Ecologies/Stockholm MPPA-DL 452 Session 6
Course Themes <ul><li>Dynamics:  Globalization, Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Circuits:  Transnationals, Diasporas </li><...
<ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
global temperatures rising
 
 
 
Source: U.S. EPA,   Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006  (April 2008)
The problem: urbanization  sprawl
 
Source:  Croplife International
Source:  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), accessed 11/2/09 at  http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/a...
Source:  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), accessed 11/2/09 at  http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/a...
urbanization and energy use <ul><li>Energy consumption for electricity, transportation, cooking, and heating is much highe...
sprawl vs. compact city  <ul><li>Low  density   </li></ul><ul><li>Zoned development </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation of funct...
bid-rent curve for lower income group 0 $100 $50 $150 $200 100 miles 200 miles bid-rent curve for higher income group land...
<ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
vancouver
green building
 
 
smart growth
 
 
Accessed 11/1/09 at  http://mytravel.mypassionforaction.net/mytravel/TransLink%20Travel%20Calculator.html
stockholm
clean energy clean water zero waste
Hammarby-sjostad – “eco town”
 
 
curitiba
<ul><li>“ The imaginative construction of public works not ordinarily conceived as economic infrastructure seems to have c...
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
delaying action to cut CO 2  will mean steeper future reductions Source: Environmental Defense, 2007
market failure <ul><li>an imperfection in the market mechanism that prevents optimal outcomes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-m...
externalities <ul><li>costs (or benefits) of a market activity borne by a third party </li></ul><ul><li>difference between...
negative production externalities negative production externality:  when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of oth...
policy options <ul><li>goal:  to discourage production and consumption activities that impose high external costs on socie...
common policies - I <ul><li>carbon pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taxation (emissions fee, congestion tax) </li></ul></ul><...
common policies - II <ul><li>command and control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>centralized determination of which firms reduce by ...
cap-and-trade <ul><li>A cap and trade program first sets an aggressive cap, or maximum limit, on emissions. </li></ul><ul>...
U.N. Bruntland Commission <ul><li>Introduced term “sustainable development” </li></ul><ul><li>“… ensure that (development)...
Source:  Jeb Brugmann,  Welcome to the Urban Revolution  (2009), p. 227 Strategic Institutions A dedicated institutional a...
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6 ecologies-stockholm

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from The Global City, Northwestern University, Summer 2011, graduate public policy course

