Images and limited content is courtesy of Power Concepts
Welcome & Introductions <ul><li>About Green Home NYC </li></ul><ul><li>About the House Calls Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
House Calls Program Disclaimers <ul><li>We are volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>We are providing very basic info </li></ul><ul...
Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the House Calls presentation approach </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Building...
Terminology <ul><li>Energy Generation  –  </li></ul><ul><li>Converting natural resources into useful energy   </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Sustainable Development  –  </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting the needs of the present generation  </li></ul><ul><li>witho...
Cogeneration-   Combined Heat and Power (CHP) The simultaneous production of two or more useful forms of energy. Most comm...
Opportunities <ul><li>A Green Building can Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY EFFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul>...
Building Issues <ul><li>Heating & Hot Water </li></ul><ul><li>Building Envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Ventilation  ...
1. Heating-  Distribution <ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-pipe steam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><...
1-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
<ul><li>Radiators should be pitched </li></ul><ul><li>Radiator valves should be either fully opened or fully closed </li><...
2-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
<ul><li>Steam traps!!! </li></ul>2-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
Hydronic Distribution (Water) <ul><li>Easiest to control temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Can take advantage of the most effi...
Boilers <ul><li>Steam: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water boils at 212ºF and becomes steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam trave...
Scotch Marine Steel Firetube Boiler  Triple pass Heating- Boilers
Steam Boilers vs. and Hot Water Boilers Temperature / Pressure Indicator  Gauge Glass Heating- Boilers
Burners <ul><li>Atmospheric gas </li></ul><ul><li>Power Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-Fuel Burner </li></ul>Heating- Boilers
Condensing Gas Boiler Up to 97% efficient  Ways to Save: Heating- Ways to Save
DHW Generation <ul><li>Tankless coil in a heating boiler </li></ul><ul><li>Separate boiler: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tank typ...
Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types Tankless Coil in Scotch Marine Steel Boiler
Boilers Tankless Coil in Scotch Marine Steel Boiler  DHW System Types
A Tankless coil needs a  Mixing   Valve Cold water Hot water from tankless coil Mixed water to fixtures DHW System Types H...
Heating- DHW Boilers DHW Boiler
Instantaneous Electric Water Heater Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types
Solar DHW:  Flat Panel Vacuum Tubes Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types
Renewable Energy <ul><li>Solar PV and DHW are still very expensive will  </li></ul><ul><li>Building save more energy by in...
Design Considerations for Solar Thermal System in NYC <ul><li>Is there enough space on the roof? </li></ul><ul><li>A 60-tu...
2. Building Envelope-  Heat Transfer Basics <ul><li>Hot always goes to cold  </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure goes to low p...
Ways of Heat Transfer <ul><li>Convection (movement of air carrying heat) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction (movement of heat th...
Stack Effect:  Difference in air pressure Building Envelope
Air Infiltration Building Envelope
Conduction Building Envelope
Insulation Materials: <ul><li>batts and blankets  </li></ul><ul><li>rigid materials </li></ul><ul><li>sprayed-on materials...
Mechanical Ventilation is a large source of heat loss Building Envelope
Excessive Exhaust = Money Loss Building Envelope
Ways to Save: Minimize Air Infiltration <ul><li>Keep windows closed and weatherstripped </li></ul><ul><li>Keep dampers clo...
Ways to Save: Insulate Roof &Walls Building Envelope- Ways to Save
3. Mechanical Ventilation-  Code NYC Building Code of 2008 stipulated reduction in continuous exhaust requirements: Mechan...
Duct Cleaning and Sealing Mechanical Ventilation
Constant Airflow Regulators Mechanical Ventilation
4. Lighting and Appliances-  Turn off Electronics When Not in Use Electricity Consumption of Small Appliances Lighting and...
Characteristics of Light <ul><li>Color rendering index  ( CRI ) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a lamp to repr...
