Disease Transmission            &    Infection Control
Disease Transmission    Microorganisms
Microbiology• Microbiology is the study of microorganisms• micro means microscopically small• bio means living organisms• ...
Disease Transmission•    Five major groups of microorganisms2.   Bacteria3.   Rickettsiae4.   Viruses5.   Protozoa6.   Fungi
Bacteria• One celled microorganisms• Humans host a variety of bacteria at all  times• The skin, respiratory tract and  gas...
Diseases Caused by Bacteria•   Dental Decay•   Periodontal Disease•   Pneumonia•   Rheumatic Fever•   Syphilis•   Tubercul...
Rickettsiae• Transmitted to humans by bite of an  infected insect ( lice , fleas, ticks, and  mosquitoes)• Rocky Mountain ...
Protozoa• Found in freshwater and marine  habitats and in moist soil• May be responsible for intestinal  infections in hum...
Viruses• Require an electron microscope to see them• Much smaller than bacteria• Parasitic – live and multiply only inside...
Fungi• Plants such as mushrooms, yeasts and  moulds that lack chlorophyll• Fungi are not green• Two divisions: yeasts and ...
The Chain of Infection• Virulence – refers to the degree of strength of  that organism in its ability to produce disease• ...
Universal Precautions• The basis of Universal Precautions is  acceptance that blood and certain body  fluids of all patien...
Routes of Transmission
Airborne transmission• Aerosol spray – dental handpiece• Mists – ultrasonic scaler• Spatter – from saliva
Cross Contamination• Food Transmission• Many diseases are transmitted by  contaminated food that has not been cooked  or r...
Fecal –Oral• Occurs most often among healthcare  workers , day care workers, and by  careless food handlers• Prevented by ...
Dental Office• Improperly sterilized instruments and  equipment can transfer all bloodborne  diseases• Dental treatment of...
Tuberculosis• Bacteria• No immunization• Requires high level of sterilization &  disinfection
HAV•   Acute Infective Hepatitis A•   Liver disease•   Found in stool•   No carrier state•   Transmission is fecal/oral ro...
HBV• Hepatitis B• Serious liver disease• May have a chronic carrier state• Transmission by contact of infectious body  flu...
HCV• Hepatitis C• Transmitted through blood, blood  products or IV drug use  ( Percutaneous)• No vaccine• Treatments to co...
HSV Type I• Viral infection• Causes recurrent sores on lips• Highly contagious first appearance in  very young children ag...
HSV Type II• Genital Herpes• Most common STD in the U.S.• Transmitted only during occurrences of  the lesions
HIV• Human Immunodeficiency Virus• Bloodborne viral disease• Spread by sexual contact with an  infected person• Needle sha...
Preventing Disease Transmission• Immunization – Hepatitis B, MMR &  influenza• Handwashing Protocols• Office Hygiene• Pre ...
Infection Control• Sterilization: process that kills all  microorganisms• If a surface is not clean, it cannot be  disinfe...
Infection Control
Sterilization Techniques• Asepsis = the product of sterilization• Sterilization destroys all microbial forms  including ba...
Terminology• Sterilize: process where all forms of life  are COMPLETELY destroyed• Disinfect: process where some forms of ...
Sterilization1.    Steam Autoclave2.   Chemical Vapor Sterilization3.   Dry Heat Oven4.   Chemical Immersion
Steam Autoclave Sterilization• Sterilizes dental instruments by means  of steam under pressure• Rapidly kills all microorg...
Chemical Vapor Sterilization• Similar to autoclaving except a  combination of chemicals is used  instead of water• Does no...
Dry Heat Sterilization• Operate by heating up air and  transferring that heat from the air to the  instruments• Requires h...
Chemical Liquid Sterilization• For items that will be damaged by heat• Requires a 10 hour contact time• Post sterilization...
Disinfection• Process that kills disease causing  microorganisms, but not necessarily all  microbial life• Disinfectant: c...
Disinfectant Solutions• Glutaraldehydes          • Iodophors• High level               • Intermediate level  disinfectant/...
Disinfectants• Synthetic Phenol          • Sodium Hypochlorite• Broad spectrum activity   • Intermediate level• Surfaces m...
Performing Treatment Room       Cleaning & Disinfection1. Personal Protective Equipment2. Preclean with the appropriate pr...
Barriers• Useful to cover equipment and  surfaces that are difficult to clean and  disinfect• Should be resistant to fluid...
Instrument Processing• Protective clothing, mask, eyewear and  utility gloves• Soiled instruments are processed in a  sing...
Ultrasonic Cleaning• Used to loosen and remove debris from instruments• Reduces hand injuries from cuts and punctures• Pro...
Biologic Monitoring• Spore testing• Only way to determine if sterilization has  occurred• Strips of paper contain harmless...
Maintaining Infection Control          While Gloved• During dental procedures it may be  necessary to touch surfaces or ob...
