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    Ncbc ecg-presentation 3 Ncbc ecg-presentation 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Can New National Energy Code Deliver Efficient Buildings? National Committee ofBuildings Codes in Kuwait Energy Code Group
    • Outline: Forward Introduction Principle of Energy Codes and Regulations Scope of building energy codes and regulations Options for structures of building energy codes and regulations Advantages and disadvantages of elemental and integrated methods
    • ForwardThe Kuwait government recently formedNational Building Codes Committee inKuwait. It identified that the building controlsystem in Kuwait is ‘…not broken, (but) it has some significant weaknesses that must be tackled if we are to ensure that it remains fit for purpose in today’s world and in the future’
    • IntroductionMEW Enforcers Minimum requirements for efficient energy use in buildings have been enforced by the Ministry of Electricity and Water sector (MEW) for all new and retrofitted buildings since 1983, through an Energy Conservation Code of Practice that takes into consideration the fact that consumers pay only a fraction (5 to10%) of actual cost of power and energy.
    • IntroductionMEW Enforcers The 1983 code specifies minimum thermal resistance for walls and roofs, size and quality for glazing, fresh air requirements, and performance standards for A/C systems. More importantly, the code fixes the maximum allowable power for the A/C system and lighting of buildings based on the application, area and type of A/C system.
    • IntroductionMEW Enforcers - Results The energy conservation code, as legislation, helps foster economic growth and reduces adverse environmental impacts. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortages, and is a more environmentally being alternative to increased energy production.
    • Principle of Energy Codes andRegulations  Be easy to apply  Be applicable to all types of buildings and systems  Be sufficiently adaptable/flexible to accept new technologies and design approaches  Be easy and reliable to police  Produce reliable outcomes  Be consistent in application  Discriminate between better and less good buildings  Not have adverse side effects (e.g. on health or safety).
    • Scope of building energy codesand regulations  Building energy codes are typically divided into sections dealing with envelope issues, HVAC systems, lighting, and hot water systems.  A comprehensive energy code should include all these, though historically (and currently) many building energy regulations only address some of them.
    • Options for structures of buildingenergy codes and regulations  Prescriptive and performance-based codes “A prescriptive approach describes an acceptable solution while a performance approach describes the required performance” (Foliente, 2000)  Codes could have mixed of prescriptive and performance-based approached  Elemental and Integrated procedure for compliance
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Elemental structure ◦ An elemental structure is the easiest to follow and is generally preferred by designers and builders of relatively small buildings. Since the key issues for compliance relate to the products and construction methods, it is often possible for manufacturers to check and certify performance (for windows, for example) or to have straightforward calculation rules (say insulation). This takes compliance checking more straightforward (though not entirely problem-free).
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Integrated Methods ◦ Integrated methods are more flexible, but are more difficult to apply and check. They require the use of a calculation procedure, usually computer-based, which may be more or less complex depending on the scope of the code. ◦ Often, residential calculation procedures are relatively simple, while those for non- residential buildings are more complex.
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Integrated Methods ◦ Integrated methods can set generic targets that are typically expressed in kWh/m² per year with different target values for different building types, such as offices, schools, and sport halls
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Combined Methods ◦ With careful design of the process, it is possible to combine the advantages of both approaches. ◦ The elemental performance levels set for the reference building of an integrated method comprise a set of requirements that guarantee compliance.
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Combined Methods ◦ Therefore there is no need to carry out the calculation for a building that complies with all the elemental requirements. Only if the designer chooses to take advantage of the flexibility offered by the integrated approach then a calculation is needed.
    • Advantages and disadvantagesof elemental and integrated methods Performance Based Codes ◦ The code should be performance based and should take the form of an integrated energy calculation that includes the demands generated by the building fabric and its occupants upon all the fixed building services, and the performance of the systems that satisfy those demands. It should include all energy supplies to the building.
