WHITEPAPERWiMAX 2.0 – SIGNIFYING THE NEXT GENERATION OF WiMAX www.greenpacket.com
WHITEPAPERAbstractThe last three decade of technological advancement and worldwideadoption of wireless networks have been phenomenal, bringing us throughbasic analog ﬁrst generation (1G) to the now high-speed digital fourthgeneration (4G) systems. Providing us with increased data transfer ratesthat make VoIP, real-time information sharing, video streaming anddata-intensive applications possible today, delivering mobility which usershave come to expect through wireless devices.Continuous improvements in semiconductor and computing technologiesare providing great encouragement to the industry and consumers toautomatically anticipate what’s next. The dawn of 4G is fast coming intoreality with over 583(1) WiMAX and 105(2) LTE networks deployed to date.As we move towards embracing this adoption either by choice or bychance, there is much debate especially amongst the WiMAX serviceprovider community as to which technology camp to adopt. Much of thiscan be attributed to the breadth of technology covered under the 4Gbanner, the wide range of business interests involved in creating the 4Gvision and the various progression path of making 4G real.The purpose of this paper is to:• Summarize the current state of Wireless Broadband & Networking• Present the next decade of change installed for WiMAX• State key 4G device requirements 1WiMAX Forum : Monthly Industry Report, May 2011 2GSA : GSA Evolution To LTE Report, Oct 2012
WHITEPAPERContentsThe Current State of Wireless Networking 01Going Beyond 3GWiMAX in FocusThe Next Decade for WiMAX 06The Path to 4G – Connecting People- WiMAX in 4GThe Path to M2M – Connecting Machines- WiMAX in M2M4G Requirements for Device 14
WHITEPAPER The Current State of Wireless Networking - 01The Current State ofWireless NetworkingBusiness is increasingly becoming a mobile activity, and as a result, thewireless networks and services used to support those developments aregrowing in importance. In both the business-to-business (B2B) andbusiness-to-consumer (B2C) environments, the availability of more reliable,higher-capacity wireless data networks allow the expanding reach ofbusiness into the mobile environment. The evolution of our public wirelessnetworks can be depicted in four distinct generations, each of which ischaracterized by a number of key technical innovations that resulted tospeciﬁc commercial impact.The early ‘First Generation’ systems comprise of independently-developedsystems worldwide like Analogue Mobile Phone System (AMPS), used inAmerica, Total Access Communication System (TACS), used in parts ofEurope, Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT), used in parts of Europe andJapanese Total Access Communication System (J-TACS), used in Japanand Hong Kong. The use of analogue technology were conﬁned withinnational boundaries attracting only a small number of users, as theequipment was expensive, cumbersome and power-hungry, and thereforewas only practical in a vehicle that is able to provide a power source.The ‘Second Generation’ digital systems known as Global System forMobile Communication (GSM) brought about noticeable change, propellingwireless telecommunication further by making global roaming possible, duein part by the collaborative spirit in which it was developed under theEuropean Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). GSM became arobust, interoperable and widely-accepted standard. Fuelled by advancesin mobile handset technology, which resulted in small, fashionable terminalswith long battery life. The widespread acceptance of the GSM standardbecame near-universal, ﬁrst in the developed world with voice and text,then later through the introduction of basic data services. Meanwhile in thedeveloping world, GSM begin connecting communities and individuals inremote regions where ﬁxed-line connectivity was nonexistent and would becost prohibitive to deploy.