Torchieres CFL Torchiere Halogen Torchiere Lighting and Appliances
Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save Compact Florescent Lights (CFL)
Old AC (10,000 Btuh) with EER=8 uses 625 kWh = $156/year Energy Star AC with  EER = 12  uses 417 kWh = $104/year Energy St...
Programmable Timers Turn off air conditioning when you are not at home Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRVs) Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
Typical Fridge uses: 900 kWh = $225/year Energy Star Fridge uses: 450 kWh = $113/year Energy Star Refrigerators Lighting a...
<ul><li>Energy Star Front-Loading Washing Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: ~ $1,500/unit; Payback Time: ~8 years </li></ul...
5. Water Conservation <ul><li>Low Flow Showerheads : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow< 2.5 gpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost: ...
Reducing Toilet Water Volume Water Conservation- Ways to Save
6. Indoor Air Quality-  Individual Habits <ul><li>Instead of keeping windows open: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform management abo...
Reduce Drafts <ul><li>Weatherseal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AC sleeves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Weathersealing Options Indoor Air Quality
Draftiness from Air Conditioners <ul><li>Take the AC out in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the unit with a fabric or plast...
Questions for the Audience <ul><li>Is it too hot in apartments in winter? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the doors and windows draf...
Calculating the Heating Index <ul><li>Required Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Usage for 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Buil...
Cost-Benefit Analysis <ul><ul><li>Useful Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return ...
Follow-Up Materials <ul><li>Sample Energy Reduction Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Buildingscience.com </li></ul><ul><li>NYS Energ...
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  • Introduce Green Home NYC a) About Us b) What We Do 2. Introduce the House Calls program a) Information sessions for coop boards, condo boards, block associations, homeowner groups b) Encourage folks to be energy efficient &amp; green c) Provide guidance on actual steps &amp; processes available to them d) Presentations are mostly scripted e) Case studies provide comparative examples f) Follow-up assessment
  • Emphasize these points so that volunteers know that they deflect responsibilities for questions that they may not have answers for that are very technical.
  • Knowing the differences between the 3 will help you in your arguments: Energy Efficiency - productivity that we think is a tangible goal. Not too expensive - focuses on comfort. Something everyone can agree on generally. Energy Generation - this requires rather expensive investments, and most risky. Cost is generally best bourne by either of the other two approaches. Energy Conservation - this is the easiest, but challenging for other reasons since you are asking people to change inherent behaviors. This should always be part of any plan, but should be approached reasonably.
  • Sustainability is about long term empathy. Green is about immediate day-to-day actions.
  • Combustion engine and generator caution: the heat loss of the building vs. radiators output (relatively colder temp passing fast) Supers may be afraid to work with them – easier – if well sized and tuned – because of microprocessor.
  • Heating &amp; Hot Water: Overheating, underheating, no balancing, no controls Insulation Boiler settings/controls Building Envelope Drafts lead to hotness in Summer, coldness/dryness in Winter Lighting, Appliances, &amp; Electricity Inefficient lighting Non-EnergyStar appliances Phantom Loads Motors that are not EnergyStar Laundry machines Mechanical Ventilation Too strong/ too weak Significant gaps Motors Dirty and unclean Indoor Air Quality &amp; Environment Cleaning supplies/ household chemicals Fresh air circulation Flooring materials Paints Pest Control Mold Water Conservation &amp; Management Low-Flow showerheads &amp; faucet aerators HE laundry machines Low flow toilets Building heating systems that require hot water Storm water management Collective Community Behavior Recycling Composting No smoking Using stairwells more… Pro-Active, Long-Term Asset Management Know your equipment Keep track of repairs Schedule future repairs Train superintendents Set general guidelines for a contract work for paints, finishes, etc. Set general guidelines for regular maintenance supplies Plan ahead
  • Condensing gas boiler – for dhw and heating – 97% efficient – common in europe Application: DHW generation and hydronic heating (Tom talked to you about it). DHW is a perfect application for it because the temperature is relatively low, so the return temperatures is even lower =&gt; exhaust gases condense. Compare with conventional boiler – up to 85% efficiency
  • Whenever we have a tankless coil, we need a mixing valve. Why? -- Because we need to cool down the water coming out of the coil – it’s about 180 degrees F -- by mixing it with cold water.
