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Optimizing Cell Ddge Coverage Of Suburban/Rural Deployment With WiMAX Outdoor CPE
 

Optimizing Cell Ddge Coverage Of Suburban/Rural Deployment With WiMAX Outdoor CPE

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Wireless broadband operators constantly face challenges of balancing the economics to deploy a robust and reliable wireless broadband service in suburban-rural areas or at cell-edges. Till to date, a ...

Wireless broadband operators constantly face challenges of balancing the economics to deploy a robust and reliable wireless broadband service in suburban-rural areas or at cell-edges. Till to date, a large portion of these areas still remains hugely underserved or receiving unreliable coverage.

This paper in retrospect functions to further solidify the technological advantage of WiMAX, where we explore and proof the concept of suburban-rural deployment through the optimal pairing of a proper CPE strategy.

This paper explores deep into the technical and implementation advantages of an outdoor CPE solution, including the concept of antenna gain, transmission power, integrated POE design and environment-proof enclosure; and the effective advantage of Line of Sight performance and decreased penetration loss amongst other features of an outdoor CPE. We will also explore the misconception behind the high incremental cost, difficulty of engineering installation and service challenges in operations with the implementation of an outdoor CPE.

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    Optimizing Cell Ddge Coverage Of Suburban/Rural Deployment With WiMAX Outdoor CPE Optimizing Cell Ddge Coverage Of Suburban/Rural Deployment With WiMAX Outdoor CPE Document Transcript

    • u rban/ f Sub r CPE r age O utdoo Cove AX O l Edge h WiM n g Cel nt Wit timizi ploymeOp DeRural www.greenpacket.com APPLICATION NOTE
    • AbstractWireless broadband operators constantly face challenges of balancing the economics to deploy a robust and reliablewireless broadband service in suburban-rural areas or at cell-edges. Till to date, a large portion of these areas stillremains hugely underserved or receiving unreliable coverage. Most available studies have shown that WiMAX is indeedan ideal technology candidate not only for a suburban-rural deployment, but as a wireless broadband technology on anoverall, with most of the studies focusing on infrastructure performance.This paper in retrospect functions to further solidify the technological advantage of WiMAX, where we explore and proofthe concept of suburban-rural deployment through the optimal pairing of a proper CPE strategy. We will show that thebest solution for suburban-rural area and cell-edge performance can be extended four times through deployment viaoutdoor CPEs.This paper explores deep into the technical and implementation advantages of an outdoor CPE solution, including theconcept of antenna gain, transmission power, integrated POE design and environment-proof enclosure; and the effectiveadvantage of Line of Sight performance and decreased penetration loss amongst other features of an outdoor CPE. Wewill also explore the misconception behind the high incremental cost, difficulty of engineering installation and servicechallenges in operations with the implementation of an outdoor CPE which has been the lead culprit towards the lowadoption of this CPE strategy. Greenpacket will share three reference cases where deployment through the OX seriesoutdoor CPE has shown great success in Australia, Africa and Haiti, from a performance and business implementationperspective.APPLICATION NOTE
    • IntroductionOne major challenge for wireless broadband operators is to successfully deploy in a suburban-rural morphology. Thischallenge is inherent with disregard of the type of wireless technologies implemented, be it through WiMAX, Satellite, 3G,CDMA and similarly in the future, with LTE. In our previous white paper “Improving Indoor Coverage: How WiMAXModems can Play a Major Role in the Subsystem” (WPWIC10), we have described technologies to improve userexperience when they are farther away from the base station, or in the cell-edge area. We can see that in general,cell-edge represents the area where poor consistency in connectivity is prevalent, with typical modulation being QPSKwhere cell-edge users generally experience low and in many cases, inconsistent throughput speeds. Point A Loss of uplink connection (1TX without MIMO and Beamforming) Downlink Point B Loss of downlink connection (without MIMO and 64-QAM 16-QAM QPSK Beamforming) A B CD Point C Loss of downlink connection with MIMO A 64-QAM 16-QAM QPSK Point D Loss of downlink connection with Beamforming Uplink Legend Coverage cut off point • uplink connection • downlink connectionFigure 1 : UL and DL Modulation Relative to Cell RadiusThe figure below represents a