This a presentation by Nicole Gattuso, Fred Jackson, Travis Lovett, and Jason Osborn regarding global cities and ecology. This presentation looks at three global cities and their efforts to limit impacts on the environment. The Cities of New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago are global cities in the United States, the Country with the highest per capita energy consumption (The World Bank, 2011). This presentation will discuss air quality, sprawl, congestion pricing, and sustainable agriculture.
New York City, Los Angeles, and Chicago are the three largest cities in the United States.
Here’s New York, if you can make it here, you can make it anywhere. This presentation covers innovative approaches to lessen and mitigate New York’s impacts to the environment. The environmental initiatives are hard fought in this town and the lessons learned should be noted by everyone.
Los Angeles has a bad reputation as a polluted, superficial, car-oriented city. After this presentation, you will appreciate Los Angeles as anything but. The City and its inhabitants are perhaps more serious about ecological issues than any other city on the planet.
Chicago has a knack for layering government agency on top of government agency making it as complicated as the most advanced computer chip. This giant in America’s heartland gave the world the first modern skyscraper and the first atomic reaction. Lately, it has begun to turn its ambitious rusty eye towards being green.
The world’s population had not exceeded 1 billion until the late 19th century. Today, the world’s population is nearly 7 billion (US Census). The exploding population is increasingly concentrated in and adjacent to specialized resource management centers called global cities (Sassen, 2006). In the 1800s, only 2.5% of the world’s population lived in cities (Luke, 2006, p. 279). Today, over half of the worlds’ population lives within cities.It is in areas that the risk taking and entrepreneurial attributes of humanity converge to creatively use the advantage of these areas (Brugmann, 2010, p. 54). In global cities, the inhabitants find ways to access new and greater amounts of material inputs across the planet to consume locally (Luke, 2006, p. 276).
The scale of the forces creating and sustaining global cities is so intense that they have transformed the Earth’s ecology (Brugmann, 2010, p. 13). This phenomenon is overpowering the Earth’s natural ecology and threatening the sustainability of ecosystems across the planet (Luke, 2006, p. 276). The United States consumes twice as much electricity of the typical European country and over four times as much energy as the China or Brazil.
On any given day, the United States consumes more oil than India, Russia, Brazil, Germany, Saudi Araabia, South Korea, and Canada combined. It consumes more than twice as much as China and four times as much as Japan.
The United States is by far the largest consumer of petroleum on the planet. Congestion pricing is a relatively straight forward, fairly simple to implement, and economical sound tool that could help reduce the amount of fuel wasted in the United States. It has been proposed in New York, Chicago, and in Los Angeles and has yet to take hold. On the left you see a poster from efforts back in 2008 to implement congestion pricing in the New York City Region. The t-shirt on the right encourages the public to ask the person why they support congestion pricing.
Here are three reason’s why one might consider congestion pricing on highways. On any given day, the United States consumes 19 million barrels of oil. 72% of this is burned in cars, planes and trains in general; about 50% for gasoline alone. (U.S. Energy Information Administration; http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=oil_home#tab2)
To answer how and why congestion pricing works. We need to understand basic economics. In an economy, prices are used to signal the value of something to others. Without a price, real things or goods can be underused or overused. When you can’t stop someone from consuming a good and when one additional person consuming that good can do so without changing the levels of consumption by others, this can be considered a public good. A classic example of this is a fire-works display. Now, when the consumption of a good by one individual reduces the ability for someone else to consume and you still can’t exclude people from the good, this type of good is a common resource.Roads are special in that they can be either public goods or common resources. When uncongested, they are not rival in consumption and are public goods. When congested, the road yields a negative externality, a cost that is not included in the operational and maintenance costs of the facility such as wasted time). At this point, a road becomes a common resource (Mankiw, 2008, p. 234). This is a very important to keep in mind. A road might be a public good at 2:00 a.m. and then a common resource at 7:00 a.m.