Mini - paperBreak into pairs and choose one topic• Explain Universal Precautions• Explain Biologic monitoring• Explain Ult...
Conclusion• Discuss your mini – paper with the  classHow much could you recall?Was the PowerPoint helpful for recalling th...
Thank you
Infection control powerpoint 1
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  • Can live outside the body for months depending on the environmental conditions
  • Hep D needs HepB to occur – higher risk of death with combination Hep E fecal oral transmission contaminated food and water- mostly in developing countries
  • Students will each receive a spore test to perform as an assignment. Must be complete by October 6 th . Process indicators simply identify packages that have been exposed to a certain temperature, they do not measure duration or the pressure. Useful in determining paks that have been processes and those that were not.
  • Infection control powerpoint 1

    1. 1. Disease Transmission & Infection Control
    2. 2. Disease Transmission Microorganisms
    3. 3. Microbiology• Microbiology is the study of microorganisms• micro means microscopically small• bio means living organisms• The existence of microorganisms is not usually noticed unless they cause illness• Most microorganisms do not produce human illness• Beneficial microorganisms are used in the production of cheese and yogurt
    4. 4. Disease Transmission• Five major groups of microorganisms2. Bacteria3. Rickettsiae4. Viruses5. Protozoa6. Fungi
    5. 5. Bacteria• One celled microorganisms• Humans host a variety of bacteria at all times• The skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by harmless bacteria
    6. 6. Diseases Caused by Bacteria• Dental Decay• Periodontal Disease• Pneumonia• Rheumatic Fever• Syphilis• Tuberculosis
    7. 7. Rickettsiae• Transmitted to humans by bite of an infected insect ( lice , fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes)• Rocky Mountain spotted fever• Typhus• Not of concern in dentistry
    8. 8. Protozoa• Found in freshwater and marine habitats and in moist soil• May be responsible for intestinal infections in humans• Not of concern in dentistry
    9. 9. Viruses• Require an electron microscope to see them• Much smaller than bacteria• Parasitic – live and multiply only inside an appropriate host cell• Not affected by antibiotics• Diseases caused by viruses include: AIDS, Hepatitis, Herpes, Polio, West Nile, SARS
    10. 10. Fungi• Plants such as mushrooms, yeasts and moulds that lack chlorophyll• Fungi are not green• Two divisions: yeasts and moulds• Oral Candidiasis is a common yeast found in the oral cavity of about ½ the patient population
    11. 11. The Chain of Infection• Virulence – refers to the degree of strength of that organism in its ability to produce disease• Numbers – there must be a high enough number of microorganisms present to overwhelm the body’s defenses• Susceptible host – is a person who is unable to resist infection• Portal of Entry – means of entering the body such as a needlestick
    12. 12. Universal Precautions• The basis of Universal Precautions is acceptance that blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious for HIV, Hepatitis B and all other Bloodborne pathogens.• Not all patients with infectious diseases can be identified by obtaining a medical history.
    13. 13. Routes of Transmission
    14. 14. Airborne transmission• Aerosol spray – dental handpiece• Mists – ultrasonic scaler• Spatter – from saliva
    15. 15. Cross Contamination• Food Transmission• Many diseases are transmitted by contaminated food that has not been cooked or refrigerated properly• Water may have been contaminated with human or animal fecal material• TB, botulism and staphylococcal and streptococcal infections are spread this way
    16. 16. Fecal –Oral• Occurs most often among healthcare workers , day care workers, and by careless food handlers• Prevented by proper handwashing after using the toilet• May be transmitted by touching another person or contact with contaminated surfaces or food
    17. 17. Dental Office• Improperly sterilized instruments and equipment can transfer all bloodborne diseases• Dental treatment often involves contact with blood and always with saliva, bloodborne diseases are of major concern• HCV, HBC, HIV
    18. 18. Tuberculosis• Bacteria• No immunization• Requires high level of sterilization & disinfection
    19. 19. HAV• Acute Infective Hepatitis A• Liver disease• Found in stool• No carrier state• Transmission is fecal/oral route• Prevented by good personal hygiene• Instrument sterilization• Vaccination
    20. 20. HBV• Hepatitis B• Serious liver disease• May have a chronic carrier state• Transmission by contact of infectious body fluids• Requires Percutaneous or permucosal• Prevented by universal precautions, barriers, PPE, aseptic techniques, obtaining immunizations
    21. 21. HCV• Hepatitis C• Transmitted through blood, blood products or IV drug use ( Percutaneous)• No vaccine• Treatments to control the effects of the disease
    22. 22. HSV Type I• Viral infection• Causes recurrent sores on lips• Highly contagious first appearance in very young children ages 1-3• Transmission through direct contact with lesions or with infectious saliva
