Lesson 5: Revolution in the Colonies


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Lesson 5: Revolution in the Colonies

  1. 1. During the 1760s, why did theBritish government develop a newcolonial policy? Why werecolonists inclined to oppose thenew policy? How did the newpolicy and the colonial reactionto it lead to the Revolution? Whydid colonists divide into Patriots,Loyalists, and moderates?
  2. 2. p. 103-105 The Great War for the Empirep. 106-107 Burdens of Empirep. 107-108 The British and the Tribesp. 108-111 The Colonial Responsep. 111-119 Stirrings of Revoltp. 126-127 Defining American War Aimsp. 127 The Decision for Independence
  3. 3. A. Vast empire to administerrequiring more revenue• Size: 7 Years War and Treaty of 1763• Problems: Pontiac and Indian resistance B. Mercantilism and Navigation Acts versus the French I. Reasons for a new colonial policy
  4. 4. Navigation Acts leads to duties on colonies How was Sugar Act 1733:mercantilism used How did the designed to create to justify the Navigation Acts revenue following French/Indian War; existence of affect colonial only creates tensionEngland’s American colonies? trade? Sugar Act 1764: designed specifically to STOP colonies from trading with foreign countries (not revenue based) (mainly France and Spain
  5. 5. B. Country opposition thought • 1. Power corrupts – continuous growth of wealth and power at the center • 2. Conspiracy at the center to takeA. Colonists had liked from the countrythe way the imperialsystem worked• 1. It worked like federalism• 2. Tradition of how the system had worked – the British unwritten constitution II. Reasons C. Colonial for indebtedness colonial distrust
  6. 6. B. Revenue • 1. External taxes: Sugar Act, Townshend Duties • 2. Internal Tax: Stamp ActA. Regulation C. Law• 1. Proclamation • 1. Admirality Law Line • 2. Coercive Acts• 2. Sugar Act • 3. Quebec Act• 3. Tea Act III. British policy
  7. 7. B. Action taken in resistance •1. Smuggling •2. Boycotts (non-importation) •3. Sons of LibertyA. Resolutions and C. Pamphlets,petitions propaganda•1. Patrick Henry’s Virginia •John Dickinson, Letters from Resolution vs. the Stamp Act a Farmer in Pennsylvania•2. Stamp Act Congress Resolutions•3. Continental Congress, Resolutions vs. the Coercive Acts IV. Colonial reaction escalates
  8. 8. B. Loyalists C. Moderates A.Patriots V. Division among the colonists
  9. 9. B. Patriots chose independenceA. George III’ s • Thomas Paine, Common SenseDeclaration of • 2. Congress votes Rebellion for independence • 3. Declaration of Independence VI. Rebellion or War of Independence
  10. 10. During the 1760s, why did theBritish government develop a newcolonial policy? Why werecolonists inclined to oppose thenew policy? How did the newpolicy and the colonial reactionto it lead to the Revolution? Whydid colonists divide into Patriots,Loyalists, and moderates?
  11. 11. French and Indian War – a timeline1754 – 17631754 – Fort Necessity (British) lost to French and Indian forces;Col. George Washington’s first defeat in battle (attack on French FortDuquesne)1755 – Gen. Edward Braddock, KIA trying to retake Fort Necessity1755 – colonial forces defend against Indian attacks along the Ohio Valley;1756 – France and England declare war on each other in Europe1757 – William Pitt takes over war effort in colonies; forced service(impressment); farmers supplies seized, British troops quartered in colonialhomes with no compensation; violent protest by colonials (NY)1758 – Pitt relaxes many of the policies; return war effort to colonial control;Enlistments increase dramatically; Fort Duquesne falls to British regulars1759 – Battle of Quebec; Gen. James Wolfe finds an unknown trail to takethe “impregnable” fort1760 – fighting ends; atrocities carried out against natives; French/Indiansretaliate1763 – Treaty signed(movie reference: Last of the Mohicans; parts of The Patriot)
  12. 12. 1763 Treaty of Paris signedColonists see newly acquired land as ripefor the takingNative Americans (in general) ie. Ottawatribe, led by Chief Pontiac, sees differentlyEncroaching settlers attackedTo keep the peace Parliament passes theProclamation of 1763: designed to keepsettlers from moving west of the AppalachianMountains; it only angers the colonists.Benefits to Proclamation (in Britain’s eyes):1. London controls western movement, not colonies2. Slowers western settlement means slower eastern population decline which means larger population for workforce in coastal industriesNative Americans not happy with Proclamation - - really? Cannot imagine why…1768 a new agreement is reached because London cannot keep colonists from moving west, but this time they promised the western boundary of the colonies would not change…(La La La, whatever…)