Users have an incentive to free fide when a public good is provided. For this reason governments tend to provide public goods such as roads. As a road gains more users, government must add lanes to keep the roadway a public good. If congestion conditions occur, the road becomes a common good. If there is no charge for a common resource, it will be used excessively (Mankiw, 2008, p. 238). “When the demand for roads rises above a certain level, road users impose additional costs (externalities) on others leading to a divergence between the private and the social marginal costs of road usage. External congestion costs include increased travel times, increased fuel and operating costs, and pollution. (Tutor2, 2011)”
Even a roadway with few cars has negative externalities. The pavement sheds storm water at high rates and volumes that can disrupt water quality. Additionally, storm water washes motor oil, engine coolants, de-icing salts, crack-sealing materials (tar), road striping (used to be lead based paint now acrylic in the U.S.), and road gravel off the roadway. The road acts as a barrier for all animals including humans. Turtles are often flipped by the curbs, deer can get tangled in fencing, and smaller animals expose themselves to predators such as hawks by crossing. The roadway itself requires site excavation and leveling, the extraction of materials from gravel pits, the production of asphalt and/or concrete, the noise, dust, and noxious smell of construction. As traffic increases, animals are killed at high rates. These collisions damage vehicles and sometimes cause to personal injury or driver fatality. Eventually, more lanes are added to the roadway. But, those benefits might not last. At severely congested levels, cars idle and waste fuel, some cars overheat and leak fluids onto the pavement, travel times become unpredictable, businesses and factories relocate to more predictable transportation areas. On average, a mile of travel emits about 1 pound of carbon dioxide (Metro, 2010, p. 15). Congestion leads to wasted fuel and releases more carbon dioxide then if traffic was moving smoothly.
An efficient way to address congestion on highways is to charge higher tolls during peak hours to provide an incentive to alter schedules (Mankiw, 2008, pp. 235-236). Transportation experts at the Federal Highway Administration have evaluated congestion pricing case studies and a review of the literature regarding those case studies. The FHWA studied congestion pricing in Singapore, London, and Stockholm.
Without exception, congestion pricing reduced congestion and sustained congestion relieve over long periods. Travel speeds inside and outside the priced zones increased, many shifted to use public transit or car pools, and these benefits have not faded.
Without exception, congestion pricing reduced fuel consumption, had positive benefit/cost rations, and helped improve air quality.
According to the Texas Transportation Institute, New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago are at the top of the list for commuters wasting time and gas as a result of congestion. Chicago tied with D.C. last years as the city with the most hours of delay resulting from congestion. Chicago ranked second in terms of waster fuel resulting from congestion. In Chicago and Los Angeles, the average driver wastes about 5 fill-ups at the gas station each year due to traffic delay (assumes 10 gallons per fill-up).New York’s superior transit system can compensate only so much for it’s lack of highway capacity.
New York City has two of the slowest highways in the United States and five of the worst traffic bottlenecks. For most drivers, the best idea is to avoid driving and use New York’s vast transit services. In 2007, having been inspired by the congestion pricing results in London and with support from regional planning association and transit, pedestrian, and biker advocates, Mayor Bloomberg proposed charging congestion prices to vehicles traveling to the core of Manhattan.The Deputy Commissioner for Planning and Sustainability for the New York City Department of Transportation, Bruce Schaller, evaluated the cities 2007 congestion pricing proposal after it had failed to gain legislative acceptance in 2010.
Despite opposing and passionate arguments, there was broad consensus for sustainable modes of transportation and initially the press was generally positive towards the proposal. Supporters of the proposal said it would reduce traffic congestion, help fund improved mass transit, and clean the air. Opponents believed it targeting working class people, is a type of social engineering, didn’t address the problem of taxis and delivery trucks in Manhattan, and that the additional revenues for the MTA would be misused and not worth the time savings.