  • Holby – no good. Thermostatic kind. In our experience the temperature fluctuates a lot, it can fail open and supply water above 180F to apartments.
  • Electric heaters – bad, but not in all cases (commercial building – makes sense). Empire state building – turned off these heaters. No energy needed for circulating DHW, so there are not pumps and circulation losses involved, small installed cost, no venting needed
  • Sollar DHW - connected to a tank and a boiler Vacuum tubes – higher efficiency, high temp water, less space, easier to install (at an angle), easier to replace a tube ($100/tube), good for the northern climate, but are more expensive than flat panels. 1 house needs 2-3 flat panels or vacuum 2x30 tubes to produce
  • Cost of Green Roofs vs. Benefits - could the money be used elsewhere for the benefits for storm water / insulation / heat island effect?
  • Radiation - sun heat goes through vacuum)
  • Stack effect occurs because warm air is less dense than cold air. The warm air rises and creates outward pressure at the top of buildings and inward pressure at the bottoms.  Ignoring the effects of wind, if a window is opened above the neutral plane, air flows from the interior of the building to the exterior. Conversely, if a window is opened below the neutral plane, air will travel from the exterior to the interior. The taller the building the more pronounced the stack effect is.
  • batts and blankets (for pipe insulation or sized to fit between wall studs, floor joists). rigid materials (foamboard and fiberboard for exterior or interior insulation) – this is what you will get for your roof or wall insulation. sprayed-on materials (polyurethane – often used to retrofit masonry walls with irregular surfaces). These could be toxic and contain HCFCs and CO2. With time as air replaces hydrocarbon gas, the R value of surfaces reduces. loose insulation (cellulose – roof insulation. Loose insulation is good for retrofits – it can fill spaces inside closed cavities)). This is what you will get for blown-in wall insulation.
  • Ventilation rates: New NYC code (effective July 2008): Bath – 20 CFM continuous Kitchen – 25 CFM continuous Corridors – 0.05 CFM/sq.ft. The new code requires 20 cfm continuous or 50 cfm intermittent ventilation for bathrooms, and 25 cfm continuous or 100 cfm intermittent for kitchens.   Old NYC code Bath – 50 CFM continuous Kitchens – 100 CFM continuous (2 or 3 CFM per s.f.)
  • Success of the CAR installation depends on the apartment access Ensure preset air flow from an exhaust grill CAR is a modulating orifice that automatically regulates airflows in duct systems to constant levels. The passive control element responds to duct pressure. CAR compensates for changes in duct pressure caused by thermal stack effect, building pressure, dust clogging, etc. Using Bernoulli effect, the active control element of the CAR is a unique aero-wing damper that lifts in response to increasing static pressure. This operation regulates the free-area opening through the control, resulting in maintenance of velocity and specific airflow set points. Bernoulli effect - an increase in the speed of the air occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure
  • (Unplug chargers and appliances when not in use. In the average home, 40% of electricity used to power home electronics is consumed while the products are turned off but still plugged in. Make sure to unplug chargers and appliances when you are not using them. ) Cable box is the biggy – turn it off, if possible. It is easy to plug all electronics into a power strip and turn the whole strip off.
  • Berkeley Lab researcher Michael Siminovitch conducted photometric tests and discovered that these lamps burn at nearly 1,000 °F, an energy intensive and dangerously high temperature considering the proximity of people and furnishings. In contrast, compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) torchieres, which incorporate electronic ballasts, operate at about 100°F, posing no fire hazard. CFL torchieres produce about 45% more light than halogen torchieres and consume only one-quarter the energy.