    23. 23. HSV Type II• Genital Herpes• Most common STD in the U.S.• Transmitted only during occurrences of the lesions
    24. 24. HIV• Human Immunodeficiency Virus• Bloodborne viral disease• Spread by sexual contact with an infected person• Needle sharing
    25. 25. Preventing Disease Transmission• Immunization – Hepatitis B, MMR & influenza• Handwashing Protocols• Office Hygiene• Pre cleaning – remove bioburden that could inactivate disinfectant
    26. 26. Infection Control• Sterilization: process that kills all microorganisms• If a surface is not clean, it cannot be disinfected.• If a surface cannot be easily & thoroughly cleaned & disinfected it should have barrier protection
    27. 27. Infection Control
    28. 28. Sterilization Techniques• Asepsis = the product of sterilization• Sterilization destroys all microbial forms including bacterial spores• All reusable items must be heat sterilized
    29. 29. Terminology• Sterilize: process where all forms of life are COMPLETELY destroyed• Disinfect: process where some forms of life are destroyed• Sanitize: process that few forms of life are destroyed
    30. 30. Sterilization1. Steam Autoclave2. Chemical Vapor Sterilization3. Dry Heat Oven4. Chemical Immersion
    31. 31. Steam Autoclave Sterilization• Sterilizes dental instruments by means of steam under pressure• Rapidly kills all microorganisms• Disadvantage is that the moisture may cause corrosion on some high carbon steel instruments
    32. 32. Chemical Vapor Sterilization• Similar to autoclaving except a combination of chemicals is used instead of water• Does not rust, dull, or corrode instruments if absolutely dry• Chemical vapors can be irritating
    33. 33. Dry Heat Sterilization• Operate by heating up air and transferring that heat from the air to the instruments• Requires higher temperatures than steam or chemical vapor sterilization• Instruments will not rust• Static air and forced air• Toaster oven is NOT adequate
    34. 34. Chemical Liquid Sterilization• For items that will be damaged by heat• Requires a 10 hour contact time• Post sterilization procedures are essential• Must be used full strength• Replace solutions as recommended by the manufacturer
    35. 35. Disinfection• Process that kills disease causing microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial life• Disinfectant: chemical used to reduce or lower the number of microorganisms on inanimate objects• Applied to countertops and dental chair
    36. 36. Disinfectant Solutions• Glutaraldehydes • Iodophors• High level • Intermediate level disinfectant/sterilant disinfectant• Times for disinfection • Effective within 5 – 10 range from 10 – 90 minutes minutes • Contain iodine• Generally used as an • May discolor clothing or immersion disinfectant other surfaces
    37. 37. Disinfectants• Synthetic Phenol • Sodium Hypochlorite• Broad spectrum activity • Intermediate level• Surfaces must be disinfectant cleaned first • Main ingredient in• Can be used on metal bleach glass rubber or plastic • Not EPA registered so is NO longer a recommended product for use as a disinfectant in a dental setting
    38. 38. Performing Treatment Room Cleaning & Disinfection1. Personal Protective Equipment2. Preclean with the appropriate product3. Spray the paper towel or gauze4. Vigorously wipe the surface to be cleaned5. Spray a fresh paper towel or gauze and this time let the surface remain moist for the recommended time for tuberculocidal action6. Usually 10 minutes
    39. 39. Barriers• Useful to cover equipment and surfaces that are difficult to clean and disinfect• Should be resistant to fluids• Prevents contamination when properly placed• Changed for each patient ( mask, gloves)
    40. 40. Instrument Processing• Protective clothing, mask, eyewear and utility gloves• Soiled instruments are processed in a single loop or workflow pattern• From dirty to clean to sterile to storage without ever doubling back
    41. 41. Ultrasonic Cleaning• Used to loosen and remove debris from instruments• Reduces hand injuries from cuts and punctures• Produces sound waves which can travel through metal & glass• Causes cavitation ( formation of bubbles in liquid)• Implosion = mechanical cleaning action of bursting bubbles• Combined with chemical action of the solution removes the debris from the instruments• 16 times more effective than scrubbing by hand
    42. 42. Biologic Monitoring• Spore testing• Only way to determine if sterilization has occurred• Strips of paper contain harmless bacterial spores ( heat resistant)• Placed inside instrument packs during normal operation• Sent to UBC for culturing and a report is sent back
    43. 43. Maintaining Infection Control While Gloved• During dental procedures it may be necessary to touch surfaces or objects• Use a barrier or cotton forceps to minimize the possibility of cross- contamination• Limit operatory contamination by being prepared for treatment
    44. 44. Mini - paperBreak into pairs and choose one topic• Explain Universal Precautions• Explain Biologic monitoring• Explain Ultrasonic cleaning• Explain Disinfection
    45. 45. Conclusion• Discuss your mini – paper with the classHow much could you recall?Was the PowerPoint helpful for recalling the information?Would you like this type of format again?
    46. 46. Thank you

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