Bruce Schaller offers this advise to cities wishing to implement congestion pricing. He says that the New York experience highlights how important it is to build support for the pricing proposal. He sighted that continued and steadfast leadership willing to champion the cause is important as well as linking the proposal to broader transportation, climate change, and land use goads. He says extensive public education and outreach and allowing the public to shape the proposals is needed. Additionally, strategic use of civic, business, labor, environmental, and advocacy group leaders is needed.Even with all this support, the pricing proposal has to be designed in such a way as to take into account what legislative body is responsible for implementation and how is this body influenced by the various stakeholders. He recommends crafting the proposal to better suite the realities of these influences. He says ultimately, full blown mileage based pricing might be easier to sell to all parties than congestion pricing alone as it would apply everywhere. He suggests it would be easier to then build off of mileage based pricing schemes to focus on different prices for certain places and times.
The City of Los Angeles has made great strides to reduce roadway congestion. In 2003, the Texas Transportation Institute estimated the average driver in Los Angeles lost 93 hours due to traffic congestion (Economist, 2005). By 2009, this number had been reduced to 63 hours (Texas Transportation Institute, 2010). However, this still adds up to over 515 million hours every year being lost because of traffic jams.
Los Angeles clearly learned from the New York experience.In July 2011, the Mayor Villaraigos announced that 25 miles of the existing car pool lanes on the Interstate 10 and Interstate 110 freeways would be converted to high occupancy toll lanes. To assist with the low income households of $35,000 or less the pilot program will offer a $25 discount off the $75 deposit required to set up a prepaid toll.In New York, there was great skepticism that congested would be relieved or that the additional revenues would go to appropriate expenditures. The Mayor’s proposal was crafted as a “pilot” meaning to some that if all else fails, this doesn’t have to be permanent. This helps diffuse the skeptics by transforming the question from “do you want to do this?” to “do you want to try this?”. Additionally, the mayor helped addressed one of the greatest concerns of the New York experiment, that the working class was being targeted. The discount off of the deposit sounds fair as $75 dollars is expensive.
In 2010, Chicago was tied with Washington D.C. as the most congested region in the United State. (Texas Transportation Institute 2010). In the last fifty years, automobile use has skyrocketed in the region. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority has been operating in the Chicago area since 1959. The system operates throughout Northeastern Illinois from Rockford in the west to Indiana in the east. In 1959, the system had 899 total lane miles and the average number of vehicle trips on the system was 62,000. In 2010, the system had more than doubled in terms of lane miles (2,049) but the number of vehicle trips had increased over 23 times (1,445,000 vehicle trips were using the system each day). To put this growth in perspective, there were 69 trips per lane mile in 1959 and there were 705 trips per lane mile in 2010. The construction of new lanes on the highway is not keeping pace at all with this exploding growth in use. As such, it is not a surprise to anyone in Chicago that the city would top the congestion charts.
Deputy Commissioner Bruce Schaller from New York advised that those wanting to implement congestion pricing better have an outstanding amount of support. In 2010, that’s what happened in Illinois.In July 2010, RaghuKowshik, a consultant from Wilbur Smith Associates, Rocco Zucchero of the Toll Highway Authority and Peter Skosey of the Metropolitan Planning Council completed a congestion pricing study for the Chicago region (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010). This study focused on congestion pricing as a tool to address the Chicago region’s crippling traffic congestion. The benefits measured for appyling congestion-pricing were great and that previously perceived negatives, such as diversions to local roads, were none-existant if the pricing came with a new travel lane (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010, p. 15). A very comprehensive outreach effort stemming from that research was undertaken. Step One was to present these findings and provide additional briefs. Step Two was to hold elected and stakeholder workshops. Step Three was to hold focus groups with different types of users such as automobile and trucking. Step Four has to compile a state preference survey. 85% said they would pay an extra toll it assures me mytravel won’t be slowed by traffic conditions40% said they are able to access a sufficient numberof transit routes from my neighborhood82% said I support using tolls to pay for highwayimprovements that relieve congestion97% said I’ll use a toll route if the tolls are reasonableand I save timeVirtually none of the mayors in the region wanted to make all the tolls subject to congestion pricing (Skosey, personal communication, July 14, 2011). New managed lanes, separate lanes with higher or premium toll prices, were preferred. The preference was to tie the implementation of congestion pricing with an increase in transit services in the same area to lessen the effects of persons being priced off the highways.Also in 2010, an ad hoc Strategic Advisory Team consisting of a broad range of regional and local interestscharted a path for a future in which the Toll Highway will use congestion pricing as a cost-effective solution to avoid huge costs of widening and adding new toll roads (IlllinoisTollway Strategic Advisory Team, 2010, p. 12).