    • Sequence of Building Regulations A typical development sequence of building energy regulations is: ◦ Elemental thermal requirements ◦ Add trade-offs between elements ◦ Fully integrated calculations ◦ Extension to energy performance rating.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Enforcement of building regulations ◦ Compliance with mandatory minimum performance requirements should be confirmed by formally certified private assessors, who charge building owners for their services. The process should be audited by the authority under which the code is issued – normally local or central government – or by their agents. The audit process should have the ultimate sanction of removing accreditation from assessors, subject to proper appeals and review procedures.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Enforcement of building regulations ◦ Pre-consultation  Most countries provide the facility for informal discussion of proposed projects between applicants and building authorities. ◦ Approval of plans  Approval of plans is generally required.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Enforcement of building regulations ◦ Pre-consultation ◦ Start of construction  In most countries start of construction has to be notified to the building authority. ◦ Inspection during construction  In principle, works are inspected during construction. Inspection may be by local authority or private organization or both according to country.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Enforcement of building regulations ◦ Responsibility for control  Responsibility is split between the public and private sectors in ways that differ between countries  The responsibility for granting permits almost always rests with local authorities, although in England and Wales private organizations are qualified so to do.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Required Performance Levels ◦ As a general principle, mandatory minimum performance levels should reflect an assessment of the balance of costs and benefits to society, including external costs.
    • Code Basic Structure of BuildingRegulation Fiscal action ◦ Fiscal incentives or penalties should be linked to building energy labels. Demonstration Action ◦ Programs should be funded to demonstrate (or not) the feasibility of buildings that exceed current regulatory minimum performance levels.
    • Forming of Energy Code Group National Committee ofBuildings Codes in Kuwait
    • National Committee of BuildingCodes in Kuwait Council of Ministers’ Decree # 1145, dated August 16th,2010.
    • Forming Energy Code Committee Dr. Ali Al-Ajmi Chair Prof. Abdullatif Ben Nakhi Member Eng. Fareed Alghmlas Member Eng. Wid Al-Amer Member Dr. Adnan A. Al Anzi Member Dr. Essam Assem Member Dr. Souror Alotaibi Member
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeDr. Ali AlajmiAssistance ProfessorMechanical EngineeringPAAET - College of Technological StudiesEducation:• PhD. in Mechanical Engineering - Built Environment, Loughborough University, UK. - Aug. 2006• M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait - March 1997• B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait - July 1994Research Interest:Building Optimization using Genetic Algorithm, BuildingSimulations, Building Energy Auditing, Building Conservation,Green Building Concepts, Building system rating, Indoor AirQuality (IAQ), Heat transfer, Heat Exchangers, Performance of theNew Refrigerants.
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeProf. Abdullatif Ben-NakhiMechanical EngineeringPAAET - College of Technological StudiesEducation:• Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering , University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (UK) - (1992 – 1995).• M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio (USA) - (1988 – 1989).• B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, Khaldia, Kuwait - (1981 – 1986).Research Interest:• Energy Conservation in Buildings, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Combined Heat and Moisture Flow, Natural Convection, Conjugate Heat Flow, Air-Conditioning System, and intelligent control approaches for HVACR.
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeEng. Fareed AlghimlasSenior Research AssociateBuildings and Energy Technologies DepartmentKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchEducation:• M.Sc. in Building System Engineering Program, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. USA -1996.• B.Sc. in Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. USA -1988.Research Interest:Building energy simulation, thermal analysis of buildings, energyefficiency in buildings, energy auditing, building energy codes,LEED certification, energy policy and modelling, district energysystems, HVAC system design, indoor air quality and industrialventilation.
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeEng. Wid AlamerChief Mechanical EngineerOption-1Raad Alabdallah Consulting Engineers - KuwaitEducation:• M. Phil. in Mechanical Engineering, Brighton University, U.K.- 1982• B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Brighton University, U.K. - 1976.Research Interest:Energy Conservation, Solar Systems
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeDr. Adnan Al-AnziProfessorArchitecture Engineering DepartmentCollege of Engineering & Petroleum –Kuwait UniversityEducation:• Ph.D. in Civil Engineering/Building Systems, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO - 1999.• M.Sc. in Civil Engineering/Building Systems, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO - 1993.• B.Sc. in Architectural Engineering, University of Miami,Coral Gables, FL.(Cum Laudi) - 1987.Research Interest:Thermal analysis of building, Mechanical systems of buildings,Integration of building systems, Indoor air quality, Solar analysis ofbuildings, Heat Transfer in ground-coupled buildings, Shadinganalysis and glass in architecture.