  • Given the air conditioner works 500 full load hours (FLH), and holding other things constant, an Energy Star AC will use 200 kWh/year less = $50/year. EER = Btuh/Watts = 12000 Btuh/Watts
  • reduce temp in winter and turn off AC in summer when you are not home. ( Air conditioners are one of the largest consumers of electricity. Be sure to shut off your air conditioner when you’re not home and manually set the thermostats and timers found on newer models. ) Using shades to help cool your home substantially reduces the amount of time your air conditioner needs to run.
  • TS will tell you about it in details.
  • Front-loading washing machines use half as much water as top loaders. Also, they extract more water in the spin cycle, which shortens the necessary drying time. So, Replacing top-loading washers with Energy Star washers will save water, the energy used to heat the water, electricity, and gas used to dry the clothing. Many laundry service providers are willing to replace washers free of charge, or free with an extension of the service contract. In that case, the payback would be immediate. Modified Energy Factor (MEF) is a measure of energy efficiency that considers the energy used by the washer, the energy used to heat the water, and the energy used to run the dryer. The higher the MEF, the more energy efficient the clothes washer. Water Factor (WF) measures water efficiency in gallons of water consumed per cubic foot of capacity. The lower the WF, the more water efficient the clothes washer. Both MEF and WF are listed on the ENERGY STAR qualified product list.
  • For best efficiency, get a low-flow showerhead with a shut-off valve. This allows you to turn off the water while soaping up, then turn it back on instantly without having to readjust the temperature.
  • If you already have an old toilet tank, put a heavy brick or a bottle with pebbles into the tank. This would displace the amount of water equal to the volume of the brick or a bottle. With each flush you would be saving water! And you can&apos;t tell a difference
  • (Caulk cracks and crevices. Seal any opening to the outside, where you feel that cold air is coming in.
  • If your windows are drafty, get a transparent plastic wrap (sold in Hardware Stores) and attach it using a sticky tape to the inside of your window frame. It won&apos;t reduce the amount of sunlight or clearance, but it will prevent draft from blowing inside of your apartment.)
  • Taking AC out of a window in winter solves the draftiness problem. However, it is a wall-through AC – you cannot always remove.
  • Hc training presentation_610

    1. 1. Images and limited content is courtesy of Power Concepts
    2. 2. Welcome & Introductions <ul><li>About Green Home NYC </li></ul><ul><li>About the House Calls Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission & Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical Timeline </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. House Calls Program Disclaimers <ul><li>We are volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>We are providing very basic info </li></ul><ul><li>We are not providing energy audits </li></ul><ul><li>We are not building professionals </li></ul>Volunteers are NOT expected to answer all questions. Technical questions can only be referred to professionals.
    4. 4. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the House Calls presentation approach </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Building Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of Heating Index </li></ul>
    5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Energy Generation – </li></ul><ul><li>Converting natural resources into useful energy </li></ul><ul><li>A supply side approach </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Conservation – </li></ul><ul><li>Changing consumption and behavior patterns </li></ul><ul><li>A demand side approach </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Sustainable Development – </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting the needs of the present generation </li></ul><ul><li>without compromising the ability of future generations </li></ul><ul><li>to meet their own needs </li></ul><ul><li>-World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiency – </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to get the same amount of productive end use </li></ul><ul><li>(heat, lighting, water, comfort, etc.) with less input </li></ul><ul><li>(oil, natural gas, solar, etc.) </li></ul>Terminology
    7. 7. Cogeneration- Combined Heat and Power (CHP) The simultaneous production of two or more useful forms of energy. Most commonly, electricity and useful heat Terminology
    8. 8. Opportunities <ul><li>A Green Building can Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY EFFICIENCY </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> SAVINGS </li></ul><ul><li> COMFORT </li></ul><ul><li> HEALTH </li></ul>