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6 ecologies-stockholm

  1. 1. Ecologies/Stockholm MPPA-DL 452 Session 6
  2. 2. Course Themes <ul><li>Dynamics: Globalization, Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Circuits: Transnationals, Diasporas </li></ul><ul><li>Centers: Agglomeration, Sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Margins: New Inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologies: Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Architectures: A Sense of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Crises: Globalization in Reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Frontiers: Looking Ahead </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
  4. 4. global temperatures rising
  5. 8. Source: U.S. EPA, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006 (April 2008)
  6. 9. The problem: urbanization  sprawl
  7. 11. Source: Croplife International
  8. 12. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), accessed 11/2/09 at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter5.pdf
  9. 13. Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), accessed 11/2/09 at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter5.pdf
  10. 14. urbanization and energy use <ul><li>Energy consumption for electricity, transportation, cooking, and heating is much higher in urban areas than in rural villages (e.g., energy-intensive production). As a result, continued urbanization will increase aggregate energy use. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization creates heat islands that can change local weather patterns (concrete, asphalt). </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization also affects environments beyond the city. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes see increases in the amount of precipitation and air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas affect water runoff patterns by generating more rain, reducing the infiltration of water and lowering water tables. </li></ul><ul><li>However —density is potentially beneficial. With world population growing by about 82 million a year, demographic concentration makes sustainability more likely. </li></ul>Source: Population Reference Bureau, &quot;World Population Highlights: Key Findings From PRB's 2007 World Population Data Sheet&quot;
  11. 15. sprawl vs. compact city <ul><li>Low density </li></ul><ul><li>Zoned development </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation of functions for living, working, recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Car dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnected public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed transport networks and increased road infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of anonymity </li></ul><ul><li>US urban model </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from about 100 yrs ago </li></ul><ul><li>Large Scale Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Superstores and big shopping complexes </li></ul><ul><li>High energy / High CO2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>High density </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-use development </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of functions for living, working, recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Predominance of pedestrians and cyclists </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnected walkable network of large and small-scale public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Minimised need for transport and planning for walking and cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of community </li></ul><ul><li>European/Asian model </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from about 9,000 yrs ago </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbourhood/human scale developments </li></ul><ul><li>Corner shops, local shopping areas, farmer’s markets </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy / Low CO2 emissions </li></ul>Source: Foresight (2006) Intelligent Infrastructure Futures The Scenarios – Towards 2055. Office of Science and Technology, UK Department for Trade and Industry.
  12. 16. bid-rent curve for lower income group 0 $100 $50 $150 $200 100 miles 200 miles bid-rent curve for higher income group land rent/cost per acre bid-rent with pollution pollution near center
  13. 17. <ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
  14. 18. vancouver
  15. 19. green building
  16. 22. smart growth
  17. 25. Accessed 11/1/09 at http://mytravel.mypassionforaction.net/mytravel/TransLink%20Travel%20Calculator.html
  18. 26. stockholm
  19. 27. clean energy clean water zero waste
  20. 28. Hammarby-sjostad – “eco town”
  21. 31. curitiba
  22. 32. <ul><li>“ The imaginative construction of public works not ordinarily conceived as economic infrastructure seems to have contributed to the relatively greater rise in income levels as well as to the improvement in the quality of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Hugh Schwartz, Urban Renewal </li></ul>
  23. 38. <ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><li>approaches </li></ul><ul><li>scalability </li></ul>
  24. 39. delaying action to cut CO 2 will mean steeper future reductions Source: Environmental Defense, 2007
  25. 40. market failure <ul><li>an imperfection in the market mechanism that prevents optimal outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-market economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market (monopoly) power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>externalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no or weak property rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>incomplete information / uncertainty </li></ul></ul>
  26. 41. externalities <ul><li>costs (or benefits) of a market activity borne by a third party </li></ul><ul><li>difference between the social and private costs (benefits) of a market activity </li></ul><ul><li>market will underproduce goods that yield external benefits </li></ul><ul><li>market will overproduce goods that generate external costs </li></ul>
  27. 42. negative production externalities negative production externality: when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of others who are not compensated by the firm. marginal social cost ( MSC ): the marginal private cost to producers plus any costs associated with the production of the good that are imposed on others.
  28. 43. policy options <ul><li>goal: to discourage production and consumption activities that impose high external costs on society </li></ul><ul><li>policy options can accomplish goals by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>altering market incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bypassing market incentives </li></ul></ul>
  29. 44. common policies - I <ul><li>carbon pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taxation (emissions fee, congestion tax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>deployment of low-carbon technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biofuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon capture and storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>public discussion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information, education, action </li></ul></ul>Source: Nicholas Stern, “The Economics of Climate Change” (2007)
  30. 45. common policies - II <ul><li>command and control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>centralized determination of which firms reduce by how much </li></ul></ul><ul><li>taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>charge $Y per unit emitted. Forces firms to internalize externality . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>quotas/standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uniform standard (all firms can emit X) or non-uniform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tradable permits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all firms get X permits to pollute, can buy & sell on market </li></ul></ul>Source: C. Costello, University of California Santa Barbara, “Regulatory Options & Efficiency” (2003)
  31. 46. cap-and-trade <ul><li>A cap and trade program first sets an aggressive cap, or maximum limit, on emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources covered by the program then receive authorizations to emit in the form of emissions allowances, with the total amount of allowances limited by the cap. </li></ul><ul><li>Each source can design its own compliance strategy to meet the overall reduction requirement, including sale or purchase of allowances, installation of pollution controls, implementation of efficiency measures, among other options. Individual control requirements are not specified under a cap and trade program, but each emissions source must surrender allowances equal to its actual emissions in order to comply. Sources must also completely and accurately measure and report all emissions in a timely manner to guarantee that the overall cap is achieved. </li></ul>Source: Accessed at http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/cap-trade/index.html , 11/16/08
  32. 47. U.N. Bruntland Commission <ul><li>Introduced term “sustainable development” </li></ul><ul><li>“… ensure that (development) meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ (This) does imply limits – not absolute limits but limitations imposed by the present state of technology and social organization on environmental resources and by the ability of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities.” </li></ul>Source: World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
  33. 48. Source: Jeb Brugmann, Welcome to the Urban Revolution (2009), p. 227 Strategic Institutions A dedicated institutional apparatus, responsive to the alliance, for developing, testing and diffusing new practices of urbanism. Local Practices of Urbanism The planning processes, technical solutions, designs and business models that shape the way the city is built, serviced and used so as to achieve the defined strategic purpose. The Strategic Alliance A stable, highly committed group of political, economic and social interests that share a common strategic purpose

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