typical wireless cell that has a cell-center with radius ‘r’ and cell edge with a radius of ‘2r’.Tabulating the coverage area, the cell-edge would give us an area of coverage equivalent to 4πr², while the cell-center isonly πr². Showing the distinct differences in coverage area achieved between the cell-edge and cell-center. This directdifference implies that the efficiency of spectrum utilization by the base station is not able to achieve its intendedmaximum coverage and capacity capability unless higher modulation scheme can be extended further into the cell-edgecoverage area; without which, a decent robust connectivity is next to impossible by just relying on the base station itself. cell center F1 F cell edge 2r F F r F2 F3 01APPLICATION NOTE
    • WiMAX As The Best Solution With Outdoor CPEChallenges For Rural Broadband DeploymentBroadband penetration in rural areas across the world has lagged far behind than that in urban areas, both in developedcountries as well as in developing countries. This is mainly due to multiple reasons which make providing coverage inthese areas economically non-viable. The main reasons for this low penetration lie within the following TOP 3roadblocks:• As population density in rural areas is relatively low, setting up and maintaining copper or fiber lines to provide broadband service across the “last mile” incurs high costs for Internet Service Providers (ISPs)• Capacity on the backhaul or the “middle mile” from the ISP to the Internet backbone is often very limited and expensive as it is provided over facilities designed for voice telephony or cable television• The difference in per capita income between rural areas and urban regions means that broadband services need to be offered at a lower-price point in the rural areas in order to gain customer adoption.This combination of high CAPEX/OPEX and low Average Revenue per User (ARPU) has traditionally made the ruralbroadband market less lucrative for service providers, but the advent of new high speed mobile broadband technologiessuch as WiMAX has rapidly changed the situation. 02APPLICATION NOTE
    • WiMAX As The Ideal Solution For Rural Broadband DeploymentsAs operators around the world evaluate multiple technologies for rural broadband deployments, WiMAX is emerging asthe de-facto standard. The advantages offered by WiMAX have time and again proven its commercial viability, amongothers:• Infrastructure Effectiveness: WiMAX offers a highly cost effective solution to address the rural broadband conundrum as physical infrastructure need not be rolled out to individual customer premises on the last mile. This significantly reduces the overall cost and the time-to-market in deploying the network.• Flexible Network Deployment: WiMAX allows operators to surgically choose deployment options and focus on specific areas where there is strong demand.• High Data Throughput: 802.16e has reached a stage of technology and standards maturity with field proven results that shows data throughput of over 40Mbps (@10MHz channel bandwidth).• Spectrum Concerns: WiMAX spectrum has typically been less expensive worldwide as compared to 3G licenses. Additionally, with mobile WiMAX being on licensed band, operators can deploy rural broadband networks with no spectrum-related concerns.The largest challenge facing operators in deploying a suburban/rural service is to create a balanced business case thatallows them to maximize the access infrastructure capability from a coverage and capacity perspective and at the sametime to deliver a robust and reliable service with a positive revenue return. Greenpacket believes that this can be realizedeffectively if ‘Line Of Sight’ (LOS) can be achieved through the pairing of Outdoor CPE to the network, where we willinvestigate the technology, performance and reveal a detailed deep dive reference case study based on a suburban/ruralenvironment profile. 03APPLICATION NOTE
    • Advantages Of Outdoor CPEThe right CPE strategy for cell-edge and suburban/rural area is to deploy Outdoor CPE, and from our experience,outdoor CPE have the following advantages.i. Improved Uplink Technologiesii. High Transmission Power And High Gain Directional Antennaiii. Zero Penetration Lossiv. Further Improvements Due To Line Of Sightv. When Compared To External Antenna Option, Minimal Cable Lossvi. Environmentally Robustvii. Easy Installationviii. Plug And Play(i) Improved Uplink TechnologiesWe have stated a comprehensive analysis of the importance of uplink technologies in our previous white paper “APractical Approach to Improve WiMAX Indoor Coverage.” Here, we briefly describe the most important technology Dualtransmitter (2TX) which is implemented in our OX series Outdoor CPE.Dual Transmitter (2Tx) (CDD)The simplest Dual Transmitter technology employs Cyclic Delay Diversity (CDD) algorithm and signals are transmitted viaa single data stream through