The Liturgy of the Eucharist - Fr. Stephen Gauthier
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  • 1. The Liturgy of the Eucharist By Rev. Stephen Gauthier Greenhouse CaLLiNG September 1, 2012
  • 2. The Lord‟s command  Take, eat…Drink of it, all of you… (Matthew 26:26-27)  Do this in remembrance of me. (Luke 22:19)
  • 3. Gospel accounts Institution of the Lord‟s Supper
  • 4. Matthew 26:26-28 Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.” And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, “Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
  • 5. Mark 14:22-24 And as they were eating, he took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to them, and said, “Take; this is my body.” And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And he said to them, “This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many.
  • 6. Luke 22:19-20 And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.
  • 7. Common elements  Same four actions (“shape of the Liturgy”)  Took (offertory)  Blessed/gave thanks* (Eucharistic prayer)  Broke (Breaking of the bread – fraction)  Gave (Communion)  Same description of the elements  My body  My blood *Jews used a “blessing” to “give thanks” (Greek = Eucharist)
  • 8. Feeding of the 5,000 Link to Eucharist
  • 9. Matthew 14:19-20 …and taking the five loaves and the two fish he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and broke and gave the loaves to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. And they all ate and were satisfied.
  • 10. Mark 6:41-42 And taking the five loaves and the two fish he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and broke the loaves, and gave them to the disciples to set before the people; and he divided the two fish among them all. And they all ate and were satisfied.
  • 11. Luke 9:16-17 And taking the five loaves and the two fish he looked up to heaven, and blessed and broke them, and gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd. And all ate and were satisfied.
  • 12. Of special note…  Same four basic actions as in the institution narrative (“shape of the Liturgy”)  Emphasis on the role played by the disciples  All were satisfied
  • 13. The Church of the New Testament
  • 14. Corinth For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, “This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way also he took the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” (I Cor. 11:23-25)
  • 15. Part of “the faith once delivered”  I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you  “Delivered” = “handed on” (Latin = tradition)  Not mere custom, but something received from the Lord and faithfully passed on by the apostles to the church  …the faith that was once for all delivered to the saints. (Jude 1:3)
  • 16. At the core of church life  And they devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:42)  When you come together, it is not the Lord's supper that you eat…(1 Corinthians 11:20)
  • 17. The Apostles John and Paul Meaning of the Lord‟s supper
  • 18. John  No institution narrative  Teaching on Eucharist provided instead in context of the feeding of the 5,000  Church‟s understanding of special place of John‟s Gospel  John “the theologian”
  • 19. Feeding of the 5,000 Jesus then took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated. So also the fish, as much as they wanted. And when they had eaten their fill, he told his disciples, “Gather up the leftover fragments, that nothing may be lost.” (John 6:11-12)
  • 20. Bread of life I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst. (John 6:35)
  • 21. Living bread from heaven Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread that comes down from heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh. (John 6:48-51)
  • 22. True food and true drink The Jews then disputed among themselves, saying, “How can this man give us his flesh to eat?” So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me. (John 6:52-57)
  • 23. Paul  Teaching in context of correction of abuses by the Church at Corinth
  • 24. Participation in the body and blood of Christ The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? (I Corinthians 10:16)
  • 25. Source of unity Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. (1 Corinthians 10:16-17)
  • 26. Origin of creedal statement on the “communion of saints”  Term “saints” ambiguous in both Greek and Latin  Holy “people”  Holy “things”  Historically, primary meaning = Eucharist  “Holy things for Holy People” (Eastern Liturgy)  Book of Common Prayer: the gifts of God for the people of God
  • 27. Proclaim the Lord‟s death  For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. (1 Corinthians 11:26)  Proclaim = make present
  • 28. The Early Church
  • 29. Jewish worship  Seder  Ritual meal  Temple worship  Sacrifice  Synagogue worship  Readings and teaching  Prayers
  • 30. Earliest Eucharist  In the context of a common meal, like a Seder  1 Corinthians
  • 31. Developments  Practical difficulties with common meal  Christians banned from synagogues and temple
  • 32. Resulting form  Liturgy of the Word  Roots in synagogue worship  Liturgy of the Table  Roots in Seder/temple worship
  • 33. Timing  Early practice = each Sunday  Lord‟s appearances to the gathered disciples  On Easter Sunday (John 20:19-23)  Also to disciples on road to Emmaus (who report back that very night)  Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread. (Luke 24:35)  One week later (John 20:26-29)
  • 34. Witness of Justine Martyr  Church of Rome  Tradition of Peter and Paul  About 150 AD  First Apology (65-67)
  • 35. Two testimonies  Eucharist immediately following baptism (65-66)  Regular Sunday Eucharist (67)
  • 36. Eucharist immediately following baptism Justin Martyr
  • 37. Prayers of the People But we, after we have washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brothers assembled. There we offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized [illuminated] person. We pray also for all others in every place, that we may be considered worthy, now that we have learned the truth, also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments by our works, so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation.