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeDr. Essam AssemAssociate Research ScientistBuildings and Energy Technologies DepartmentKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchEducation:• Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, U.K. -1993.• M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde,Glasgow, Scotland, U.K.-1989• B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Northumbria, Newcastle Upon Tyne, U.K. -1985.Research Interest:Management in Research and Development , Technical Analysis,Thermal Systems Analysis, Renewable Energy Applications,Energy Efficiency & Conservation, Building Physics, Modeling &Simulation of Buildings & HVAC Systems, TechnicalDocumentation, Project & Investment Appraisal
    • Forming Energy Code CommitteeDr. Sorour AlotiabiAssociate ProfessorMechanical Engineering DepartmentCollege of Engineering & Petroleum –Kuwait UniversityEducation:• Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA – 2003.• M.Sc. in Aerospace Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA – 2001.• M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse. USA – 1998.• B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait – 1995.Research Interest:Desalination and power plants, Solar Energy, Energy policy andenergy management, Controllability problem in thermal systems,Heat Exchangers, HVAC.
    • Availability and Difficulty The committee strategy of reviewing the existing code ◦ Comparing the regional (G.C.C) and Global (ASHREA 90.2) to the existing energy code ◦ Possibility of changing the main philosophy of the existing energy code (MEW R-6/7) ◦ Degree of changing on this stage On glance review of the existing energy code period of review, see Figure below
    • Frequent of Updating NationalEnergy Code U.S. Kuwait 1975 1980 1989 1999 2001 2004 2007
    • Implementation of A SuccessfulStandard and Codes
    • Energy Code Group Action Plan1. Identifying the main objectives and Mandate of the committee2. Measures to achieve these objectives3. Setting meeting schedule for the upcoming year and means of communicating.
    • Tasks for Energy Code CommitteeThe National Building Codes Committee hasassign task of different aspect with mainobjectives and time frame: Review the existing code, compare it with regional and global codes Minors changing only to be done, until a whole changing to the building codes strategy prepared One year is given for this changing with 10-15% of changing
    • Meeting Schedules# Meeting Date Activities • Introduction 1 October 25, 2010 • Brainstorming group activity • Brainstorming group activity 2 November 1, 2010 (Cont.) • Review of Arab Code, Saudi Building Code 3 December 6, 2010 • Comparison of R6 to Arab Code and Saudi Building Code • Review of Arab Code, Saudi Building Code (Cont.) • Comparison of R6 to Arab Code 4 December 13, 2010 and Saudi Building Code (Cont.) • Addition of section “Purpose” to R6
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of section 3 “Definitions” 5 December 13, 2010 • Addition of more definitions from ASHRAE • Review of Section 4 “Typical Meteorological Year (TMY), Design Conditions and Design 6 December 27, 2010 Day Profiles” • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings”
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of section 7 “Minimum 7 January 3, 2011 Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation 8 January 10, 2011 Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Presentation Strategic Plan of the group for the upcoming year • Acceptance of Strategic Plan of the group for the upcoming year 9 January 17, 2011 • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings” (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation10 January 24, 2011 Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Definitions added • Review of section 7 “Minimum11 February 14, 2012 Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation12 February 21, 2011 Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Definitions added • Review of section 7 “Minimum13 March 7, 2011 Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings” (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of section 7 “Minimum Required Energy Conservation14 March 14, 2011 Measures for Buildings” (Cont.) • Definitions added • Review of Section 5 “Methods of Load Estimation”15 March 24, 2011 • Review of Section 6 “Basic Energy Conservation Requirements” • Review of Section 5 “Methods of Load Estimation” (Cont.) • Review of Section 6 “Basic16 April 4, 2011 Energy Conservation Requirements” Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of Section 6 “Basic17 April 11, 2011 Energy Conservation Requirements” (Cont.) • Review of Section 6 “Basic18 April 18, 2011 Energy Conservation Requirements” (Cont.) • Discussion on amendment of tables 5 & 6. • Addition of definitions19 April 25, 2011 • Review of Section 6 “Basic Energy Conservation Requirements” (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Amendment and addition of Definitions.20 May 9, 2011 • Completion of Review of Section 5 & 6. • Review of some pending items on section 7.21 May 16, 2011 • Amendment and addition of Definitions. • Acceptance of amendment to the tables 5 & 6.22 May 23, 2011 • Finalization on the amendment to some definitions.
