Lesson 6.2: War of Independence PowerPoint


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Lesson 6.2: War of Independence PowerPoint

  1. 1. Why did AmericanPatriots win and theBritish lose the Warof Independence
  2. 2. p.129-131 Mobilizing for Warp.131-132 The War for Independencep.132 The First Phase: New Englandp.133-136 The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Regionp.136-137 Securing Aid from Abroadp.137-140 The Final Phase: The South
  3. 3. I. Traditional Reasons A. “Home court advantage” B. Fighting for a cause C. Redcoats marching in straight lines
  4. 4. II. Militia A. Supplies B. Patriot militia v. Loyalist militiaC. Patriot advantage: militia & regular army• 1. Coordination of Continental Army and Patriot militia – Greene in S.C.• 2. Lack of coordination between Redcoats and Loyalist militia – N.J., Delaware
  5. 5. A. Patriot B. British
  6. 6. • 1. enlistments • 2. Training A. • Von Steuben at Regular Valley Forge Army • Marquis de Lafayette • 3. Veterans • 4. payB. Example of result:MonmouthCourthouse
  7. 7. A. Knox use of cannon Sniping vs. the BritishV. Patriot Innovations B. Morgan’s use of rifles army in N.Y. (surrender at Saratoga) C. Morgan’s battle plan Cowpens
  8. 8. 1. France A. Money and Supplies 2. Dutch loansVI. Foreign Aid 1. World War B. Treaty of Alliance 2. French Yorktown navy
  9. 9. Why did AmericanPatriots win and theBritish lose the Warof Independence
  10. 10.  Americans fighting on their own land; they knew the terrain – especially important in the fighting that takes place in the “wilderness” and in the south where they could move and live off the resources of the land and blend in with civilians Francis Marian, the “swamp fox” (S.C.) NE: rocky, cold in winter South: boggy, humid in summer Frontier: muddy roads, thick forests Settlements spread out Distance between England and the colonies – time and money ferrying troops and munitions across the Atlantic
  11. 11.  Desire for freedom and hope for a better existence is tough to defeat
  12. 12.  European style of warfare open field “gentlemen’s war” war was not personal, war was their job at the end of the day European armies would help each other with the dead on the field and generals would have tea together also warfare was “seasonal” – fighting generally stopped in the winter months
  13. 13. Loyalist Patriot Militia Militia
  14. 14.  Gen. Washington is able to combine two armies (militia and regular)
  15. 15. Nathaniel • Private in S.C. militia (lowest rank) Greene – S.C. Determination • Rises to become a General in and study (Art of Continental Army War)Understands and requests permission to use both militia and regulars
  16. 16. •Leave the defense of Trenton and Princeton toN.J./DE. – during winter months the Hessian mercenaries British retreat to warm homes •His orders were to secure William Howe believed Manhattan, which he did; he was the Continental know for not deviating from his Campaign to be over battle plans even when tactical for the winter season advantages presented themselves •Washington has to surrender Princeton soon Victory gives after… Continental Army a much needed moral boost
  17. 17.  Frontal assaults are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through war of attrition and indirection ◦ Harass the enemy through skirmishes to cause attrition ◦ Disrupt supplies and affect morale Employment of this strategy implies the weaker side believes it has time on its side ◦ Can also be adopted when no other feasible alternative strategy can be devised
  18. 18.  Washington’s decision to wait until nightfall – his knowledge of Hessian celebration with alcohol at holidays Quick attack, then retreat back across the Delaware River
  19. 19.  (Greene) retreating from the field before defeat became apparent to reduce losses German farmers hold off British advances ◦ Battle of Oriskany – new type of warfare was costly to the British; many complained of its lack of “fairness” in war
  20. 20.  Realized that capturing Boston was an impossibility; Patriots had surrounded the town (Dorchester Heights) and it had become indefensible; British decision to leave Boston was so much of a defeat as it was a shift in strategy British Generals believed if they captured a major city, the patriots would surrender (Philadelphia and Gen. Howe) ◦ Attempts to take the city cause Gen. Burgoyne to fight alone and eventually be defeated in the north ◦ Howe does take Philadelphia but allows Washington to retreat unopposed
  21. 21.  Enlistments: surge in 1775 after Lexington and Concord; faded after excitement wore off, states resort to persuasion and force paying bounties to attract recruits Training: Baron VonSteuben – Prussian, “Revolutionary War Drill” manual; essentials of military drills, tactics and discipline Training: Marquis de Lafayette – French, trained everyday men to become the Continental Army; increased morale at Valley Forge ◦ (Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier)
  22. 22.  Veterans: none or little to speak of; French/Indian war fought mainly by British army; few commanders of the British Army become leaders of the Continental Army (George Washington) Pay: $5/$6 day or none at all
  23. 23.  Washington’s forces increased to 5,000 “new” Continental army is a foe to be contended with…