    9. 9. Building Issues <ul><li>Heating & Hot Water </li></ul><ul><li>Building Envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting, Appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Water Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Community Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-Active, Long-Term Asset Management </li></ul>
    10. 10. 1. Heating- Distribution <ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-pipe steam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-pipe steam </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Air </li></ul></ul>Heating
    11. 11. 1-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
    12. 12. <ul><li>Radiators should be pitched </li></ul><ul><li>Radiator valves should be either fully opened or fully closed </li></ul><ul><li>Important to maintain air vents </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for water hammer </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper to install </li></ul>1-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
    13. 13. 2-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
    14. 14. <ul><li>Steam traps!!! </li></ul>2-Pipe Steam Heating- Piping
    15. 15. Hydronic Distribution (Water) <ul><li>Easiest to control temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Can take advantage of the most efficient boiler </li></ul><ul><li>(condensing boiler) </li></ul>Heating- Piping
    16. 16. Boilers <ul><li>Steam: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water boils at 212ºF and becomes steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam travels through the steam headers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>into radiators and returns as condensate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydronic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water heated to 120ºF -180ºF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump circulates water through system </li></ul></ul>Heating- Boilers
    17. 17. Scotch Marine Steel Firetube Boiler Triple pass Heating- Boilers
    18. 18. Steam Boilers vs. and Hot Water Boilers Temperature / Pressure Indicator Gauge Glass Heating- Boilers
    19. 19. Burners <ul><li>Atmospheric gas </li></ul><ul><li>Power Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-Fuel Burner </li></ul>Heating- Boilers
    20. 20. Condensing Gas Boiler Up to 97% efficient Ways to Save: Heating- Ways to Save
    21. 21. DHW Generation <ul><li>Tankless coil in a heating boiler </li></ul><ul><li>Separate boiler: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tank type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a separate tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantaneous steam or gas fired </li></ul></ul>Heating- DHW Boilers
    22. 22. Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types Tankless Coil in Scotch Marine Steel Boiler
    23. 23. Boilers Tankless Coil in Scotch Marine Steel Boiler DHW System Types
    24. 24. A Tankless coil needs a Mixing Valve Cold water Hot water from tankless coil Mixed water to fixtures DHW System Types Heating- DHW Boilers
    25. 25. Heating- DHW Boilers DHW Boiler
    26. 26. Instantaneous Electric Water Heater Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types
    27. 27. Solar DHW: Flat Panel Vacuum Tubes Heating- DHW Boilers DHW System Types
    28. 28. Renewable Energy <ul><li>Solar PV and DHW are still very expensive will </li></ul><ul><li>Building save more energy by investing in energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Consider buying green electricity from your utility </li></ul>
    29. 29. Design Considerations for Solar Thermal System in NYC <ul><li>Is there enough space on the roof? </li></ul><ul><li>A 60-tube setup requires approx. 100 sq. ft. of space </li></ul><ul><li>Typical NYC roof = </li></ul><ul><li>7,000 – 12,000 sqft, but mechanical equipment, vents, etc. reduce this. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaded areas </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive installation </li></ul>
    30. 30. 2. Building Envelope- Heat Transfer Basics <ul><li>Hot always goes to cold </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure goes to low pressure </li></ul><ul><li>High humidity goes to low humidity </li></ul>Building Envelope
    31. 31. Ways of Heat Transfer <ul><li>Convection (movement of air carrying heat) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction (movement of heat through materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation (sensation of temperature/heat emission from objects) </li></ul>Building Envelope
    32. 32. Stack Effect: Difference in air pressure Building Envelope
    33. 33. Air Infiltration Building Envelope
    34. 34. Conduction Building Envelope
    35. 35. Insulation Materials: <ul><li>batts and blankets </li></ul><ul><li>rigid materials </li></ul><ul><li>sprayed-on materials </li></ul><ul><li>loose insulation </li></ul>Building Envelope
    36. 36. Mechanical Ventilation is a large source of heat loss Building Envelope
    37. 37. Excessive Exhaust = Money Loss Building Envelope