WHITEPAPER The Current State of Wireless Networking - 02This ubiquitous availability and user-friendliness sparked practicalconsumer reliance and increased demand, thus providing the industry withencouragement for continuous progression. Over the last decade,expansion of service provisioning grew beyond voice and leans heavilytowards packet-switched data with the development of numerous ‘ThirdGeneration’ technologies, dominated mainly by the 3rd GenerationPartnership Project (3GPP & 3GPP2) family of technologies which sparkedthe Wireless Broadband race.Introduced in the early days of 2002, the second path of evolution ofwireless broadband emerged, the Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers (IEEE) 802 LAN/MAN standard committee created the 802.16standard or more commonly known as WiMAX. While the ﬁrst version802.16-2004 was restricted to ﬁxed access, the following version 802.16eand often referred to as mobile WiMAX, includes basic support of mobility.In later years, the International Standards Union (ITU) listed WiMAX as anofﬁcial IMT-2000 technology, and based on latest adjustments made to the4G deﬁnition, confers mobile WiMAX as ‘Fourth Generation’ (4G), althoughdebated by certain camps to be more beﬁtting as 3.9G with its nextiteration of 802.16m (an IMT-Advance standard) ofﬁcially as 4G.Nevertheless, WiMAX has since 2008, gained popular recognition globallyas a wireless broadband technology standard.Continuing the technology progression within the 3GPP technology family,Long Term Evolution (LTE) emerged as its latest technology standard tocomplete the trend of expansion of service provision towards multiserviceair interface. Relatively new to market, LTE has rapidly moved from the earlystages of deployment, to demonstrate its commercial applicability and ﬁt bya broad set of global operator segments within varying spectrums.Recognizing these developments, the wireless industry is now aligning itselfto take advantage of these advancements. Identifying LTE as the principlewireless platform positioned to drive the next decade of wireless networks.Ultimately, operator networks will support an all IP-based framework asspeciﬁed in 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards. Similarly to that extent, WiMAX,previously a rival technology would follow suit and integrate the support ofboth WiMAX and 3GPP TD-LTE standards.
WHITEPAPER The Current State of Wireless Networking - 03 The evolution of wireless cellular standards 2G 2.5G 3G 3.5G 3.9G 4G CDMA CDMA CDMA 1xEVDO UMB 3GPP2 (IS-95A) (IS-95B) 2000 Rel 0/A/B 802.20 E-GPRS LTE LTE GSM GPRS EDGE E-UTRA Advance 3GPP TDMA WCDMA HSDPA (IS-136) FDD/TDD FDD/TDD TD-SCDMA HSUPA HSPA+ LCR/TDD FDD/TDD IEEE Fixed WiMAX 802.16 802.16d Mobile WiMAX WiMAX 802.16e 802.16m IEEE WiBRO IEEE 802.11a 802.11g 802.11h 802.11n 802.11b 1995 2000 2010 2015 TDMA/FDMA CDMA OFDMGoing Beyond 3GGPRS, EDGE, WCDMA and HSPA is the technology stream of choice forthe vast majority of the world’s mobile operators, typically offeringcommercial downlink speeds of 1-5Mbps with expectation that beyond10Mbps per user will be widely available in the near future. From astandardization perspective, 3G work is now well-advanced and, whileimprovements continue to be made to maximize performance fromcurrently deployed systems, there is a limit to the extent to which furtherenhancements will be effective. If the motivations were to deliver higherperformance, then this in itself would be relatively easy to achieve. Theadded complexity is that such improved performance must be deliveredthrough systems which are cheaper to install and maintain. Dramaticreduction in telecommunications charges and increase in capability isexpected. Therefore, in deciding the next standardization step, there mustbe a dual approach of seeking considerable performance improvement butat reduced cost.
WHITEPAPER The Current State of Wireless Networking - 04Cost Relative cost per bit of transmitted data • Decreased latency100 • Increased spectrum efﬁciency • Increased peak throughput 80 • Increased capacity per cell • Flexible spectrum usage 60 • Robust security • Flexible interoperability and integration 40 • More.. 20 3G 3.5G HSPA WiMAX LTE Technology 3.9G/4GThe road to migration is inevitable, depending on the maturity of thewireless network ecosystem, viability, cost and variety of consumer devicesincluding service competitiveness. As more and more mobile data-centricand mobility driven applications inﬂuence the carrier service providerbusiness models, it will quicken their path to LTE beyond 3G enhancementsof HSPA and HSPA+. With the arrival of LTE and widespread promotion assubstitute for WiMAX is a little unsettling for Greenﬁeld operators that haveinvested in WiMAX systems and looking for long term proﬁtability.Nevertheless, pockets of WiMAX market remains strong in the ﬁxedapplications in emerging markets, rural markets in developed countries andniche applications such as vertical markets in relation to utility. For manysmall and medium size businesses, WiMAX is still an exciting prospect inways, as it promises good wireless access and bandwidth boundaries. Butthe adoption of WiMAX for service providers are beﬁtting only if theinvestment exposure in multiple wireless standards can signiﬁcantly impactsupply chain expenditures of equipment vendors, component vendors,operators and eventually subscribers.
