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Open Data – How and Why Greg Grossmeier [email_address] “ I love data ” -  bixentro  -  CC:BY
 
What is ?
US Constitution “ To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and invento...
Not a tool to control all content forever in all mediums.
But what is ?
“ a bundle of rights”
The right to reproduce the work The right to prepare derivative works The right to distribute the work The right to perfor...
How do I get ?
How do I receive copyright protection for my work?
First, it must meet some basic requirements: <ul><li>It must be  original .
It must have some level of  creativity .
It must be in a  fixed medium . </li></ul>
Old Days - You use this symbol And provide a date And register it with the US Copyright Office. 1930
Now-a-days:  <this space left intentionally blank>
Now-a-days: Also, it's instant.
Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts ...
How long does protection last?
The life of the Author plus 70 years (for now).
After that
The Public Domain
General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works No Longer Protected by Copyright <ul><li>Published before 1923
Published between '23 and '63, but it depends.
Authored by the Federal Government </li></ul>
General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works Still Protected by Copyright <ul><li>Published after '63
Published between '23 and '63, but it depends
Most State and Municipal works </li></ul>
confusing
hard to share
Why share?
(academia)
 
 
 
 
 
 
All of these things...
can
and arguably should be
shared.
 
Why?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
All of these things...
were built upon
other people's things. “ standing on the shoulders....”
How?
?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creative Commons: licenses
Public  Domain All Rights Reserved Some rights reserved: a spectrum. least restrictive most restrictive
 
 
<rdf:RDF xmlns=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#&quot; xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot...
 
http://ben.adida.net/presentations/www2008-rdfa/
databases
Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts ...
Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts ...
Data (n): 1) pieces of information. 2) information. 3) A collection of object-units that are distinct from one another. ht...
Database (n): A collection of (usually) organized information in a regular structure, usually but not necessarily in a mac...
'information” ?
“ Just the facts, ma'am.”
empirical observations
eg:
dimensions of
tofer618  -  IMG_0494
not
 
 
US Code 17  §  102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, proced...
US Code 17  §  102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection  for an original work of authorship  extend to any  idea, pro...
Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co. (1991)
Yellow Pages  –  Silver Tusk
“ Iceland phonebook is sorted on first names ” -  selmerv
&quot;sweat of the brow&quot;
“ Because Rural's white pages lack the requisite originality, Feist's use of the listings cannot constitute infringement. ...
“ copyright rewards originality, not effort.”
Copyrightability of Data
 
 
 
Copyrightability of Data
“ you don't copyright the bricks, you copyright the whole house” (ish)
tougher
MetOffice: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/
 
even tougher
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:X-ray.jpg  by Rotemdan
Source: GeoEye
What about databases?
US
database as compilation
Feist still applies
EU
Database Directive
“ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or...
“ Member States shall provide for a right for  the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/o...
“ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or...
Data and database sharing made easy*. * for certain values of “easy.”
Problem 1: “ attribution stacking”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Attribution != Citing
Social Norms
Problem 2: lack of legal certainty
“ a house divided”
US vs EU  Fact vs Collection  Collection vs Creative Choice
sidenote: treaty harmonization
Berne Convention (1988): - Artists Rights Act of 1990 - Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (1998) - DMCA (1998)
ACTA?
real harmonization
http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
Waiver, not a license
“ Zero” Rights
“ The person who associated a work with this document has dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her r...
Effectively Public Domain
1: privacy rights
2: patent rights
3: trademark rights
Another option...
Open Database License (ODbL) http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/
“ Attribution and Share-Alike for Data/Databases”
Similar in effect to
The database, not the contents.
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Open Data – How and Why