Previous analysis has shown that a priced lane on I-90 could reduce travel times from Illinois Route 31 (the Elgin/Algonquin area) 21 miles to O’Hare Airport by 38 minutes over the no build option for those using the congestion-priced lane and 22 minutes less for the regular toll users (Kowshik, Skosey, & Zucchero, 2010, p. 15). These are staggering reduction numbers for a 21 mile stretch. Bruce Schaller from New York advised allowing the public to shape the proposals is needed with strategic use of civic, business, labor, environmental, and advocacy group leaders.Two months ago, on May 26, 2011, the Illinois State Toll Highway Authority announced the creation of an I-90 Corridor Planning Council to guide a plan for the I-90 Corridor including the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway from Rockford to O’Hare Airport and the Kennedy Expressway from O’Hare Airport to the loop (Illinois Tollway, 2011). The plan will be developed with assistance from the Regional Transportation Authority to target transit improvements. It will develop a cost estimate for a new congestion-priced lane using existing highway shoulder where possible. This lane will be dedicated to express bus service and users willing to pay a premium toll. Unlike most add lane projects where the increased capacity is all too often simply filled with more vehicles, the managed lane approach offers a mechanism to retain these benefits. Peter Skosey from the Metropolitan Planning Council said that the project will look at a managing the toll fares on this lane in a manner to maintain freeflow or uncongested conditions in that lane (personal communiciation, July 14, 2011).
Air Quality within Urban Environments<br
/>Without air we would not be able to survive<br />Photo: New York (from Ecoficial, 2010)<br />http://www.ecoficial.com/epa-proposes-stronger-air-quality-standards-for-sulfur-dioxide-589/<br />
New York’s Air<br />The 2011
State of the Air ranked, New York’s air pollution amongst the worst in the county. (American Lung Association, 2011)<br /><ul><li>1.4 million live with cardiovascular disease live within unhealthy levels
Clean Air Act – Created
in 1970<br />In 1990 after the Act was in place for 20 years, it is estimated that it prevented more than 200,000 premature deaths and almost 700,000 cases of chronic bronchitis were avoided. ( United States, EPA, 2010)<br />Decades of Progress<br />
In 2009, the state of
New York adopted additional clean air policies more stringent than the Clean Air Act.<br />New York Initiatives<br />
Alternative Fuel Vehicles<br />By 2012-2013,
L.A. plans to covert 85% of all fleet to be powered by alternative fuel.<br />Los Angeles Initiatives<br />L.A.’s last diesel bus<br />One of L.A.’s compressed natural gas buses<br />
The Port’s “Triple Bottom Line
Approach”<br />Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP)<br />The plan is set to reduce:<br /><ul><li>Diesel particulate matter by 47%
SPRAWL<br />Became possible in 1814
in NYC<br />Spreading outwards of a city<br />Specifically, it is considered the rapid expansion of a metropolitan area<br />Leads to suburbanization<br />Creates small communities on the outskirts of the central city<br />Environmental Problems<br />Over consumption of resources<br />
Issues created from Sprawl cont.