WHITEPAPER The Current State of Wireless Networking - 05 WiMAX in Focus WiMAX was the earlier conceived technology available to bring about enabling wireless broadband, on which future mobile telecommunications system architecture will be built. Several incremental improvements and innovation in radio technology and command-and-control software have seen the WiMAX standard releasing higher and higher variants of mobile WiMAX in the form of releases such as Release 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. The latter two, release 1.5 (802.16e Rev 2) and 2.0 (802.16m) representing short-term and long-term evolution respectively. Release 1.0 Release 1.5 Release 2.0 ASN anchored mobility, Persistent scheduling for Reduced Latency 3 ASN profiles reduced MAC overhead CSN anchored mobility Femto Cell introduction Multihop Relays CMIP, PMIP Load balancing Self-organizing capability (SON) IPv4 & optional IPv6 BF+MIMO , UL MIMO (optional) Enhanced VoIP support GPS & non-GPS Enhanced MCBCS Idle mode and paging based location services (both static and dynamic multicasting) Enhanced Multicast & Broadcast EAP-based authentication Enhancements to LBS services ( MCBCS APP and DSx) Mobile, portable, nomadic, fixed Wimax-WiFi-Bluetooth coexistence Mobility: up to 500 km/hr Pre-provisioned/static QoS Ethernet services Backward compatibility Pre- and Post-paid RADIUS Accounting Public Safety & emergency services O & M Features Roaming (RADIUS only) OTA pre-provisioning & device management ( OMA & TR69) O&M Features Network PCC /PCRF ( Dynamic QoS and discovery/selection policy based charging) Load balancing USI ( Universal service interface) WIMAX SIM ROHC Lawful intercept Key features in the evolution of Mobile WiMAX Commercially, WiMAX has revolutionized the delivery of wireless broadband, being the high performance, robust and cheaper alternative to 3G and wireline networks. Enabling vast formations of new Greenﬁeld operators and playing a profound role to enable communication (simple ﬁxed and nomadic voice) and Internet services to reach vastly across developing and rural markets (majority of deployments) previously underserved. Yet, further steps of reﬁnement and market diversiﬁcation must surely follow in the midst of the equally domineering LTE camp. In many aspects, WiMAX fundamentals share common characteristics to TD-LTE. Take for example, the modulation technique of OFDM, where the spectrum is multiplexed in time division (TD) duplex where the uplink and downlink is a time-shared method that is spectrum efﬁcient. Similarly, TD-LTE offers key technical advantages in antenna system techniques of MIMO and beamforming, which is also supported in WiMAX. With both uplink and downlink on the same frequency, these technologies render simplicity and inexpensive implementation that is inherently efﬁcient. As ITU and 3GPP/3GPP2 standards have now included TD method as a formal part of the speciﬁcations to which TD-LTE ﬁnds its place in the 4G infrastructure increasingly in China, India and parts of Asia. This also means WiMAX systems are closer to a smooth migration to TD-LTE and can still ﬁnd relevance among the mainstream service offerings. While WiMAX service providers are getting involved in ensuring their systems are in working order, so are WiMAX chipset vendors like Sequans and Altair are ready to offer TD-LTE chipsets.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 06The Next Decade for WiMAXThe Path To 4G –Connecting PeopleITU as the authority to deﬁne what constitutes 4G clearly intended to havethe standard alter the paradigm of user-network interaction, wherebroadband can be made available to consumer devices. Essentiallyeliminating the need for the user to know anything about the network(operator, topology, radio or technology), achieving the “Always BestConnected” experience.To achieve IMT-Advance’s vision of various access systemsinterconnected to provide services in a cooperative manner, ITU deﬁneslayers of network based on the geographic scope of coverage and extentof mobility offered by each layer. Interactions among these networks arenot limited to intra-network (horizontal) or inter-network (vertical) handoffsfor service continuity, but encompass complex functions of billing,security, privacy, Quality of Service (QoS), fault tolerance and recoverywith the following key attributes:• Network Discovery and Selection — A subscriber terminal that features multiple radio technologies and intelligent connectivity management software that allows participation/presence in multiple networks simultaneously. Connecting to the best network with the most appropriate service parameters (QoS, QoE and capacity among others) for the application.