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    Open Data – How and Why Open Data – How and Why Presentation Transcript

    • Open Data – How and Why Greg Grossmeier [email_address] “ I love data ” - bixentro - CC:BY
    •  
    • What is ?
    • US Constitution “ To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries”
    • Not a tool to control all content forever in all mediums.
    • But what is ?
    • “ a bundle of rights”
    • The right to reproduce the work The right to prepare derivative works The right to distribute the work The right to perform the work The right to display the work The right to license any of the above to third parties
    • How do I get ?
    • How do I receive copyright protection for my work?
    • First, it must meet some basic requirements:
      • It must be original .
      • It must have some level of creativity .
      • It must be in a fixed medium .
    • Old Days - You use this symbol And provide a date And register it with the US Copyright Office. 1930
    • Now-a-days: <this space left intentionally blank>
    • Now-a-days: Also, it's instant.
    • Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
    • How long does protection last?
    • The life of the Author plus 70 years (for now).
    • After that
    • The Public Domain
    • General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works No Longer Protected by Copyright
      • Published before 1923
      • Published between '23 and '63, but it depends.
      • Authored by the Federal Government
    • General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works Still Protected by Copyright
      • Published after '63
      • Published between '23 and '63, but it depends
      • Most State and Municipal works
    • confusing
    • hard to share
    • Why share?
    • (academia)
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    • All of these things...
    • can
    • and arguably should be
    • shared.
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    • Why?
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    • All of these things...
    • were built upon
    • other people's things. “ standing on the shoulders....”
    • How?
    • ?
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    • Creative Commons: licenses
    • Public Domain All Rights Reserved Some rights reserved: a spectrum. least restrictive most restrictive
    •  
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    • <rdf:RDF xmlns=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#&quot; xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;> <License rdf:about=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/nl/&quot;> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Reproduction&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Distribution&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Notice&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Attribution&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#CommercialUse&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#DerivativeWorks&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#ShareAlike&quot;/> </License> </rdf:RDF>
    •  
    • http://ben.adida.net/presentations/www2008-rdfa/
    • databases
    • Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
    • Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
    • Data (n): 1) pieces of information. 2) information. 3) A collection of object-units that are distinct from one another. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/data
    • Database (n): A collection of (usually) organized information in a regular structure, usually but not necessarily in a machine-readable format accessible by a computer. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/database
    • 'information” ?
    • “ Just the facts, ma'am.”
    • empirical observations
    • eg:
    • dimensions of
    • tofer618 - IMG_0494
    • not
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    • US Code 17 § 102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.”
    • US Code 17 § 102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described , explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.”
    • Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co. (1991)
    • Yellow Pages – Silver Tusk
    • “ Iceland phonebook is sorted on first names ” - selmerv
    • &quot;sweat of the brow&quot;
    • “ Because Rural's white pages lack the requisite originality, Feist's use of the listings cannot constitute infringement. This decision should not be construed as demeaning Rural's efforts in compiling its directory, but rather as making clear that copyright rewards originality, not effort.”
    • “ copyright rewards originality, not effort.”
    • Copyrightability of Data
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    • Copyrightability of Data
    • “ you don't copyright the bricks, you copyright the whole house” (ish)
    • tougher
    • MetOffice: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/
    •  
    • even tougher
    • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:X-ray.jpg by Rotemdan
    • Source: GeoEye
    • What about databases?
    • US
    • database as compilation
    • Feist still applies
    • EU
    • Database Directive
    • “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database.” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
    • “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database. ” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
    • “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database.” “ SWEAT OF THE BROW”
    • Data and database sharing made easy*. * for certain values of “easy.”
    • Problem 1: “ attribution stacking”
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    • Attribution != Citing
    • Social Norms
    • Problem 2: lack of legal certainty
    • “ a house divided”
    • US vs EU Fact vs Collection Collection vs Creative Choice
    • sidenote: treaty harmonization
    • Berne Convention (1988): - Artists Rights Act of 1990 - Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (1998) - DMCA (1998)
    • ACTA?
    • real harmonization
    • http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
    • Waiver, not a license
    • “ Zero” Rights
    • “ The person who associated a work with this document has dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.”
    • Effectively Public Domain
    • 1: privacy rights
    • 2: patent rights
    • 3: trademark rights
    • Another option...
    • Open Database License (ODbL) http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/
    • “ Attribution and Share-Alike for Data/Databases”
    • Similar in effect to
    • The database, not the contents.
    • EU's Database Directive
    • “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database. ” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
    • ShareAlike keeps the information free (libre).
    • Questions for you.
    • Questions...
    • Attributions
      • The Creative Commons cartoons: CC:BY Ryan Junell
      • “ christina, cal class of '08” - bittermelon - http://www.flickr.com/photos/bittermelon/2521892649/ - CC:BY-NC
      • “ The Path of Least Resistance” - NazarethCollege - http://www.flickr.com/photos/nazareth_college/3525764942/ - CC:BY
      • “ for squirrels and chipmunks, practice makes perfect” - emdot - http://www.flickr.com/photos/emdot/56156364/ - CC:BY
      • “ books in a stack (a stack of books)” - austinevan - http://www.flickr.com/photos/austinevan/1225274637/ - CC:BY
      • “ Real Academia” – fernando garcía redondo – http://www.flickr.com/photos/fgr1986/3787437711/ - CC:BY
      • “ I Love To Share – 2009” - creativecommons - http://www.flickr.com/photos/creativecommons/3303749499/ - CC:BY
      • “ and more servers” - mysterbee - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mysterybee/1659329016/ - CC:BY-SA
      • “ IXS_1916” - acme - http://www.flickr.com/photos/acme/2628554102/ - CC:BY
      • “ Dr. Kevin Padian talk - From Dinosaurs to Birds: How Did It Happen?” - mikebaird - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2208087847/ - CC:BY