two antennas and two power amplifiers – hence, both antennas are switched on and usedfor transmission. The combined power from two PAs provides approximately an additional perceived 3dB gain withpotentially lower power consumption (if PA’s are tuned to a lower power). This arrangement improves uplink performanceand lengthens coverage through better signal strength; however, it increases the cost of the modem as morecomponents are used.Dual Transmitter (2Tx) STC Matrix (Uplink MIMO A)The second generation Dual Transmitter technology further employs Space Time Coding signaling algorithm (UplinkMIMO A) instead of just (CDD) algorithm as previously mentioned. However, in order to support this new algorithm, basestations need to be upgraded to support WiMAX R1.5. The hardware implementation is the same as Dual Transmitter(CDD) where transmission is conducted through two antennas and two power amplifiers. The combined power from twoPAs provides approximately an additional perceived 4dB gain, which is better than the Dual Transmitter (CDD). Antenna 2 PA Baseband RF PA Antenna 1 04Figure 2: Dual Transmitter (2Tx) component arrangement for CDD or STCAPPLICATION NOTE
    • (ii) High Transmission Power And High Gain Directional AntennaComparatively, Outdoor CPEs are designed with higher maximum transmit EIRP. Greenpacket OX series Outdoor CPEhas a 14dBi antenna, Dual transmitters (2Tx) with a combined Tx power rated at 27dBm, thus a maximum transmit EIRPequivalent to 41dBm, making it the most powerful mobile WiMAX CPE in the market today. Directional antenna isconventionally implemented to optimize the antenna performance specifically aligned to face towards the base station.Different from an indoor or USB based device, operator will normally assign service engineers to the premise whereinstallation is based on the optimum facing direction and upon locating it, the outdoor antenna is locked into place.Figure 3 shows a sample antenna pattern for the 2.5GHz model. The diagram shows a concentrated RF energy radiatedin a single direction (+- 10 degrees within the pink line). This specific radiation pattern plays the highest role of effectivelyincreasing the coverage area.Figure 3: Antenna patterns for OX250 main antenna 5dB improvement 11dB improvement USB dongles Indoor CPE Outdooe CPE (OX series) Average 23dBm Average 25dBm Average 27dBm (2Ti) 2dBi Antenna 5dBi Antenna 14dBi AntennaFigure 4 : Improvements of Outdoor CPE over indoor CPE. We can see that OX series can have 16dB improvements from 05indoor USB donglesAPPLICATION NOTE
    • (iii) Zero Penetration LossThroughout our deployment experience, depending on the depth and material of the building, Glass windows andconcrete walls induces a 6dB and 12dB penetration loss respectively where the implementation through indoor CPEswill normally endure. An Outdoor CPE, being placed normally on the roof of a specific building has the advantage ofbeing subjected to zero penetration loss, even without line-of-sight (LOS).Figure 5: Frequency Vs Depth of penetration (Pd) for representative profiles of clay soils of pune at different soil moisture conditions (weight %)(iv) Further Improvements With Line Of Sight (LOS)The key advantage for Outdoor CPE is that it can easily achieve Line of Sight (LOS) with proper mounting. Havingachieved Line of Sight (LOS), there is no longer a multi-path problem and we can ensure optimal RF path between theCPE and the base station. Figure 6 shows how Line of Sight can be achieved by moving the CPE above the roof with apole. LOS CPE (OutDoor) NLOS CPE (InDoor)Figure 6: Improvement of LOS with o utdoor CPEIn addition, studies show that for a full featured base station. To achieve the same transmission data rate of 11Mbps,LOS cell radius can be as far as 30km, while Non Line of Sight (NLOS) cell radius is only limited to 4km. This accountsfor five times the radius or about 25 times more coverage area for the same base station. LOS is a very critical 06factor that affects the performance of the network, where an Outdoor CPE is proven to be the ideal solutionsto achieve LOS.APPLICATION NOTE
    • Full Featured From To Cell radius (Km) LOS 30 50 NLOS ( Ereg-Flat) 4 9 Indoor self-install CPE 1 2 Download 11.3 8 Maximum throghput per sector (Mbps) uplink 11.3 8 Maximum throghput per CPE at Cell Download 11.3 8 Edge (Mbps) uplink 0.7 0.175 Maximum number of subscribers MoreTable 1: LOS and NLOS performance comparison using Full featured Base Station LOS 30 to 50km NLOS 4 to 9km Indoor self-install 1 to 2kmFigure 7 : Coverage Distance Differerence for LOS and NLOS deployment(v) Outdoor CPE VS Indoor CPE + External Antenna: Minimal Cable LossAnother common solution to achieve LOS performance is to use outdoor external antenna to connect to an indoor CPE.However, using external antenna introduces cable losses. For example, we can see in the below diagram, a typical cableused for external antenna is RG316, which introduces about 1.5dB loss per meter length. Therefore, for an outdoorextension of 10m, this contributes to 15dB loss, which has similar magnitude as the typical outdoor external Antennagain. This limitation is not absolute, where external antenna solutions with super high gain (greater than 15dBi) and superlow loss cable (less than 0.5dB/m) can be found, the question is however extended to economic sense of forming arealistic solution rather than the best solution. 07APPLICATION NOTE