    38. 38. Ways to Save: Minimize Air Infiltration <ul><li>Keep windows closed and weatherstripped </li></ul><ul><li>Keep dampers closed </li></ul><ul><li>Keep doors closed and weatherstripped (especially in basement, lobby and roof levels) </li></ul><ul><li>Weatherseal AC sleeves </li></ul>Building Envelope- Ways to Save
    39. 39. Ways to Save: Insulate Roof &Walls Building Envelope- Ways to Save
    40. 40. 3. Mechanical Ventilation- Code NYC Building Code of 2008 stipulated reduction in continuous exhaust requirements: Mechanical Ventilation
    41. 41. Duct Cleaning and Sealing Mechanical Ventilation
    42. 42. Constant Airflow Regulators Mechanical Ventilation
    43. 43. 4. Lighting and Appliances- Turn off Electronics When Not in Use Electricity Consumption of Small Appliances Lighting and Appliances
    44. 44. Characteristics of Light <ul><li>Color rendering index ( CRI ) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a lamp to reproduce the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent: CRI of 100. Good fluorescent: CRI of 85. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Color temperature is an indicator of the hue of a specific type of light source, measured in Kelvin </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent: 2,500K. Good fluorescent: 2,700K-3,000K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher color temperatures (5,000 K) are cool (blue white) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower color temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are warm (yellow). </li></ul></ul></ul>Lighting and Appliances
    45. 45. Torchieres CFL Torchiere Halogen Torchiere Lighting and Appliances
    46. 46. Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save Compact Florescent Lights (CFL)
    47. 47. Old AC (10,000 Btuh) with EER=8 uses 625 kWh = $156/year Energy Star AC with EER = 12 uses 417 kWh = $104/year Energy Star Air Conditioners Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
    48. 48. Programmable Timers Turn off air conditioning when you are not at home Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
    49. 49. Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRVs) Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
    50. 50. Typical Fridge uses: 900 kWh = $225/year Energy Star Fridge uses: 450 kWh = $113/year Energy Star Refrigerators Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
    51. 51. <ul><li>Energy Star Front-Loading Washing Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Cost: ~ $1,500/unit; Payback Time: ~8 years </li></ul>Ways to Save: Lighting and Appliances- Ways to Save
    52. 52. 5. Water Conservation <ul><li>Low Flow Showerheads : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow< 2.5 gpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost: ~ $45/showerhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback: ~1 year </li></ul></ul>Water Conservation- Ways to Save
    53. 53. Reducing Toilet Water Volume Water Conservation- Ways to Save
    54. 54. 6. Indoor Air Quality- Individual Habits <ul><li>Instead of keeping windows open: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform management about excessive heat </li></ul><ul><li>Shut the radiator valve off </li></ul><ul><li>Get a TRV </li></ul>Double-Hung Zone Valve Indoor Air Quality Cooler Warmer
    55. 55. Reduce Drafts <ul><li>Weatherseal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AC sleeves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlet gaskets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dumbwaiter shafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kitchen pipe penetration </li></ul></ul>Indoor Air Quality
    56. 56. Weathersealing Options Indoor Air Quality
    57. 57. Draftiness from Air Conditioners <ul><li>Take the AC out in winter </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the unit with a fabric or plastic cover </li></ul><ul><li>Caulk around </li></ul>Indoor Air Quality
    58. 58. Questions for the Audience <ul><li>Is it too hot in apartments in winter? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the doors and windows drafty? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there mechanical ventilation? </li></ul><ul><li>I noticed the hallway lighting is… </li></ul>
    59. 59. Calculating the Heating Index <ul><li>Required Information: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Usage for 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Building Square Footage </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Heating Degree Days in the period </li></ul>
    60. 60. Cost-Benefit Analysis <ul><ul><li>Useful Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payback Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Investment (ROI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings to Investment Ratio(SIR) </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Follow-Up Materials <ul><li>Sample Energy Reduction Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Buildingscience.com </li></ul><ul><li>NYS Energy Conservation Code 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Excerpts of new NYC laws </li></ul>

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