• Terminal Mobility and Service Continuity — A network that features intra- and inter-technology handovers, assuring service continuity with zero or minimal interruption, without a noticeable loss in service quality - Continuous transparent maintenance of active service instances and inclusion of various access technologies, from Wi-Fi to OFDMA.• Support for Multiple Applications and Services — Efﬁcient support for unicast, multicast and broadcast services and the applications that rely on them.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 07• Quality of Service — Consistent application of admission control and scheduling algorithms regardless of underlying infrastructure and operator diversity.• Technology and Topology Independence —Service capability that is not constrained by topology or technology limitations, but rather achieve the “Always Best Connected” characteristic. Complimentary access systems • Full coverageDistribution • Global accessLayer • Full mobility • Not necessary individual links • Full coverage & HotspotsCellular • Global roamingLayer • Full mobility • Individual links • Local coverage • HotspotsHotspot • Global roamingLayer • Local mobility • Individual links • Short range communicationPersonal Network • Global roamingLayer • Individual linksFixed (Wired) • Global accessLayer • Personal mobility Horizontal: Vertical: Possible return Handover within Handover channel a system between systemsThe vision of 4G is a framework for an advanced infrastructure consisting ofarchitecture, core technologies and open interfaces for building, deployingand providing applications to achieve ubiquitous, converged broadbandservices.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 08WiMAX in 4GWiMAX framework has the fundamental technological building blocks tosupport the vision of 4G and its framework. The standard has been provencommercially, giving operators globally the opportunity to launch wirelessbroadband services, but predominantly serving the ﬁxed and nomadicsegment. The lack of penetration into the mobile segment is premised onthe basis that WiMAX was not designed with the same emphasis onmobility and compatibility with operator’s core network as the 3GPPtechnology family, which includes core network evolution in addition to theradio access network evolution. Nevertheless, 802.16m, the next iterationin the WiMAX roadmap has enhancements outlined that are gearedtowards provisioning of new services including worldwide roaming andinterworking /compatibility with other technologies, aimed at increasingseamless user experience in an all IP framework.But, technology alone does not dictate adoption. The challenge for802.16m lies on its capability to attract sufﬁcient market support fromchipset manufacturers, equipment vendors (infrastructure and device)and the operator community. With WiMAX Forum’s willingness tointegrate elements of TD-LTE standards within its platform, the transitionfrom WiMAX to TD-LTE will help bridge the divide between differingtechnology camps with a level of comfort and quell doubts ofincompatibility. No need to single out any technology, but beneﬁt fromco-existence. The openness of the roadmap evolution supportsharmonization to allow operators to adopt dual or multiple radio accesstechnologies within their service offerings.The commercial availability of LTE, which has close similarity to WiMAX,especially for its time-division LTE (TD-LTE) version have sparked seriousinterest, largely due to the wider overall support for this new technology –ranging from network infrastructure, device, chipsets, technology roadmapdevelopment and host of downstream supply chains. Clearly, the TD-LTE ispopular with WiMAX operators like Packet One Networks in Malaysia,Clearwire in the US and Yota in Russia. That aside, given that TD-LTEservices entering mainstream, simply for the reasons of plentiful and decentspectrum prices alongside FD-LTE to augment dual-mode coverage. It is amatter of time, before the device and chipset multimode roadmaps gaininﬂuence and are sufﬁciently available.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 09WiMAX operators are also learning that future subscriber and averagerevenue per user (ARPU) growth is not limited to just a ﬁxed wirelessreplacement, offering traditional data packages for a ﬁxed fee. Rather,bundled data services that combine recursive ﬁxed at-home and high valuemobile on-the-go packages, leading to greater revenue and draw out valuefrom data services such as mobile, video, music, games, Internet access,navigation and messaging.Market forces are signaling WiMAX service providers and vendors to evolveand adapt business models to support the 4G vision in the coming decade.Emphasizing on advanced infrastructure consisting of architecture, coretechnologies and open interfaces for building, deploying and providingapplications to achieve ubiquitous, converged broadband service either:• Building a loosely coupled heterogeneous network – Evolving the WiMAX network by adopting some degree of system interworking, primarily with a 3G and/or LTE service provider through a form of collaboration. An evolution option well suited for WiMAX operators with limited spectrum holding. Key integration attributes includes provisioning and billing, with handover/connectivity selection mostly managed via multimode devices.