    • (vi) Outdoor CPE VS Indoor CPE + External Antenna: Minimal Cable LossAnother common solution to achieve LOS performance is to use outdoor external antenna to connect to an indoor CPE.However, using external antenna introduces cable losses. For example, we can see in the below diagram, a typical cableused for external antenna is RG316, which introduces about 1.5dB loss per meter length. Therefore, for an outdoorextension of 10m, this contributes to 15dB loss, which has similar magnitude as the typical outdoor external Antennagain. This limitation is not absolute, where external antenna solutions with super high gain (greater than 15dBi) and superlow loss cable (less than 0.5dB/m) can be found, the question is however extended to economic sense of forming arealistic solution rather than the best solution.Coaxial Cable :RG_316_/UMatrix Of Attenuation and Power CWCoefficients: a=0.7727 , b=0.0972 , Fmax =3 , Pwt 1GHz = 135 Frequency Nom attenuation Nom attenuation Max. CW power (GHz) (dB/m) (dB/ft) (watt) sea level sea level sea level 25˚ C amblent 25˚ C amblent 40˚ C amblent temperature temperature temperature 2.1 1.32 0.402 93 2.3 1.40 0.427 89 2.4 1.43 0.436 87 2.6 1.50 0.457 84 2.7 1.53 0.466 82 2.9 1.60 0.488 82 3.0 1.63 0.497 78Table 2 : Typical cable loss for Coaxial RG316 cable which is used for external antenna Indoor CPE Indoor CPE with external Ant Outdoor CPE Antenna Gain 5dBi Not used Not used Cable Loss (RG316) 0 -9dB 0 External antenna None 14dBi None Penetration Loss -6dB None None Total Ant gain -1dB 5dB 14dB Line of Sight NO YES YES Performance Poor OK BestTable 3 : Comparison between a 2.5GHz Indoor CPE with and without a 14dBi external antenna, and a 2.5GHz Outdoor CPEmounted on a pole 6m above the ground 08APPLICATION NOTE
    • Uncover The Myth about Outdoor CPEThere exist general misconceptions about outdoor CPE implementation in terms of cost, having extreme restriction onbeing heavy, performing unreliably under changing weather conditions, and extremely difficult to install and service.New advancement on design and architecture has changed all this, Greenpacket’s OX series outdoor CPE is an examplewhere cost is effectively affordable, weighing in at less than 2kg, flexibly mountable on a wall or pole or roof edge andcapable of enduring temperatures between - 40°C ~ 60°C while in operations.Most importantly, OX series enclosure is certified to be IP67 compliant which comes with a protection against the effectsof immersion in water up to depth of 1 meter. POE (Power over Ethernet) cable is also an important feature whichensures that only a single cable (RJ45) is stretched from the outdoor unit (ODU) directly indoors to the end user, whereboth the power and data is carried.(i) Environmentally RobustIn addition, OX series outdoor CPE is equipped with a robust mounting kit which has been certified to withstand severewindward and crosswinds. Figure 8 show the test result for OX series outdoor CPE withstanding hurricane rated winds(windward/crosswind under 60m/s for 10 minutes, Beauford Wind Force Scale 17)Figure 8 : Greenpacket OX series under Hurricane-force Winward Test 09APPLICATION NOTE
    • (ii) Easy InstallationOX series outdoor CPE mounting kit provides complete flexibility for installation. The pole-mounting and wall-mountingbrackets can be selected according to field needs. The multi-angle mounting kit can also be adjusted where the antennacan be positioned to face toward the base station, receiving Line-of-Sight (LOS) signals. Figure 8 illustrates the quickinstallation using the standard mounting kit, withal done within five minutes. Screw (35mm) Screw (60mm) Split washer Lockwasher Flat washer Split washer Bracket with Tab Flat washer Bracket W/L Tab Nut Nut X2 NeededFigure 9 : Examples of Pole Mount (vertical or horizontal) installation(iii) Plug And Play, Auto Provisioning, And On-Site Service FreeGreenpacket ensures that operators are free from having to manage the provisioning of devices. The devicecomes pre-provisioned to allow end subscribers to plug and be automatically connected to the operator’s 10base stations for an immediate play.APPLICATION NOTE
