – roughly the area of Brazil – if projections are true, agricultural processes will need to transform
    • 97. Across the country, there has been extensive growth in the interest of organic food, farmers markets, food labeling, fair trade, local cooperatives, and community supported agriculture
    Professor Dickson Despommier (above) is an advocate of vertical farming methods – click the picture above to watch his October 2010 TED Talk on the subject.
    Click the icon to the right to hear about sustainability in practice
  • 98. Sustainable Agriculture: New York
    • Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs have found some commercial success in New York City
    • 99. Government support for urban farms has been inconsistent, so several nonprofit organizations such as East New York Farms!, Green Guerillas, Added Value, and New York Sun Works have developed extensive networks for farming throughout the city
    • 100. John Ameroso, an urban farm advocate, spent almost 35 years training city farmers and supporting localized farming efforts
    • 101. Farmers markets in New York City have grown 150% from 1994 to 2006, with total sales projections of $1 billion in 2005
    New York Sun Works builds state-of-the-art greenhouses throughout the city (pictured above).
    Click the icon to the right to hear about sustainable agriculture practices in New York
  • 102. Sustainable Agriculture: Chicago
    • Chicago’s sustainable agriculture movement has gotten the support of Mayor Rahm Emanuel, who made it a campaign goal to “eliminate food deserts”
    • 103. Access to fresh/healthy food in Chicago is a major issue; to combat the issue, Walgreens announced that they will start selling fresh produce in 39 of their Chicago locations
    • 104. Chicago’s city government has also offered vacant temporary lots in the city for farming purposes; this has had mixed success over the last few years as the average urban farmer made between $20,000 and $23,000 per year
    Mayor Rahm Emanuel , a political advocate for urban farming, has campaigned on the strategy of improving urban farms. Source: http://www.suntimes.com/news/cityhall/6717226-418/mayor-emanuel-promotes-urban-farms-as-oases-in-food-deserts.html
    Click the icon to the left to hear about the progress of sustainable agriculture initiatives in Chicago
  • 105. Sustainable Agriculture: Los Angeles
    • Southern California is one of the nation’s largest sources of factory farms
    • 106. Urban farming initiatives have not yet gained political momentum, but they have gotten the support of Southern California’s leading environmental advocates
    • 107. There are currently 90 food producing farms in Los Angeles County - the city could fully sustain itself on 8.9 percent of the city’s square mileage
    Graphic courtesy of Farmscape - Source: http://farmscapegardens.com/blog/54
    Click the icon to the left to hear about sustainable farming challenges in Los Angeles
  • 108. Concluding Thoughts
    • America’s global cities – Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York – are making progress toward building a sustainable future; despite this progress, change is still happening too slowly
    • 109. Air quality issues, sprawl, transportation congestion, and lack of healthy food options have significantly inhibited the potential of global cities to use resources efficiently and effectively
    • 110. Partnerships between scientists, politicians, and the general public will be critical to making the types of large-scale changes we will need to sustain ourselves long-term
    Click the icon to the left to hear our concluding thoughts on preserving the ecology of our global cities
  • 111. REFERENCES
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  • 112. REFERENCES CONT.
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  • 113. REFERENCES CONT.
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