  • 38. Special note…  Those preparing for baptism were dismissed before the prayers of the people
  • 39. Kiss of peace When the prayers are ended, we greet one another with a kiss.
  • 40. Offertory Then bread and a cup of wine mixed with water is brought to the president of the brethren.
  • 41. Prayer of Thanksgiving/ Eucharistic Prayer and “Amen” He takes them, giving praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being considered worthy to receive these things at His hands. When he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. The word Amen means "so be it" in Hebrew.
  • 42. Communion When the president has given thanks and all the people have expressed their agreement, those who are called deacons give to each of those present the bread and the wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving has been pronounced. They carry away a portion to those who are absent.
  • 43. Only the baptized may receive communion This food is called among us the Eucharist. No one is allowed to participate but the man who believes that the things we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is living as Christ has commanded.
  • 44. Why limited to the baptized We do not receive these as common bread and common drink. As Jesus Christ our Savior, made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so similarly we have been taught that the food blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have delivered unto us what was commanded to them: Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, "This do in remembrance of Me, this is My body." After the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, "This is My blood;" and gave it to them alone.
  • 45. Regular Sunday Eucharist Justin Martyr
  • 46. Gathering on Sunday  On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together in one place.
  • 47. Why Sunday? Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God worked a change in the darkness and matter and made the world. On the same day Jesus Christ our Savior rose from the dead. He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day… of the Sun, He appeared to His apostles and disciples.
  • 48. Readings and homily The memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits. When the reader has finished, the president teaches and urges us to imitate these good things.
  • 49. Prayers of the people Then we all rise together and pray. . .
  • 50. Offertory When our prayer is ended, bread, wine and water are brought…
  • 51. Prayer of Thanksgiving (Eucharistic prayer) and “Amen” …and the president offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen.
  • 52. Communion There is a distribution to each and a participation of that over which thanks have been given. . .
  • 53. Collection Those who are well to do and willing give what each thinks appropriate. What is collected is deposited with the president, who helps the orphans and widows.
  • 54. Early Prayer of Thanksgiving/ Eucharistic Prayer Hippolytus of Rome (Apostolic Tradition) About 225
  • 55. Opening dialogue The Lord be with you. And with your spirit. Lift up your hearts. We lift them to the Lord. Let us give thanks to the Lord. That is right and just.
  • 56. Thanksgiving We thank you, God, through your beloved Son, Jesus Christ, whom you sent to us in these last times as Savior, Redeemer and Messenger of your plan, he who is your inseparable Word, by whom you created all things and whom in your good pleasure you sent from heaven into the bosom of a virgin, and who, having been conceived, became incarnate and manifested himself as your Son, born of the Holy Spirit and of the virgin. It is he who, fulfilling your will and acquiring for you a holy people, stretched out his hands while he suffered to deliver from suffering those who trust in you.
  • 57. Words of institution At the time he voluntarily was giving himself over to suffering to destroy death and break the chains of the devil, to trample hell under foot, to lead the righteous to light, to establish the rule (of faith) and to manifest the resurrection, taking bread, he gave you thanks and said: „Take, eat, this is my body which is broken for you.‟ In the same manner the cup, saying: „This is my blood which is shed for you. When you do this, do it in remembrance of me.‟
  • 58. Remembrance (anamnesis) and offering Recalling his death and resurrection, we offer you this bread and this cup, thanking you for having judged us worthy to stand before you and to serve you as priests.