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Rephrasing titles of tables23 September 28, 2011 • Review of some pending issues of section 4 & 5. • Finalizing of definition of A/C24 October 10, 2011 • Finalizing of definition of Mixed Used Buildings. • Review of some pending items25 October 17, 2011 on section 7. (Cont.) • Review of some pending items26 October 26, 2011 on section 7. (Cont.) • Review of some pending items27 October 31, 2011 on section 7. (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Review of some pending items28 November 21, 2011 on section 7. (Cont.) • Completion of review of section 7. • Overview of Section 8 and29 November 28, 2011 distribution of task of preliminary review among the group. • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,30 December 7, 2011 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections.
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,30 December 7, 2011 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.) • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,31 December 12, 2011 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.) • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,32 December 19, 2011 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,33 January 9, 2012 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.) • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,34 February 20, 2012 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.) • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,35 March 5, 2012 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.)
    • Meeting Schedules (Cont.) # Meeting Date Activities • Submission of individual preliminary review of section 8,36 March 12, 2012 discussion and finalizing the review and acceptance of sub- sections. (Cont.) • Review of section 8 completed. • Distribution of section 9, 10, 1137 March 19, 2012 & 12 for individual preliminary review. • Submission of individual38 April 2, 2012 preliminary review of section 9, discussed and finalized • Submission of individual39 April 9, 2012 preliminary review of section 10, 11 & 12, discussed and finalized
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (old)Table 6. Basic Energy Conservation Requirements of Different Standard Buildings*. A/C Systems (W/m2)** Water-Cooled Chiller Building Type Lighting(W/m2) Air-Cooled DX** Chiller <250 RT 250<RT<500 >500 RT Residential - Villa 10 60 71 53 46 44 - Apartment 10 60 71 53 46 44 Clinic 20 85 100 75 65 63 School 20 100 118 88 76 74 Mosque - prayer area 20 115 135 101 88 85 Fast food restaurant - Stand-alone 20 145 171 128 111 107 - In a mall 20 120 141 106 92 88 Office 20 70 82 62 54 51 Shopping mall 40 70 82 62 54 51 Stand alone 40 80 94 71 61 59 shops Community hall, dining hall, theatre 20 115 135 101 88 85 Show room 40 115 135 101 88 85* This table is based on zero diversity.**DX = direct expansion; A/C = air-conditioning
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (new)Table 5. Basic Energy Conservation Requirements of Different Standard Buildings*. A/C Systems (W/m2) Building Lighting Air- Water-Cooled Chiller Type (W/m2) ** DX*** Cooled Chiller <250 RT 250<RT<500 >500 RT Residential - Villa 8 60 65 53 46 44 - Apartment 8 60 65 53 46 44 Clinic 11 85 100 75 65 63 School 13 100 118 88 76 74 Mosque - prayer area 14 115 135 101 88 85 Fast food restaurant - Stand-alone 15 145 171 128 111 107 - In a mall 15 120 141 106 92 88 Office 11 70 82 62 54 51 Shopping 16 70 82 62 54 51 mall Community hall, dining 17 115 135 101 88 85 hall, theatre * This table is based on zero diversity. For more details refer to ASHRAE 90.1 ** For spaces in which lighting is specified to be installed in addition to the general lighting for the purpose of decorative appearance, such as chandelier-type luminaries or sconces or for highlighting art or exhibits, provided that the additional lighting power shall not exceed 11 W/m 2 of such spaces. *** DX = direct expansion