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  1. 1. Open Data – How and Why Greg Grossmeier [email_address] “ I love data ” - bixentro - CC:BY
  2. 3. What is ?
  3. 4. US Constitution “ To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries”
  4. 5. Not a tool to control all content forever in all mediums.
  5. 6. But what is ?
  6. 7. “ a bundle of rights”
  7. 8. The right to reproduce the work The right to prepare derivative works The right to distribute the work The right to perform the work The right to display the work The right to license any of the above to third parties
  8. 9. How do I get ?
  9. 10. How do I receive copyright protection for my work?
  10. 11. First, it must meet some basic requirements: <ul><li>It must be original .
  11. 12. It must have some level of creativity .
  12. 13. It must be in a fixed medium . </li></ul>
  13. 14. Old Days - You use this symbol And provide a date And register it with the US Copyright Office. 1930
  14. 15. Now-a-days: <this space left intentionally blank>
  15. 16. Now-a-days: Also, it's instant.
  16. 17. Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
  17. 18. How long does protection last?
  18. 19. The life of the Author plus 70 years (for now).
  19. 20. After that
  20. 21. The Public Domain
  21. 22. General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works No Longer Protected by Copyright <ul><li>Published before 1923
  22. 23. Published between '23 and '63, but it depends.
  23. 24. Authored by the Federal Government </li></ul>
  24. 25. General Rules for Public Domain/Copyright Status Works Still Protected by Copyright <ul><li>Published after '63
  25. 26. Published between '23 and '63, but it depends
  26. 27. Most State and Municipal works </li></ul>
  27. 28. confusing
  28. 29. hard to share
  29. 30. Why share?
  30. 31. (academia)
  31. 38. All of these things...
  32. 39. can
  33. 40. and arguably should be
  34. 41. shared.
  35. 43. Why?
  36. 52. All of these things...
  37. 53. were built upon
  38. 54. other people's things. “ standing on the shoulders....”
  39. 55. How?
  40. 56. ?
  41. 68. Creative Commons: licenses
  42. 69. Public Domain All Rights Reserved Some rights reserved: a spectrum. least restrictive most restrictive
  43. 72. <rdf:RDF xmlns=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#&quot; xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot;> <License rdf:about=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/nl/&quot;> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Reproduction&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Distribution&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Notice&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#Attribution&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#CommercialUse&quot;/> <permits rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#DerivativeWorks&quot;/> <requires rdf:resource=&quot;http://creativecommons.org/ns#ShareAlike&quot;/> </License> </rdf:RDF>
  44. 74. http://ben.adida.net/presentations/www2008-rdfa/
  45. 75. databases
  46. 76. Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
  47. 77. Copyright protects… Writing Choreography Music Visual art Film Architectural works Copyright doesn’t protect… Ideas Facts Data (mostly) Useful articles (that’s patent)
  48. 78. Data (n): 1) pieces of information. 2) information. 3) A collection of object-units that are distinct from one another. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/data
  49. 79. Database (n): A collection of (usually) organized information in a regular structure, usually but not necessarily in a machine-readable format accessible by a computer. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/database
  50. 80. 'information” ?
  51. 81. “ Just the facts, ma'am.”
  52. 82. empirical observations
  53. 83. eg:
  54. 84. dimensions of
  55. 85. tofer618 - IMG_0494
  56. 86. not
  57. 89. US Code 17 § 102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.”
  58. 90. US Code 17 § 102(b) “ In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described , explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work.”
  59. 91. Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co. (1991)
  60. 92. Yellow Pages – Silver Tusk
  61. 93. “ Iceland phonebook is sorted on first names ” - selmerv
  62. 94. &quot;sweat of the brow&quot;
  63. 95. “ Because Rural's white pages lack the requisite originality, Feist's use of the listings cannot constitute infringement. This decision should not be construed as demeaning Rural's efforts in compiling its directory, but rather as making clear that copyright rewards originality, not effort.”
  64. 96. “ copyright rewards originality, not effort.”
  65. 97. Copyrightability of Data
  66. 101. Copyrightability of Data
  67. 102. “ you don't copyright the bricks, you copyright the whole house” (ish)
  68. 103. tougher
  69. 104. MetOffice: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/
  70. 106. even tougher
  71. 107. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:X-ray.jpg by Rotemdan
  72. 108. Source: GeoEye
  73. 109. What about databases?
  74. 110. US
  75. 111. database as compilation
  76. 112. Feist still applies
  77. 113. EU
  78. 114. Database Directive
  79. 115. “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database.” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
  80. 116. “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database. ” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
  81. 117. “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database.” “ SWEAT OF THE BROW”
  82. 118. Data and database sharing made easy*. * for certain values of “easy.”
  83. 119. Problem 1: “ attribution stacking”
  84. 130. Attribution != Citing
  85. 131. Social Norms
  86. 132. Problem 2: lack of legal certainty
  87. 133. “ a house divided”
  88. 134. US vs EU Fact vs Collection Collection vs Creative Choice
  89. 135. sidenote: treaty harmonization
  90. 136. Berne Convention (1988): - Artists Rights Act of 1990 - Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (1998) - DMCA (1998)
  91. 137. ACTA?
  92. 138. real harmonization
  93. 139. http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
  94. 140. Waiver, not a license
  95. 141. “ Zero” Rights
  96. 142. “ The person who associated a work with this document has dedicated the work to the Commons by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.”
  97. 143. Effectively Public Domain
  98. 144. 1: privacy rights
  99. 145. 2: patent rights
  100. 146. 3: trademark rights
  101. 147. Another option...
  102. 148. Open Database License (ODbL) http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/
  103. 149. “ Attribution and Share-Alike for Data/Databases”
  104. 150. Similar in effect to
  105. 151. The database, not the contents.
  106. 152. EU's Database Directive
  107. 153. “ Member States shall provide for a right for the maker of a database which shows that there has been qualitatively and/or quantitatively a substantial investment in either the obtaining, verification or presentation of the contents to prevent extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part, evaluated qualitatively and/or quantitatively, of the contents of that database. ” Source http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML
  108. 154. ShareAlike keeps the information free (libre).
  109. 155. Questions for you.
  110. 156. Questions...
  111. 157. Attributions <ul><li>The Creative Commons cartoons: CC:BY Ryan Junell
  112. 158. “ christina, cal class of '08” - bittermelon - http://www.flickr.com/photos/bittermelon/2521892649/ - CC:BY-NC
  113. 159. “ The Path of Least Resistance” - NazarethCollege - http://www.flickr.com/photos/nazareth_college/3525764942/ - CC:BY
  114. 160. “ for squirrels and chipmunks, practice makes perfect” - emdot - http://www.flickr.com/photos/emdot/56156364/ - CC:BY
  115. 161. “ books in a stack (a stack of books)” - austinevan - http://www.flickr.com/photos/austinevan/1225274637/ - CC:BY
  116. 162. “ Real Academia” – fernando garcía redondo – http://www.flickr.com/photos/fgr1986/3787437711/ - CC:BY
  117. 163. “ I Love To Share – 2009” - creativecommons - http://www.flickr.com/photos/creativecommons/3303749499/ - CC:BY
  118. 164. “ and more servers” - mysterbee - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mysterybee/1659329016/ - CC:BY-SA
  119. 165. “ IXS_1916” - acme - http://www.flickr.com/photos/acme/2628554102/ - CC:BY
  120. 166. “ Dr. Kevin Padian talk - From Dinosaurs to Birds: How Did It Happen?” - mikebaird - http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2208087847/ - CC:BY </li></ul>
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