  13. 13.  The conflict/tension over the Navigation Acts and various duties attracted more public attention than any other 18th century affair (Anglo)American were accustomed to broad powers of self-government  Keys to self-government:  Provincial assemblies  Colonial right to give or withhold power to those assemblies  Parliamentary actions such as overriding provincial assemblies, raising taxes on the public, providing salaries to royal officials in America were all attempts (in the colonists eyes) to control colonial political power  Home rule was not something new the colonists were trying to obtain, rather is was something old and familiar which they desired to keep!  Resistance of British policies was a movement to conserve liberties Americans believed they already possessed
  14. 14.  Officials in England had contempt for the colonies  The believed the colonies did little to help themselves financially in the war; a war that was fought to preserve the colonies Not only were colonists unwilling to pay taxes to England, they were unwilling to even tax themselves Pressure in England from landlords and merchants about the ever rising taxes on already high rates  They argued the colonies should be paying more in taxes Stationing of more troops in the colonies to prevent indian attacks raise additional gov’t. spending England sees a system of taxation as the only alternative to force the colonies to raise the revenue paid to England
  15. 15. Established a line east of theAppalachian Mountains as aboundary in which no colonistcould crossThe Crown stated it was for thecolonist’s protection fromnative AmericanThe colonists felt as if the King(George III) was trying to keepthem confined
  16. 16. •Assumed the throne in 1760 at age 22•Changed the monarchy – active andresponsible•Removed the Whig coalition (those whomanaged the colonies since theirestablishment) • Replaced them with people he bribed and gave patronage to • Allowed him to gain control of Parliament•Psychological and intellectual limitations • “bouts of insanity” • Confined to the castle • “painfully” immature•Appointed George Greenville to PrimeMinister • Does not share American point of view (with William Pitt) • Colonists should be “compelled” to obey laws and pay a part of the cost of defending the colonies • Instantly began imposing a new system of control on the colonies
  17. 17.  An amendment to the Sugar (and Molasses) Act of 1733 Lowered rate of tax on molasses Increased the number of goods that will be taxed, including sugar Enforcement of this tax drastically reduced the rum business, limited colonial trade partners and reduced the amount of English currency with which the colonies needed to purchase English manufactured goods
  18. 18.  England had thought this act would be the least controversial but rather it inflamed the revolutionary spirit of “no taxation without representation” Act was not designed to raise money to pay the existing debt from the war; was designed to keep a failing company afloat (British East India Company) 18 million pounds of unsold tea; cannot sell it in England (no market demand) Parliament gave special exemption to the Company to export the tea to the colonies and pay no navigation taxes (today, we call those tax breaks for government sponsored businesses) Allowed the Company to undersell American tea merchants The Company granted franchises to specific colonial merchants to sell their tea which resulted in resentment among businessmen
  19. 19.  England hoped that the act would gain support as it lowered the price of tea The Act only increased resentment as the colonists saw this as yet another way in which parliament was using unconstitutional means to control the colonies Resulted in the largest boycott of the colonies; connected the colonies in a commonly shared experience; women become leaders of the boycott as they were the largest consumers of tea in the colonies
  20. 20. In a typical tar-and-feathersattack, the subject of a crowdsanger was stripped to his waist.Hot tar was either poured orpainted onto the person whilehe was immobilized. Then thevictim either had feathersthrown on him or was rolledaround on a pile of feathers sothat they stuck to the tar. Oftenthe victim was then paradedaround town on a cart orwooden rail. The aim was toinflict enough pain andhumiliation on a person to makehim either reform his behavioror leave town. The practice wasnever an official punishment inthe United States, but rather aform of vigilante justice.