<br />EFFECTS OF LAND USE<br />Newhall Ranch: Largest housing development ever approved in Los Angeles—for 70,000 people<br />“While the population of the seven-county Chicago metro area experienced a growth rate of 63 percent between 1950 and 2006, that rate jumps to 261 percent by removing the city of Chicago from the equation” (Zekas, 2010)<br />Clearing of a forest for development impacts water quantity and quality<br />
Issues created from Sprawl cont.<br
/><ul><li>“Unrelenting pressure of suburbanization is not only transforming some of the region’s most important open spaces, but threatening to weaken New York City’s critical mass over long-term” (Goldstein, 2003).</li></li></ul><li>Issues created from Sprawl cont.<br />Heat Island Effect: <br />Cause by two factors<br />1. Dark surfaces (roofs & roadways) absorb heat and reradiate it<br />2. Sprawl limits natural vegetation<br />
Combating Sprawl <br />“Chicago must
immediately make green infrastructure a priority” (Lyderson, 2010) <br />The solutions for sprawl rest upon the same actors—individuals, businesses and governing policies—that create sprawl <br />Smart growth encourages more mixed-use and compact development, investments in infill development projects in inner cities<br />
Combating Sprawl Conclusion <br />Sprawl
is an ever compounding problem in NYC, Los Angeles, and Chicago.<br />It strains vital city resources and creates health hazards<br />Through smart growth efforts sprawl can be limited.<br />
Life is Better Underground–New York
has the two slowest highways in the United States and five of the worst traffic bottlenecks. The subways are a superior choice (Van Zyl, 2010).<br />New York<br />Photo: AP Photo/Bill Kostroun<br />
The Second City is Number
1- Chicago was tied with Washington D.C. as the most congested region in the United State. (Texas Transportation Institute 2010). <br />Chicago<br />
Chicago – Sought Input<br />85%<br
/>I will pay an extra toll it assures me my<br />travel won’t be slowed by traffic conditions<br />40%<br />I’m able to access a sufficient number<br />of transit routes from my neighborhood<br />82%<br />I support using tolls to pay for highway<br />improvements that relieve congestion<br />97%<br />I’ll use a toll route if the tolls are reasonable<br />and I save time<br /><ul><li>Step One</li></ul>Briefings/Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Step Two: </li></ul>Elected Official and Stakeholder Workshops<br /><ul><li>Step Three: </li></ul>Focus Groups<br />(automobile and trucking)<br /><ul><li>Step Four: </li></ul>Stated Preference Survey<br />
Scientists and environmental advocates argue
that fundamental shifts in agricultural food production systems are vital to sustaining future generations</li></ul>Retailers, such as Wal-Mart, can drastically alter the marketplace for local produce with their purchasing power. Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/03/the-great-grocery-smackdown/7904/<br />Click the icon to the left to hear why sustainable agriculture is critical to the future development of global cities<br />
Americans currently throw out about
14% of the food they buy</li></ul>The map above, provided by Food and Water watch, highlights the presence of factory farms (red indicates farm areas with extremely high animal concentrations) – Source:<br />http://www.factoryfarmmap.org/#animal:all;location:US;year:2007<br />Click the icon to the right to hear about agricultural production challenges<br />
By the year 2050, Columbia
Professor Dickson Despommier calculated that “the world will need 1 billion more hectares of arable land by 2050 – roughly the area of Brazil – if projections are true, agricultural processes will need to transform
Across the country, there has
been extensive growth in the interest of organic food, farmers markets, food labeling, fair trade, local cooperatives, and community supported agriculture</li></ul>Professor Dickson Despommier (above) is an advocate of vertical farming methods – click the picture above to watch his October 2010 TED Talk on the subject.<br />Click the icon to the right to hear about sustainability in practice<br />