• Building a tightly coupled heterogeneous network – Evolving the WiMAX network by adopting a converged overlay structure, primarily with LTE as the secondary/primary co-existing network. An evolution option well suited for WiMAX operators with broad spectrum holding. Key integration attributes includes tight integration at the core and application network layer, have advance coordination at the access level with extreme automation through self-organization and cognition and assisted by advance devices with increased degree of coordination capability.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 10The Path To M2M –Connecting MachinesMachine-to-machine communications is an established business that hasfunctioned behind the scenes and drawn little attention in the past. Today,however, M2M is experiencing a period of change and growth.M2M’s resurgence is attributed to the widespread availability of wirelesstechnologies, which make it possible to reach equipment in locations that weretoo remote or too costly to reach before. The trend is also driven by regulatoryincentives to employ M2M in certain markets, such as energy, andentrepreneurial drive to create innovative and consumer-focused solutions inothers, such as those listed in the table below. Surveillance systems, control of physical access (e.g. buildings), enviromental Security and public safety monitoring (e.g. for natural disasters), backup for landlines. Smart grid Electricity, gas, water, heating, grid control, industrial metering, demand response. Tracking and tracing Order management, asset tracking, human monitoring. Fleet management, car/driver security, enhanced navigation, traffic info, tolls, pay Vehicular telematics as you drive, remote vehicle diagnostics. Payment Point of sale, ATM, vending machines, gaming machines. Monitoring vital signs, supporting the aged or handicapped, web access Healthcare telemedicine points, remote diagnostics. Remote maintenance and control Industrial automation, sensors, lighting, pump, vending machine control. Consumer devices Digital photo frame, digital camera, ebook, home management hubs.Potential applications for wireless M2MDespite its allure as a new business opportunity, M2M is a broad ﬁeld and hardto categorize. It has many touchpoints from those found at the farthest reachesof the utility grid to vending machines in public places via a variety of wirelesstechnology options, which will be deployed and conﬁgured depending on theneed at hand. Because of its near-ubiquitous availability, wireless networktechnologies will ﬁnd relevance in many M2M markets.Choosing access technology suitable for M2M applications require strategicconsiderations in order to assure that it meets the minimum requirements forsuccessful service. Areas encompass speciﬁc performance, security, andnetwork management capabilities with the following key attributes:
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 11• Activation Rates Optimized for the “Internet of Things” - most M2M applications typically have low throughput requirements as they are only sending small amounts of data, often intermittently or even on an exception-only basis. M2M applications do beneﬁt from the ability of the mobile packet gateways to rapidly scale up to a large number (hundreds of thousands or millions) of activations.• Quality-of-Service - Utilities demands on strong Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and require guarantees of reliable network access especially during emergencies.• Fault tolerance and Session Recovery – Network architecture designed with stateful geo-redundancy disaster recovery.• IPv6 Support for Network Address Availability - millions to hundreds of millions of new devices are going to be networked in an “Internet of Things”, an optimal long-term solution is a shift to IPv6, which enables orders of magnitude larger numbers of available IP addresses.• Monitoring and provisioning – M2M devices are in majority highly remote, requiring the capability of monitoring events (movement, theft, outage) and having the ﬂexibility to provision or follow-up with actions upon event detection.• Low power consumption – M2M devices are predominantly requires low power consumption and speciﬁc system-device features is required to invoke power saving mechanism (e.g: idle, sleep mode) to optimize power consumption.