  • 59. Prayer for the Holy Spirit (epiclesis) We ask you to send your Holy Spirit on this offering of the holy Church. In gathering them together, grant all those who participate in your holy mysteries to share in them so as to be filled with the Holy Spirit for the strengthening of their faith in the truth, so that we might praise and glorify you…
  • 60. Doxology and “Great Amen” …through your Son, Jesus Christ, by whom are given to you glory and honor with the Holy Spirit in the holy Church, now and for ages of ages. Amen.
  • 61. Prayer after communion God Almighty, the Father of the Lord and our Savior Jesus Christ, we give you thanks because you have imparted to us the reception of the holy mystery: let it not be for guilt or condemnation, but for the renewal of soul and body and spirit, through your only Son, through whom to you, with him and with the Holy Spirit be glory and might now and always and for ever and ever. Amen.
  • 62. Basic elements of the Eucharistic Prayer  Thanksgiving  Words of Institution  Anamnesis (remembrance = making present)  Offering (joining in Christ‟s one offering)  Epiclesis (prayer for the Holy Spirit)  Transform gifts/transform recipients  Cf. prayer of Elijah at Mt. Carmel  Doxology and Great Amen
  • 63. Connection to broader Church Ignatius of Antioch, Letter to the Philadelphians and Letter to the Smyrneans About 110
  • 64. One Eucharist Take care, therefore, to participate in one Eucharist (for there is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ and one cup that leads to unity through his blood – there is one altar, just as there is one bishop, together with the presbyters and the deacons, my fellow servants), in order that whatever you do, you do in accordance with God.
  • 65. Link to bishop Let no one do anything that has to do with the church without the bishop. Only that which is under the authority of the bishop (or whomever he himself delegates) is to be considered valid. Wherever the bishop appears, there let the congregation be; just as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the church catholic. It is not permissible either to baptize or to hold a love feast without the bishop. But whatever he approves is also pleasing to God, in order that everything you do may be trustworthy and valid.
  • 66. Why link to bishop?  Witness across time  Link to the apostles  Witness across space  Unity with other Christians
  • 67. The Eucharist today The Book of Common Prayer
  • 68. Basic structure  Basic structure  Liturgy of the Word  We meet God in His word  Liturgy of the Table  We meet God in His sacrament
  • 69. Procession  History – practical necessity  Accompanied by singing  Latin “introit”  Visible sign of the assembly coming together  Church = “called out” (Greek)
  • 70. Acclamation  We enter God‟s sanctuary with praise  Blessed be God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit/and blessed be his kingdom, now and forever  Alleluia, Christ is risen/the Lord is risen indeed, Alleluia  Blessed be the Lord who forgives all our sins/his mercy endures forever
  • 71. Collect for purity  We need God‟s grace to participate worthily  Almighty God, to you all hearts are open, all desires known, and from you no secrets are hid: Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of your Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love you, and worthily magnify your holy Name; through Christ our Lord. Amen.
  • 72. Song of adoration  Natural response to being in God‟s presence  Glory to God in the Highest (Gloria)  Originally dawn hymn for Easter  Lord have mercy (Kyrie)  Vestiges of litany  Holy God (Trisagion)
  • 73. Collect of the day  Prayer for the Lord‟s presence  The Lord be with you  And also with you (“and with your spirit”)  Let us pray  Invitation to pray individually  Collect = a collecting of individual prayers  Common pattern  Quality of God or deed  Petition derived from that fact
  • 74. Example – quality of God Address: O God, Quality: the protector of all who trust in you, without whom nothing is strong, nothing is holy: Petition: Increase and multiply upon us your mercy; that, with you as our ruler and guide, we may so pass through things temporal, that we lose not the things eternal; Closing: through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
  • 75. Example – Deed Address: O God, Deed: you have caused this holy night to shine with the brightness of the true Light: Petition: Grant that we, who have known the mystery of that Light on earth, may also enjoy him perfectly in heaven; Closing: where with you and the Holy Spirit he lives and reigns, one God, in glory everlasting. Amen.