  21. 21.  Taxeslevied on all goods coming into (the colonies)  Sugar  Molasses  Foreign goods (glass, paper, paint, lead, tea) Although they (colonists) had no say in how the tax revenue was spent, they generally considered Parliament had the right to levy this tax
  22. 22.  Taxeslevied on all good produced within (the colonies)  Newspapers  Official documents (death notices, court papers)  Other goods and services  For the purpose of raising revenue Colonists had no say in how this money (tax revenue) was spent, as they had no “representation” in Parliament  This causes the thought that the right to tax the colonies should rest with the colonies
  23. 23. Adistinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses  Also covers many commercial activities which could be land based or wholly occurring on land that are “maritime” in nature  No trial by jury in these courts Givenjurisdiction (by Parliament) over cases as they arose, as with the Stamp Act  No colonial trial jury would find a colonist guilty of violating the Stamp Act, therefore Parliament changed the jurisdiction…
  24. 24.  Applied only against Massachusetts  Center of resistance movement  Resulted from the Boston Tea Party1. closed the port of Boston (until East India Tea was paid for)2. Reduced power of self-government in the colony3. Allowed for royal officers to be tried in other colonies or England when accused of crimes4. Quarter of English troops mandatory
  25. 25.  Parliament follows up with the Quebec Act:  Objective was to provide a civil government for French-Speaking Roman Catholic inhabitants of Canada and the Illinois territory  Granted political rights to Roman Catholics  Recognized the legality of the Roman Catholic church  Long overdue toleration for this practice the colonies  Worried colonists of an attempt to impose Anglican rule over all religious sects  Convinced some that a plot existed in London to subject the colonies to the tyranny of the Pope
  26. 26.  “if this be treason, make the most of it”Resolved:1. Americans posfeff the same rightf as English, efcpecially in matters of taxation by their own representativef2. Virginians should pay no taxef except those voted on by the Virginia Asfembly3. Anyone advocating the right of Parliament to tax the colony is deemed an enemy to the colony House of Burgess votes down the most extreme resolutions  Gives the appearance that Virginia was more militant than it actually was
  27. 27.  New York Delegates from nine colonies Petition the King  Acceptance of colonial subordination to the King  (but) claim taxation should be carried out only through the colonial assemblies
  28. 28.  Acts based in MA. but menaced all colonies Congress settles on five decisions: 1. Rejected a plan for colonial union (similar to the Albany Plan of Union) 2. Called for a repeal of all oppressive legislation on the colonies since 1763 (but still recognized the right of Parliament to rule the colonies) 3. Colonies should make military preparations against possible British attack (in Boston) 4. Complete boycott of all British goods (hence the reason for military preparedness!!) 5. Established a time and date for a second meeting indicating they considered the Continental Congress to be a continuous organization
  29. 29. A protest unlike any other in the colonies Involved large segments of the population Helped link the colonies in a common experience  Brought the colonies together which was vital in the success of the (eventual) war Women were particularly important  Largest consumers of tea (“is that a fat joke?”)  Mercy Otis Warren – writer of dissident literature/satirical plays
  30. 30.  Vigilante group largest group existed in Boston (Sam Adams) Encouraged/enforced boycotts and other forms or resistance Daughters of Liberty  Women’s form of male group  “rather than freedom, we will part with our tea”
  31. 31.  Office holders in the English gov’t. Merchants (business tied to the imperial system) Colonists who lived in isolation Cultural and ethnic minorities – new colonial gov’t. might not provide sufficient protections Colonists who feared social instability Colonists who hoped to gain favor by staying loyal (in the event of an English win)
  32. 32.  Probably suffered the worst (rock - *moderates* - hard place) They did not pick a side and as a result were persecuted by both Patriots and Loyalists
  33. 33.  Ordered all subjects of the crown as loyal British citizens to use everything in their power to suppress the rebellion and to give knowledge of anyone involved in the rebellion against the crown
  34. 34.  Wanted to expose the folly of the hope of reconciliation with England Wanted to focus American anger away from taxes and acts of Parliament and more toward the entire English constitution Wanted Americans to blame the King not Parliament or ministers It was simple “common sense” for Americans to break from such a corrupt government  “these are the times that try men’s souls”
  35. 35.  Continental Congress was moving slowly toward a final break with England Entered into contracts with foreign countries (violation of Navigation Acts) Opened up ports to ships of all foreign countries (again, violation) Encouraged all colonies to establish government bodies independent from the British empire (most had already done this) Appointed a committee to draft a declaration of independence
  36. 36.  1. What are Dickinson’s views on the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain? 2. Why did the colonists view the Stamp Act as unconstitutional? 3. What was the purpose of all acts passed by Parliament (regarding the colonies) prior to the Stamp Act? 4. What is the overall issue with the Townsend Duties? 5. What will be the full (and intended) outcome if the Townsend Duties are allowed to remain unopposed?
  37. 37.  1. What is the objection given to Dickinson’s letter #2? 2. What is Dickinson’s reply to the “internal” and “external” debate? 3. What is the reason Dickinson gives for the opposition to the Townsend Duties (as in the Stamp Act)?
  38. 38.  1. There is a message in Letter 6. This message was for the colonies in 1770. That message has truth in it for all the generations since then. See if you can pick it out…
  39. 39.  1. What is the overwhelming message in Letter 7? 2. Outline the steps Dickinson says are necessary for liberty to be preserved. (Letter 12)