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (old)Table 7. Maximum Allowable U values for Different Types of Walls and Roofs Description Wall Roof Heavy construction, medium-light external color 0.568 (0.1) 0.397 (0.07) Heavy construction, dark external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.256 (0.045) Medium construction, medium-light external color 0.483 (0.085) 0.341 (0.06) Medium construction, dark external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.199 (0.035) Light construction, medium-light external color 0.426 (0.075) 0.284 (0.05) Light construction, dark external color 0.369 (0.065) 0.170 (0.03)Note: All figures are given in W/m2.°K (Btu/h.ft2.°F)
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (new)Table 6. Maximum Allowable U values for Different Types of Walls and Roofs. Wall Roof Description Thermal Thermal U-value2 U-value2 Mass1 Mass1Very light < 50 < 25construction, light 0.227 (0.04) 0.155 (0.027) (< 2.4) (< 1.2)colorLight construction, 0.369 (0.065) 0.170 (0.03)dark external color 50-220 25 – 110Light construction, (2.4-10.8) (1.2-5.4)medium-light 0.426 (0.075) 0.284 (0.05)external colorMediumconstruction, dark 0.426 (0.075) 0.199 (0.035)external color 221 – 440 111 – 220Medium (10.9-21.5) (5.5-10.8)construction, 0.483 (0.085) 0.341 (0.06)medium-lightexternal colorHeavy construction, 0.426 (0.075) 0.256 (0.045)dark external color > 440 > 220Heavy construction, (> 21.5) (> 10.8)medium-light 0.568 (0.1) 0.397 (0.07)external color 1. Figures are given in kJ/m2.C (Btu/ft2.F) 2. Figures are given in W/m2.C (Btu/h.ft2.F) Thermal bridging must be included in calculation of U-Value of wall and roof
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (old)Table 10. Maximum Power Rating for Different Types of A/C Systems and theirComponents System Power Rating (kW/RT) Type Capacity PRCHIL PRCTF PRCW PRCHW PRAH PRT (RT) Ducted Split All and Packaged 1.70 Units Air-cooled 100 100-250 1.600 0.050 0.350 2.00 250 Water-cooled * 250 0.950 1.50 250-500 0.950 0.040 0.060 0.070 0.380 1.50 500-1000 0.750 1.30 1000 0.70 1.25 A/C = air-conditioning; RT = refrigeration ton; kW = kilowatt; PR = power rating Subscripts; CHIL=chiller, CTF=cooling tower fan, CW=condenser water pump, CHW=chilled water pumps, AH=Air-handling fan unit, T=total * Capacity shown is for individual chillers.
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (new)Table 8. Maximum Power Rating for Different Types of A/CSystems and their Components. System Power Rating (kW/RT) Capacity Type PRCHIL PRAH PRT (RT)Ducted Split and Packaged Units All 1.70 Air-Cooled All 1.60 0.35 2.00 0-499 0.95 1.50 0.38 Water-Cooled 500-999 0.75 1.30 1000 0.7 1.25A/C = air-conditioning; RT = refrigeration ton; kW = kilowatt; PR = power ratingSubscripts;CHIL = chiller, AH = Air-handling fan unit, AUX = chilled water pumps &/or condenserwater pumps &/or cooling tower fans, T = total* Capacity shown is per individual chiller.
    • Parts of Changings on the Code (new)
    • Comparison between theExisting and New Code
    • Comparison between theExisting and New CodeResults shows saving around 20% with similar HVAC system.
    • Current & Future Actions Review the amendment by MEW A discussion to incorporating MEW comments with the committee members will be held soon. An open discussion with the end users of the code. Open for public review.
    • Conclusion Codes have to simple and adoptable. A continues improvement of codes is required A new philosophy of the MEW codes need to be addressed A tremendous of research is required for upcoming code’s amendments Enforcement strategy need to be implemented.
    • Thanksfor your kind listening