Government support for urban farms
has been inconsistent, so several nonprofit organizations such as East New York Farms!, Green Guerillas, Added Value, and New York Sun Works have developed extensive networks for farming throughout the city
Farmers markets in New York
City have grown 150% from 1994 to 2006, with total sales projections of $1 billion in 2005</li></ul>New York Sun Works builds state-of-the-art greenhouses throughout the city (pictured above). <br />Click the icon to the right to hear about sustainable agriculture practices in New York<br />
Access to fresh/healthy food in
Chicago is a major issue; to combat the issue, Walgreens announced that they will start selling fresh produce in 39 of their Chicago locations
Chicago’s city government has also
offered vacant temporary lots in the city for farming purposes; this has had mixed success over the last few years as the average urban farmer made between $20,000 and $23,000 per year</li></ul>Mayor Rahm Emanuel , a political advocate for urban farming, has campaigned on the strategy of improving urban farms. Source: http://www.suntimes.com/news/cityhall/6717226-418/mayor-emanuel-promotes-urban-farms-as-oases-in-food-deserts.html<br />Click the icon to the left to hear about the progress of sustainable agriculture initiatives in Chicago<br />
There are currently 90 food
producing farms in Los Angeles County - the city could fully sustain itself on 8.9 percent of the city’s square mileage</li></ul>Graphic courtesy of Farmscape - Source: http://farmscapegardens.com/blog/54<br />Click the icon to the left to hear about sustainable farming challenges in Los Angeles<br />
Partnerships between scientists, politicians, and
the general public will be critical to making the types of large-scale changes we will need to sustain ourselves long-term</li></ul>Click the icon to the left to hear our concluding thoughts on preserving the ecology of our global cities<br />
REFERENCES<br />American Lung Association. (2011).
Most Polluted Cities. Retrieved 7 12, 2011, from State of the Air 2011: http://www.stateoftheair.org/2011/city-rankings/most-polluted-cities.html<br />California Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, 2 28). Introduction to the Air Resources Board. Retrieved 7 16, 2011, from California Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.arb.ca.gov/html/brochure/arb.htm<br />Clifford, Stephanie. “Wal-Mart to Buy More Local Produce.” The New York Times, October 14, 2010. Web source: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/15/business/15walmart.html. <br />City of Los Angeles. (2011). City of Los Angeles. Retrieved 7 13, 2011, from Air - Greening LA: http://mayor.lacity.org/issues/environment/air/index.htm<br />"Chicago Urban Farming: Mayor Emanuel Reverses Daley's Course, Plans Expansion Of City Agriculture” (2011, July 27). Retrieved on July 29, 2011 from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/27/chicago-urban-farming-may_n_911145.html<br />EPA State Government Victoria. (2011). What is air pollution? Retrieved 8 7, 2011, from EPA Victoria: http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/air/aq4kids/pollution.asp<br />Environmental Literacy Council. (2008). Urban Sprawl. Retrieved on July 11, 2011 from http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/409.html<br />Farrell, P (2005). Contaminated Water Can’t Stop California Sprawl. Retrieved on August 2, 2011 from: https://www.hcn.org/issues/307/15814<br />Frumkin, H. (2002). Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Public Health Reports May-June 2002. Volume 117. 201-217<br />Federal Highway Administration. (2008, 12 3). Lessons Learned From International Experience in Congestion Pricing. Retrieved July 29, 2011, from Toll and Pricing Program: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop08047/es.htm<br />
REFERENCES CONT.<br />Goldstein, E. (2003).
