4 centers-tokyo

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from The Global City, Northwestern University, Summer 2011, graduate public policy course

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4 centers-tokyo

  1. 1. Centers/Tokyo MPPA-DL 452 Session 4
  2. 2. Course Themes <ul><li>Dynamics: Globalization, Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Circuits: Transnationals, Diasporas </li></ul><ul><li>Centers: Agglomeration, Sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Margins: New Inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologies: Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Architectures: A Sense of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Crises: Globalization in Reverse </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tokyo, Japan
  4. 4. Japan population density (pop/sq km, 2005)
  5. 5. Japan’s “economic density” is concentrated in Tokyo-Yokohama area
  6. 13. Source: “The Environment of Tokyo 2006”, Tokyo Metropolitan Government White Paper (2006)
  7. 14. Proportion of Workers in Tokyo Metropolis by Place of Residence Population Commuting into Tokyo Metropolis by Prefecture (2006) The arrows indicate workers who live in neighboring prefectures and commute into Tokyo. Source: Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications; &quot;Population Census&quot;
  8. 15. Source: “The Environment of Tokyo 2006”, Tokyo Metropolitan Government White Paper (2006)
  9. 16. Cost of city living: Tokyo households spend less on transportation, more on everything else
  10. 17. Trends in Population by Age Group, Tokyo, 1990-2005 Source: Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; &quot;Population Census&quot;
  11. 18. Japan and Tokyo Age Pyramid, 1964-2015
  12. 19. Ten year plan: Greenbelt Source: “Tokyo’s Big Change: The 10-Year Plan”, accessed 10/15/09 at http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/PROFILE/policy03.htm
  13. 20. Ten year plan: Expressway network Source: “Tokyo’s Big Change: The 10-Year Plan”, accessed 10/15/09 at http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/PROFILE/policy03.htm
  14. 21. Ten year plan: “Creative urban industries” Source: “Tokyo’s Big Change: The 10-Year Plan”, accessed 10/15/09 at http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/PROFILE/policy03.htm
  15. 22. <ul><li>“ The economic base, spatial organization and social structure of the world’s major cities are strongly influenced by the national development model and regional context in which each city is embedded… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tokyo’s global control apparatus resides in financial and industrial policy networks among public policy companies, banks and industrial enterprises, under the guidance of government ministries.” </li></ul><ul><li>Hill and Kim, “Global Cities and Developmental States” (2000) </li></ul>
  16. 23. spatial theory
  17. 24. Concentric zone model (Burgess, 1925)
  18. 25. Sector model (Hoyt, 1939)
  19. 26. Multiple nuclei model (Harris and Ullman, 1945)
  20. 27. Demand Maximization Approach Hotelling’s beach vendors Χ A Χ B Χ A Χ B Χ A Χ B Χ A Χ B
  21. 28. sprawl and “smart growth”
  22. 29. Centralized: Le Corbusier’s Radiant City
  23. 30. Decentralized: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Broadacre City
  24. 31. High and Low Sprawl for Major Metro Areas, 1999 Source: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl and Urban Growth,” Harvard (2003)
  25. 32. Source: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl and Urban Growth,” Harvard (2003) Growth in Home Size, 1973-present
  26. 33. Housing Consumption in Center Cities and Suburbs, 1999 Source: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl and Urban Growth,” Harvard (2003)
  27. 34. “ The demand for urban density comes from the desire to eliminate transportation costs for goods, people and ideas.” Rail Transportation Costs, U.S., 1890-2000 Source: Glaeser, “Cities in the Developing World,” 2003 World Bank symposium. The Rise of the Consumer City
  28. 35. <ul><li>In 1900, cities had to locate in places where firms had a productive advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, cities increasingly locate in places with attractive amenities. </li></ul><ul><li>The move to sun and sprawl both reflect the same phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer cities– not producer cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Car cities, not walking or public transit cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The 20 th century transformation? </li></ul>The Rise of the Consumer City Source: Glaeser, “Cities in the Developing World,” 2003 World Bank symposium.
  29. 36. Source: Pendall, et al., Brookings, 2006 Zoning and Land Use Approaches
  30. 37. New urban landscape
  31. 38. “ Megaregions”
  32. 39. <ul><li>Charter of the New Urbanism (excerpts) - www.cnu.org </li></ul><ul><li>We stand for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy. </li></ul><ul><li>The metropolitan region is a fundamental economic unit of the contemporary world. Governmental cooperation, public policy, physical planning, and economic strategies must reflect this new reality. </li></ul><ul><li>The metropolis has a necessary and fragile relationship to its agrarian hinterland and natural landscapes. The relationship is environmental, economic, and cultural. Farmland and nature are as important to the metropolis as the garden is to the house. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and towns should bring into proximity a broad spectrum of public and private uses to support a regional economy that benefits people of all incomes. Affordable housing should be distributed throughout the region to match job opportunities and to avoid concentrations of poverty. </li></ul>
  33. 40. <ul><li>Revenues and resources can be shared more cooperatively among the municipalities and centers within regions to avoid destructive competition for tax base and to promote rational coordination of transportation, recreation, public services, housing, and community institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Within neighborhoods, a broad range of housing types and price levels can bring people of diverse ages, races, and incomes into daily interaction, strengthening the personal and civic bonds essential to an authentic community. </li></ul><ul><li>Transit corridors, when properly planned and coordinated, can help organize metropolitan structure and revitalize urban centers. In contrast, highway corridors should not displace investment from existing centers. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic health and harmonious evolution of neighborhoods, districts, and corridors can be improved through graphic urban design codes that serve as predictable guides for change. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright 1996, Congress for the New Urbanism. Permission is hereby granted to reproduce the Charter in full or in excerpt, provided that this copyright notice remains intact. </li></ul>

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