  • 76. Overview - Liturgy of the Word  Old Testament (Acts during Easter season)  Psalm  New Testament (other than the Gospels)  Gospel  Creed  Prayers of the People  Confession of sin  Peace
  • 77. Old Testament reading (Acts during Easter season)  Originally read sequentially  Fixed lectionary with development of Church calendar  Typically related to Gospel or theme of season  Isaiah read during Advent  Common lectionary v. revised common lectionary  And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. (Luke 24:27)
  • 78. Psalm  Scripture reading in its own right  We proclaim together so there is no need to respond “thanks be to God”  Selection based on other readings
  • 79. New Testament Reading (other than Gospel)  Semi-continuous reading (with exceptions)
  • 80. Alleluia and Gospel  We rise to show respect for Christ who speaks to us  Sign of the cross  Cross on Gospel book  Three-fold cross on forehead, lips, heart  Three-year cycle  A – Matthew, B – Mark, C- Luke  John in Eastertide, select feasts, and year B
  • 81. Homily  Application of God‟s word  After the reading from the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent a message to them, saying, “Brothers, if you have any word of encouragement for the people, say it.”(Acts 13:15)
  • 82. Creed  A resounding “yes” to the message we have heard
  • 83. Prayers of the people  Exercise of priesthood of all believers  Cf. Justin Martyr on the Eucharist following a baptism  Content  Needs of the congregation  Needs of “people everywhere”  First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people, for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life, godly and dignified in every way. (1 Timothy 2:1-2)
  • 84. Confession  We need to repent to receive the body and blood of Christ worthily  Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty concerning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. (I Corinthians 11:27-28)
  • 85. Peace  We must be at peace with one another before we approach the Lord‟s table  So if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. (Matthew 5:23-24)
  • 86. Overview - Liturgy of the Table  Great Thanksgiving (Canon/Anaphora)  Dialogue  Preface (prayer of thanks and praise)  Holy, Holy, Holy/Blessed is he  Prayer of thanksgiving for work of redemption  Words of Institution  Anamnesis/offering  Epiclesis  Doxology and Amen
  • 87. Overview - Liturgy of the Table (cont.)  Our Father  Breaking of the bread (fraction)  Invitation to communion  Communion  Post-communion prayer  Blessing (optional)  Dismissal
  • 88. Preparation (offertory)  Presentation of bread and wine  Mixing of wine with water  West – Christ becoming one with us  East – Christ is true God and true man indivisibly
  • 89. Great thanksgiving  Dialogue  Invitation to all to enter into the Eucharistic prayer  Preface (prayer of thanks and praise)  Tailored to season/occasion
  • 90. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Holy, Holy, Holy (Latin: sanctus)  Vision of Isaiah (6:2-3) – heavenly worship  We join in that heavenly worship  Therefore we praise you, joining our voices with Angels and Archangels and with all the company of heaven, who for ever sing this hymn to proclaim the glory of your Name:  Blessed is he (Latin: benedictus)  Palm Sunday  We welcome Christ‟s visitation  Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest. (Matthew 21:9)
  • 91. Great thanksgiving  Prayer of thanksgiving for the work of redemption (Prayer A):  Holy and gracious Father: In your infinite love you made us for yourself; and, when we had fallen into sin and become subject to evil and death, you, in your mercy, sent Jesus Christ, your only and eternal Son, to share our human nature, to live and die as one of us, to reconcile us to you, the God and Father of all. He stretched out his arms upon the cross, and offered himself, in obedience to your will, a perfect sacrifice for the whole world.
  • 92. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Words of institution  On the night he was handed over to suffering and death, our Lord Jesus Christ took bread; and when he had given thanks to you, he broke it, and gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat: This is my Body, which is given for you. Do this for the remembrance of me.” After supper he took the cup of wine; and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, and said, “Drink this, all of you: This is my Blood of the new Covenant, which is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Whenever you drink it, do this for the remembrance of me.”
