Origins and development of the english language in2


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Origins and development of the english language in2

  2. 2. A brief chronology of English 55 BC Roman invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. AD 43 Roman invasion and occupation. Beginning of Roman rule of Britain. 436 Roman withdrawal from Britain complete. 449 Local inhabitants speak Celtish Settlement of Britain by Germanic invaders begins 450-480 1066 c1150 Earliest known Old English inscriptions. Old English William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invades and conquers England. Earliest surviving manuscripts in Middle English. 1348 English replaces Latin as the language of instruction in most schools. 1362 Middle English English replaces French as the language of law. English is used in Parliament for the first time. c1388 Chaucer starts writing The Canterbury Tales. c1400 The Great Vowel Shift begins. 1476 William Caxton establishes the first English printing press. 1564 Shakespeare is born. 1604 Table Alphabeticall, the first English dictionary, is published. 1607 The first permanent English settlement in the New World (Jamestown) is established. 1616 Shakespeare dies. 1623 Shakespeare's First Folio is published 1702 The first daily English-language newspaper, The Daily Courant, is published in London. 1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his English dictionary. 1776 Thomas Jefferson writes the American Declaration of Independence. 1782 Britain abandons its colonies in what is later to become the USA. 1828 Webster publishes his American English dictionary. 1922 The British Broadcasting Corporation is founded. 1928 The Oxford English Dictionary is published. Early Modern English Late Modern English
  3. 3.    The evolution of the English language can be divided into four stages: Old English (400-1100 AD), Middle English (ca. 1100-1500 AD), EarlyModern English (ca. 1500-1800 AD), and LateModern English (1800 to the present). Classified genetically as a Low West Germanic language of the Indo-European family of languages and has four main dialects: Northumbrian in the north of England, Mercian in the Midlands, West Saxon in the south and west, and Kentish in the Southeast. Used widely in the fields of aviation, science, computing, international trade, and diplomacy
  4. 4.     Old English tribes from Jutland and the West Germanic southern Denmark (Norseland) invaded the British Isles during the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes spoke a Germanic language now formally known as the Old English Alfred the Great – encouraged and promoted the importance of English literacy throughout his entire kingdom Celt-speaking inhabitants were forced to move out of England into different places which are called Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland now. The Celtic language still survives today in the Gaelic languages
  5. 5.    The Vikings/ Norsemen : North Germanic words such as “that”, “they” and “them” Wide span of Modern English words in dictionaries do not come from the Old English roots Only one-sixth of known Old English words are still surviving. “water”, “strong”, “the”, “of”, “a”, “he”, “no” and many other basic modern English words derive from Old English
  6. 6. Middle English     In 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England and the Anglo-Saxons Class distinction - “beef” vs. “cow” and “pork” vs. “pig”. French words replacing Old English words such as “uncle” replaced “eam” and “crime” replaced “firen”. French and English also combined to form new words, such as the French “gentle” and the Germanic “man” forming “gentleman”, “grape” and “fruit” forming “grapefruit” and “lay” and “person” forming “layperson”
  7. 7.  1204 - King John lost the province of Normandy to the King of France  Begin to lose interest in their properties in France and began adopting the modified English as their native tongue  Taxing system of the Old English was cast aside
  8. 8. Early Modern English    Borrow from different languages such as Latin, Greek, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese Some writers were so keen in reviving obsolete English words which were sometimes called Chaucerisms and use words of which are rarely used such as “algate” which means “always” and “sicker” which means “certainly”. William Caxton introduced the technology of printing into England in 1476.
  9. 9.     Standardise, Influence and Dominate Soon English spelling and grammar were fixed and the first English dictionary was published in 1604. The works of William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and the King James Bible (the Authorised Version) really impacted and transformed the English language Some Biblical expressions that can be found are “in sheep‟s clothing” (Matthew 7), “an eye for an eye” (Exodus 21) and “go from strength to strength” (Psalm 84). To add on, Shakespeare‟s vocabulary contains more than 20000 different words while the Bible only provides 8000 words
  10. 10.   differences between sixteenth century and modern English grammar. For instance, many irregular verbs are found in their older forms such as “digged” (dug), “spake” (spoke), “holpen” (helped) and “sware” (swore). During the sixteenth century, people from East Anglia and the Midlands who moved to London did not want to sound like fools or outsiders and therefore tried to emulate the local accent and ending up exaggerating and overemphasising the sound they wished to make. For example, they overemphasise by putting an „h‟ before vowels, as in “whonder” and “whay”
  11. 11. Late-Modern English period (1800-Present)  Scholars drew on Latin and Greek words to create new words such as “oxygen,” “nuclear,” and “protein.” Scientific and technological discoveries are still ongoing and neologisms continue to this day, especially in the field of electronics and computers.