How to obtain a high Tomato yield - Ep Heuvelink

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How to obtain a high Tomato yield - Ep Heuvelink

  1. 1. How to obtain a high tomato yield 100 kg per m2 per year or more ? Ep Heuvelink Horticultural Supply Chains, www.hpc.wur.nl/uk Ep.heuvelink@wur.nl Plant Sciences Group, Wageningen University 1st Agriconference on Tomatoes from Morocco 9 December 2009, Agadir, Morocco
  2. 2. Yield development (Netherlands) Sweet pepper Cucumber Tomato + 96% + 117% + 34% Sweet pepper Cucumber Tomato 0 20 40 60 80 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Yield(kgm -2 ) +107% +94% +125% Cucumber Tomato Sweet Pepper Tomato in Morocco (Kwantitatieve Informatie voor de Glastuinbouw (KWIN 2008))
  3. 3. What factors are important for high yield ? Greenhouse technology (e.g. light transmission) Cultivation techniques (e.g. high wire system, rootstocks) Modern cultivars Greenhouse climate control (temperature, CO2, humidity, supplementary light) Most recent developments (semi~closed greenhouses, diffuse light)
  4. 4. Also important is: High education level of growers Moderate climate: winters not too cold, summers not too hot North Northsea sea
  5. 5. Obtain high light transmissivity of the greenhouse 1% more light ≈ 1% more yield Greenhouse transmissivity in 1980 ≈ 65% nowadays ≈ 78% represents about 20% yield increase Large glass panes, small construction parts, white !
  6. 6. Cultivation techniques High wire system; same plant almost year-round Long season, up to 50 weeks; no production gaps
  7. 7. Cultivation techniques Stonewool + drippers; better control of root environment Extra stems in summer (2.5 plants m-2 → 3.8 stems m-2) Use of grafted plants (cultivar on rootstock) StonewoolStonewool CubeCube & Slab& Slab
  8. 8. 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Leaf Area Index 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fractionlightintercepted y = 1 - e -k LAI Influence of Leaf Area Index (LAI) on the fraction of light intercepted by a tomato crop (k = extinction coefficient = 0.8) LAI: mLAI: m22 green leaf area per mgreen leaf area per m22 ground area)ground area)
  9. 9. Measured LAI throughout the season for tomato (measurements at modern commercial farms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 50 100 150 200 250 Day of year LeafAreaIndex(m2 m-2 ) Year 2003 Year 1990 Now much higher than in early nineties, probably because extra side shoots are retained from spring onwards + rootstock?
  10. 10. Effect of cultivar on tomato yield (Spring crop) 40% yield increase since 1950, mainly because of higher light use efficiency
  11. 11. Greenhouse climate Modern climate computers make more accurate control possible Important factors: temperature, CO2, humidity
  12. 12. • Heating → boiler + hot water pipes • Cooling → vents in roof → fog cooling → roof cooling Production techniques in modern greenhouses (1)Greenhouse climate: temperature
  13. 13. Fruit weight (dry mass) and fruit growth period (FGP) tomato Temperatuur (oC) Gewicht (g) Uitgroeiduur (d) 17 4.8 74 19 4.3 63 21 3.2 56 23 2.7 50 Source: A.N.M. de Koning At lower temperature harvest starts later and fruits are more heavy Temperature (oC) Fruit weight (g) FGP (d)
  14. 14. High temperature stress (tomato) No effect on total growth Poor fruit set Cause: bad pollen, poorly released 0 4 8 12 16 Controle Hoge Temp Aantalgezettevruchten perplant 0 20 40 60 80 100 Controle Hoge Temp Levendestuifmeelkorrels (%) Control: 28/22oC D/N; High temp. 32/26oC Source: Sato et al. 2006 Questions like: is 1 h 36oC a problem? Or: Is 1 h 38oC same as 10 h 36oC? Not yet clear ! Control High temp. Control High temp. Viablepollen(%) Numberofset fruitsperplant AlsoAlso tootoo lowlow temperaturestemperatures limit fruit set !limit fruit set !
  15. 15. Greenhouse climate: CO2 Natural gas for heating: flue gasses for CO2 Pure CO2 Source: E. Nederhoff
  16. 16. Rule of thumb for CO2 effect: For each 100 ppm increase in CO2 % increase in growth can be calculated as 1500 × 1000 CO2 × CO2 From 350 to 450 ppm: 12% growth increase From 600 to 700 ppm: 4% growth increase From 1000 to 1100 ppm: 1.5% growth increase But from 350 to 250 ppm: 19% reduction in growth!! Source: E. Nederhoff, 1994
  17. 17. Greenhouse climate: High humidity Deficit < 0.2 kPa (<1.5 g/m3) or RV >94% at 25°C Too low Ca in leaves ĉĉ> smaller leaves ĉĉ> less light interception ĉĉ> less photosynthesis Pollination less optimal (without bumble bees) Higher disease risk (botrytis) Higher risk fruit “disorders” (cracking)
  18. 18. Greenhouse climate: Low humidity Deficit > 1 kPa (>7.5 g/m3) or RH < 70% at 25°C Water stress in plant Stomata close Cell elongation reduced ĉĉ> smaller, thicker leaves Less photosynthesis Reduced water content fruit Blossomĉendĉrot (BER)
  19. 19. New trends: semiĉclosed greenhouse AirAir--conditioned (active cooling) so vents more closedconditioned (active cooling) so vents more closed Too high temperatures can be avoidedToo high temperatures can be avoided Higher COHigher CO22 levelslevels higher yieldshigher yields
  20. 20. In the Netherlands: Winter: 80% diffuse radiation Summer: 60% diffuse radiation Advantages of diffuse radiation: More even distribution of light (horizontally; no shadows) Light penetrates deeper in the crop Lower risk of light saturation Mild micro-climate New trends: Diffusing cover materials
  21. 21. Control Low diffuse High diffuse Haze 0% 30% 70% Transmission 83% 83% 80% New trends: Diffusing cover materials Experiment with cucumber crop: Bleiswijk 2008, Netherlands
  22. 22. Diffuse light: 9% higher cucumber production (crop planted in March) 0 25 50 75 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Weeks Cumulatiefproductie(kg/m2) Hoog diffuus Laag diffuus Controle +9.2% +6.5% Weeks Production(kgmĉ2) Source: T. Dueck High diffuse Low diffuse Control
  23. 23. Conclusion: main reasons for high tomato yield Almost yearround cultivation (high wire system, extra stems in summer, rootstocks) Cultivation out of soil Hightech greenhouses (high light transmissivity, good temperature and CO2 control) High yielding cultivars (breeding) Future developments: semiĉclosed, LED lights
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention The following colleagues contributed to this presentation: Menno Bakker, Silke Hemming, Leo Marcelis, Anke van der Ploeg

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