    • The Rural Leapfrog – ENDING THE WAIT FOR RURAL CONNECTIVITY Verifying It On The Field Understanding the concept and technological advantage of mobile WiMAX coupled with the service offering via an Outdoor Modem validates it as a viable solution option for rural connectivity. The bigger question remains on the performance capability of the WiMAX outdoor modem when deployed in a commercial field that is subjected to subscriber loading and the environmental uncertainties knowing historically the inherent limitation of implementation via a wireless technology. Vivid Wireless, is the first WISP to launch a mobile WiMAX network in Australia has had a successful service uptake since its launch in April 2010 covering the urban and suburban areas in cities of Perth, Sydney and Melbourne via Indoor IADs and USB modem. Looking to extend its service coverage to the fringing suburban and semi-rural areas within the city, Vivid Wireless conducted a citywide evaluation to benchmark the performance of the OX outdoor modem. Vivid Wireless wanted the performance test to be conducted on its commercially live network to ensure that the end results obtained is strictly similar to the end user experience. Choosing to compare it against the current commercially offered Green Packet high gain DX Indoor IAD, Vivid Wireless has the objective:- 1. To ensuring that the OX meets the technical specification as stated in its product datasheet. 2. To record the additional gain in coverage, and 3. To record the throughput speeds experienced DX 230-Indoor IAD OX 230-Outdoor Modem Frequency 2.3GHz 2.3GHz Maximum RF Transmit Power 28dBm (Combined 2Tx) 27dBm (Combined 2Tx) Antenna Type Intergrated Omni with 5dBi gain Dual polarized with 14dBi gain Received sensitivity Average 5dB higher than WiMAX Average 5dB higher than WiMAX Forum RCT speci cation Forum RCT Speci cation MIMO Matrix A & B Matrix A & B Table 4 : Technical Specification between Indoor IAD and Outdoor Modem DX230 was mounted inside the test drive vehicle on the passenger seat while the OX230 is mounted on the roof of the car. Both RSSI and CINR measurement were recorded in both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) positions. The test drive was performed at multiple locations that varied between 200 meters and 9.5 kilometers to the base station. 11APPLICATION NOTE
    • Purple shade represents existing network coverage area Green shade indicates increased coveage area when using OX230 modemFigure 10 : Coverage planning comparison between Indoor IAD and Outdoor ModemOn completion, Vivid Wireless observed significant performance increase from the OX outdoor modem with the OXhaving an average 12dBm more coverage, reaching a radius of over 9.5 kilometer with LOS. Proving that OX meets thespecification as stipulated even on the field. This significant coverage gained will allow Vivid access to an additional72,000 new subscribers on its existing infrastructure, allowing it to maximize and monetize its infrastructure investmentfurther. OX 230-Outdoor Indoor / Outdoor DX 230-Indoor IAD Modem (Delta) Distance to RSSI CINR RSSI CINR RSSI CINR LOS Cell (m) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) (dBm) Yes 250 -43 26.6 -32 26.4 11 -0.2 No 840 -60.5 24.4 -52.1 19.5 8.4 -4.9 No 1100 -64 10.9 -50.3 20.3 13.7 9.4 No 1900 -84 8.1 -74 7.6 10 -0.5 Yes 2870 -54.6 9.7 -37.1 14.7 17.5 5 Yes 6400 -51 11.1 -41 8.3 10 -2.8 Yes 9500 -80.6 6.2 -64.5 4.7 16.1 -1.5Table 5 : Summary test result comparison between Indoor IAD and Outdoor ModemNumerous operators globally have had commercially successful deployments through similar strategies. Greenpacketapproaches most of its deployment together with the operator in a collaborative manner, seeing multiple successfuldeployments in suburban and rural scenarios. 12APPLICATION NOTE
    • Reaching Within Remote Africa Direct-on-PC, a the leading operator in Nigeria has been deploying mobile WiMAX under the service name of Unwired by extending its wireless broadband voice and data services covering sub-urban and rural developing communities in selective areas of Lagos, Abuja and Port-Harcourt as a complimentary broadband access network to their existing VSAT and fixed wireless networks. The flexibility of mobile WiMAX has allowed the operator to grow its service coverage area flexibly as service demand grows. The strategy of service implementation via outdoor based CPE creates the best service advantage as it allows maximization of coverage making the service robust and reliable, perfect to the harsh conditions of the West African nation. With mobile WiMAX having the capacity efficiency that is 10x higher with an upfront subscriber acquisition cost that is 1/5 of current satellite network, the business case of providing affordable voice and broadband service is achievable. This has created confidence that the 4G network plans is set to lay the foundation for growth, both for the company and to the development of the underserved market. Bringing Broadband To The Remote Islands The islands of the Caribbean are a well known holiday destination with a developing