Speleology 101 greg brick

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Speleology 101 greg brick

  1. 1. Speleology 101 Greg Brick Minnesota Minerals Education Workshop Winona State University June 19, 2012
  2. 2. My Cave ResearchNitrate concentrations in sedimentsof Lake Pepin caves
  3. 3. My Cave Books
  4. 4. SpeleologyHorace Carter Hovey (1833-1914), Father of American Speleology
  5. 5. A major geohazardassociated with karst—sinkholes
  6. 6. Karst Contamination
  7. 7. Caves• ¼ M caves in the World• Longest: Mammoth Cave (350 miles)• 50,000 US Caves• Missouri—the Cave State (6000)• Minnesota—300 caves, longest is 12 miles
  8. 8. Solutional Cave Types
  9. 9. Epigenic vs. Hypogenic
  10. 10. Cave Levels
  11. 11. Age of Caves• Younger than enclosing rock.• Younger than nearby river gorges.• Uranium dating of stalagmites.• Bones only as far back as Ice Ages.
  12. 12. Cave Features• Depositional • Erosional
  13. 13. Depositional Forms• Dripstone Stalactites Stalagmites• Flowstone• Subaqueous• Erratics
  14. 14. Evaporite Minerals
  15. 15. Bat MineralsBiogenic Minerals: Nitrates and Phosphates
  16. 16. Many other cave formations…• Cave balloons • Fried eggs• Cave chandeliers • Moonmilk• Cave clouds • Snottites• Cave cotton • Snowballs• Cave flowers • Transistorites• Cave pearls • Xmas trees
  17. 17. Erosional Forms (Speleogens):• Ex: scallops• Derive stream velocity
  18. 18. Non-Carbonate CavesNon-Carbonate Karsts Gypsum Karst (Ukraine) Salt Karst (Israel)Pseudokarst—everything else! Boulder caves Lava tube caves Littoral caves Piping caves
  19. 19. Lava Tubes
  20. 20. Littoral Caves
  21. 21. Minnesota Caves
  22. 22. The Cave Farm (Spring Valley, MN)
  23. 23. Carver’s Cave
  24. 24. Fountain Cave
  25. 25. Artificial Lagering Caves
  26. 26. Biofilms
  27. 27. Schieks Cave
  28. 28. Chute’s Cave
  29. 29. Channel Rock Cavern, Minneapolis
  30. 30. Be Sure to Visit Devil’s Cave--The Most Famous Cave in Winona!
  31. 31. Questions?www.GregBrick.org

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