  • 93. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Anamnesis/offering (Prayer A)  We celebrate the memorial of our redemption, O Father, in this sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving. Recalling his death, resurrection, and ascension, we offer you these gifts.
  • 94. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Anamnesis/offering (Prayer B)  Therefore, according to his command, O Father, We remember his death, We proclaim his resurrection, We await his coming in glory; And we offer our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to you, O Lord of all; presenting to you, from your creation, this bread and this wine.
  • 95. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Anamnesis/offering (Prayer D)  Father, we now celebrate this memorial of our redemption. Recalling Christ’s death and his descent among the dead, proclaiming his resurrection and ascension to your right hand, awaiting his coming in glory; and offering to you, from the gifts you have given us, this bread and this cup, we praise you and we bless you.
  • 96. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Epiclesis (Prayer A)  Sanctify them by your Holy Spirit to be for your people the Body and Blood of your Son, the holy food and drink of new and unending life in him. Sanctify us also that we may faithfully receive this holy Sacrament, and serve you in unity, constancy, and peace; and at the last day bring us with all your saints into the joy of your eternal kingdom.
  • 97. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Epiclesis (Prayer B)  We pray you, gracious God, to send your Holy Spirit upon these gifts that they may be the Sacrament of the Body of Christ and his Blood of the new Covenant. Unite us to your Son in his sacrifice, that we may be acceptable through him, being sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
  • 98. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Epiclesis (Prayer D)  Lord, we pray that in your goodness and mercy your Holy Spirit may descend upon us, and upon these gifts, sanctifying them and showing them to be holy gifts for your holy people, the bread of life and the cup of salvation, the Body and Blood of your Son Jesus Christ. Grant that all who share this bread and cup may become one body and one spirit, a living sacrifice in Christ, to the praise of your Name.
  • 99. Great Thanksgiving (cont.)  Doxology and Amen  All this we ask through your Son Jesus Christ. By him, and with him, and in him, in the unity of the Holy Spirit all honor and glory is yours, Almighty Father, now and for ever. AMEN.  In Anglican usage, the elements are reverenced at this point  “Middle position” (Rome v. East)
  • 100. Our Father  Ideal preparation for communion  Daily bread  Mutual forgiveness
  • 101. Breaking of the bread  Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. (I Corinthians 10:17)  Communion in holy things  Communion of “saints”(= “holy things”)  Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us; Therefore let us keep the feast. (I Corinthians 5:7-8)
  • 102. Invitation to communion  The Gifts of God for the People of God.  Translation of Greek – Holy things for holy people.
  • 103. Communion  We are invited to taste, not bread and wine, but the sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ. Therefore, when you approach, do not come with your wrists extended or your fingers open, but instead let your left hand serve as a throne for your right, which is about to receive the King, and making a hollow in the palm of your right hand, receive the Body of Christ, saying afterwards, Amen… Then, after partaking of the Body of Christ, approach also the cup of his blood. Do not stretch out your hands, but bend forward and reverently say Amen, and so be sanctified by partaking also of the blood of Christ.  Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, Teachings on the Sacred Mysteries, 348 A.D.
  • 104. Post-communion prayer Eternal God, heavenly Father, you have graciously accepted us as living members of your Son our Savior Jesus Christ, and you have fed us with spiritual food in the Sacrament of his Body and Blood. Send us now into the world in peace, and grant us strength and courage to love and serve you with gladness and singleness of heart; through Christ our Lord. Amen.
  • 105. Closing rites  Blessing (optional)  Dismissal  Formal sending out
  • 106. Communion in special circumstances  Not a “Eucharist”  Focus on connection with broader church
  • 107. Approaches to Christ‟s presence  Transubstantiation  No longer bread and wine  Consubstantiation  Both bread and wine and body and blood  Receptionism  Christ present spiritually at moment of reception  Memorialism  Purely symbolic
  • 108. Anglican position  Formally rejects  Transubstantiation  Technical issues  Practical issues  Memorialism