community and economy. Providing broadband services in islands with harsh environmental terrain has always been a challenge to service providers. Digicel International has been the champion serving over 11 million customers across 32 markets mainly on the islands of the Caribbean and the Pacific. Having launched mobile WiMAX in Haiti, Digicel has had a great success with its pay-as-you surf mobile WiMAX services in suburban areas of Haiti currently providing robust fast broadband services through Greenpacket indoor and USB based devices. Looking to extend the services offering in rural and remote areas, with the service quality having similar robustness is something that Digicel insist to maintain, in order to achieve this while not having to incur huge incremental CAPEX investment by deploying additional infrastructure to these subscribers located mainly in fringing cell edge of the network. The outdoor modem was evaluated and results has proved to be the perfect solution extending the coverage within a healthy modulation scheme to achieve broadband speeds and consistent service. Even with a higher subscriber acquisition cost via the outdoor modem implementation, the huge CAPEX/OPEX savings from infrastructure spending allows Digicel to scale the deployment needs with the number of subscription growth. 13APPLICATION NOTE
    • Explore A Blue Ocean Of Opportunity In Rural ConnectivityTodayAs a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband solutions, Greenpacket has both the experience and best in class 4G WiMAXdevices specifically designed for operators looking to maximize their investment in delivering a robust, reliable and fast 4G broadband forRURAL CONNECTIVITY.Free ConsultationIf you would like a free consultation on selecting WiMAX modems for your fixed broadband network, please contact usat marketing.gp@greenpacket.com (kindly quote the reference code, DAP0411 when you contact us). 14APPLICATION NOTE
    • References1. IRIX123 User Manual, Greenpacket2. WiMAX’s technology for LOS and NLOS environments, WiMAX Forum Release3. OX Series User Manual, Greenpacket4. OX250 Antenna report, Greenpacket5. Datasheet for Coaxial cable RG316, Huber + Suhner6. K.S.Rao, Girish Chandra and P.V.Narasimha Rao, Study on penetration depth and its dependence on frequency, soil moisture, texture and temperature in the context of microwave remote sensing7. http://www.itu.int/newsarchive/press/WTDC98/Feature1.html8. http://it.tmcnet.com/topics/it/articles/36595-internet-usage-gaps-developing-countries-challenges-solutions.htm 15APPLICATION NOTE
    • About Greenpacket Greenpacket is the international arm of the Green Packet Berhad group of companies which is listed on the Main Board of the Malaysian Bourse. Founded in San Francisco’s Silicon Valley in 2000 and now headquartered in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Greenpacket has a presence in 9 countries and is continuously expanding to be near its customers and in readiness for new markets. We are a leading developer of Next Generation Mobile Broadband and Networking Solutions for Telecommunications Operators across the globe. Our mission is to provide seamless and unified platforms for the delivery of user-centric multimedia communications services regardless of the nature and availability of backbone infrastructures. At Greenpacket, we pride ourselves on being constantly at the forefront of technology. Our leading carrier-grade solutions and award-winning consumer devices help Telecommunications Operators open new avenues, meet new demands, and enrich the lifestyles of their subscribers, while forging new relationships. We see a future of limitless freedom in wireless communications and continuously commit to meeting the needs of our customers with leading edge solutions. With product development centers in USA, Shanghai, and Taiwan, we are on the cutting edge of new developments in 4G (particularly WiMAX and LTE), as well as in software advancement. Our leadership position in the Telco industry is further enhanced by our strategic alliances with leading industry players. Additionally, our award-winning WiMAX modems have successfully completed interoperability tests with major WiMAX players and are being used by the world’s largest WiMAX Operators. We are also the leading carrier solutions provider in APAC catering to both 4G and 3G networks and aim to be No. 1 globally by the end of 2010. For more information, visit: www.greenpacket.com.San Francisco · Kuala Lumpur · Singapore · Shanghai · Taiwan · Sydney · Bahrain · Bangkok · Hong Kong Associate MemberCopyright © 2001-2011 Green Packet Berhad. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any formby any means, without the written permission of Green Packet Berhad. Green Packet Berhad reserves the right to modify or discontinue any product or piece of literature at anytime without prior notice.