Suburban Sprawl, City Troubles. Gotham Gazette. Retrieved on July 8, 2011 from: http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/environment/20030616/7/425<br />Illinois Tollway. (2010, November). Chicago Regional Congestion Pricing Study. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from Illinois Tollway : http://www.illinoistollway.com/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/TW_CONTENT_REPOSITORY/TW_CR_TRAFFIC_CONST/PROJECTS_BY_ROADWAY_CR/FINAL%20REPORT%20CHICAGO%20REGIONAL%20CONGESTION%20PRICING%20STUDY%20NOV%202.PDF<br />Illinois Toll Highway Authority. (2011). 2010 Traffic Data Report for the Illinois Tollway System. Downers Grove, Illinois: Illinois Toll Highway Authority<br />Kleinman, M. T. (2000). The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children. Retrieved 8 7, 2011, from South Coast Air Quality Management District: http://www.aqmd.gov/forstudents/health_effects_on_children.html<br />Lamb, J. O. (2007, March). New York City's Air is Anything But Clean. Retrieved 8 7, 2011, from The Brooklyn Rail: http://www.brooklynrail.org/2007/03/local/new-york-citys-air-is-anything-but-clean<br />Levenston, M. (2010, July). "Regional Food System for Los Angeles - supports urban agriculture." Retrieved on July 29, 2011 from City Farmer: http://www.cityfarmer.info/2010/09/11/report-regional-food-system-for-los-angeles-supports-urban-agriculture/<br />Lydersen, K. (2011, April 21). Black Carbon Testing Finds High Levels. Retrieved 8 , 2011, from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/22/us/22cnccarbon.html?_r=1&ref=airpollution<br />Lyderson, K. (2010). Sprawl, Climate change, carp control hinder Chicago sewer solution. Retrieved on August 2, 2011 from: http://greatlakesecho.org/2010/12/08/sprawl-climate-change-carp-control-hinder-chicago-sewage-overflows/<br />
REFERENCES CONT.<br />Mankiw, N. G.
(2008). Principles of Microeconomics. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning<br />NASA. (2011). Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved 8 8, 2011, from NASA: http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/<br />National Geographic. (2011). National Geographic Education. Retrieved 7 12, 2011, from Encyclopedia Air Pollution: http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/air-pollution/#page=1<br />New York City’s Water Supply Systems Map. (2007) NYCEnvironmental Protection. Retrieved On July 10, 2011 from: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/drinking_water/wsmaps_wide.shtml<br />New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, February). Environmental DEC. Retrieved 8 7, 2011, from New York State Adopts Clean Air Rules to Limit Pollution: http://www.dec.ny.gov/environmentdec/50877.html<br />Purdum, T. (2004). Los Angeles Sprawl Bumps Angry Neighbor. Retrieved on August 3, 2011 from: http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/featured_articles/20000214monday.html<br />Rybczynski, Witold. "The Green Case for Cities." The Atlantic, October 2009. Web source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/10/the-green-case-for-cities/7661/. <br />Sassen, S. (2006). Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.<br />Smith-Peterson, T. (2006). THE SPIGOT. Trains (66(9)), pp. 34-41.<br />
REFERENCES CONT.<br />Texas Transportation Institute.
(2010, December). 2010 Urban Mobility Report. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from Texas Transportation Institute: http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/mobility_report_2010.pdf<br />The Port of Los Angeles. (2011). Port of Los Angeles 2011 Sustainability Report. Los Angeles: The Port of Los Angeles.<br />The World Bank. (n.d.). World Population Growth. Retrieved August 6, 2011, from The World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/beyond/beyondco/beg_03.pdf<br />Tuto2u. (2011). Transportation Economics Congestion and Market Failure. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from Tutor2u: http://tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/transport/transport_congestion.htm<br />U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. (2011). Policy Information. Retrived on July 10, 2011 from: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/charts/07.cfm<br />United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Los Angeles Area Environmental Enforcement Collaborative. Retrieved 7 12, 2011, from EPA Pacific Southwest, Region 9: http://www.epa.gov/region9/ej/enforcement.html<br />United States EPA. (2010, 9 14). 40th Anniversary of the Clean Air Act. Retrieved 8 7, 2011, from U.S. EPA : http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/40th.html<br />Van Zyl, J. (2011). The World's Most Congested Cities. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from MSN Autos: http://autos.ca.msn.com/editors-picks/gallery.aspx?cp-documentid=29239351 <br />