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 12WiMAX in M2MWiMAX Mobile Network Operator/ Mobile Virtual Network Operator(MNO/MVNO) believes that the mobile M2M market will undergo anevolution from the general-purpose, mobile network elements to deployM2M services, to using equipment that has been speciﬁcally optimized forthe needs of the M2M market. Such optimization gives the MNO/MVNO thebeneﬁt of being able to provide a more intelligent network to theirApplication Service Provider (ASP) customers and thereby differentiate theirconnectivity offering, compete more successfully for ASP business, and,ultimately, to garner more revenue from selling connectivity services forM2M applications.In the face of changing wireless network landscape, WiMAX can easily ﬁnd itsniche and win over other technologies for M2M support. It offers the bestvalue to ASPs by providing the greatest feature/functionality at the lowestcost. The advantages over Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), Data LinkControl (DLC) and Mesh networks are signiﬁcant and compelling enough. Comparing Access Technologies WiMAX provides the greatest feature set and fuctionality at the lowest cost Critical Attribute PLC DLC Mesh WiMAX Cellular High Bandwith Suitability for High Customer Densities Suitability for Low Customer Densities Security Standards Based Scalability Large Supplier Ecosystem Reliability Option to Wholesale/Lease System Availability CostSource : Referenced from Motorola’s Internal Study
WHITEPAPER The Next Decade for WiMAX - 13While most of these aspects are already well developed in the currentWiMAX releases, there exist a small but critical disparity between what isavailable in a service model of an operator and what is required by a M2Menterprise to fulﬁll its service model. Application development is the mostproblematic and challenging part for the M2M market. Presently,enterprises tend to use custom designed software to manage data andprovision the decision-making and messaging requirements peculiar toM2M systems which are not functionally built in an existing cellularnetwork’s system. Fortunately, the WiMAX Forum has formed dedicatedworking groups to assist in closing these technological and market gaps.Speciﬁc features are being streamlined and standardized into WiMAXstandards to cater for M2M communications. Engagement focus withindustry players, the utility and enterprise community, in particular for smartgrid, aviation, oil and gas and Smart Cities are underway to clarify use casesand ﬁnd speciﬁc collaboration ﬁt to expedite the commercialization ofWiMAX in M2M. Although still preliminary, WiMAX operators and WiMAXequipment vendors have started to embrace M2M, forming models toserve the sector, treating it as the next new growth area of the decade.
WHITEPAPER 4G Requirements for Device - 144G Requirements for DeviceIn WiMAX subscriber devices of today, radio is only a small part of devicecapability. Enhanced user experience is central and service providers tendto market innovative plans for the services and applications that can besupported. But in essence, ubiquitous radio access will be the essentialbackbone to support the next generation of wireless networks.For mass market 4G applications, device will support a vast number ofservices with a powerful and complex communications engine. Radios indevices already support WiMAX and Wi-Fi, and in smartphones additionallywith cellular, GPS and Bluetooth. International roaming requires devices tosupport a variety of radios/bands because globally available frequencybands are not consistent. As a result, the RF complexity in the device willincrease drastically, requiring radios to support multiple bands andduplexing methods (FDD & TDD).In future, the radios in the device will perform local radio resourcemanagement and assist with network resource management.Device support for carrier aggregation and heterogeneous networks couldenable simultaneous communication over multiple radio accesstechnologies. The wireless device may also be a gateway for a multitude ofsensors and machine type devices that perform spectrum sensing forcapturing and analyzing the radio environment.Features to optimize device power consumption will be a key factor in thefuture as battery capacity improvements are relatively slow compared to theevolution of other technologies.
WHITEPAPER Greenpacket, Bringing You 4G Wireless Networking Expertise - 15Greenpacket, Bringing You 4GWireless Networking ExpertiseOperators around the world have successfully leveraged on WiMAX to startrealizing the dream of true Wireless Broadband Freedom. At Greenpacket,we have helped many WiMAX Operators achieve this through ourbest-in-class and award-winning USB modems and continue to innovate inthe sphere of WiMAX + LTE technologies.Let us show you new perspectives on how to effectively extend your successtowards a new age 4G Wireless Networking.With Greenpacket, limitless freedom begins now!Free ConsultationIf you would like a free consultation on empowering your subscribers withseamless mobility and extending a better connectivity experience, contactus at firstname.lastname@example.org (kindly quote the reference codeDWP1112 when you contact us).