Redesigning Local Food to Better Satisfy Local Needs


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Redesigning Local Food to Better Satisfy Local Needs

  1. 1. Redesigning LOCAL FOOD - to better satisfy local needs! Creating New Regionally Adapted Genetics(RAGS) to meet your local food requirements - Ken Taylor
  2. 2.  FPS(Food Production Score) – measures how well a country’s farmers are satisfying the food requirements of its own citizens and is measured by how much imported food/citizen/yr is needed above what is exported.  In Canada our Gov and Ag system encourages farmers to produce food for export(corn,soya, wheat, canola,pork, cheese,etc) and the billions of dollars spent on imported food is ignored or considered impossible to grow by Canadian farmers.  Until a decade ago our food production sold abroad(exports) was greater than the food we imported – now Canada imports more food than it exports---a $40 Billion deficit!  Farmers need to wake up and start growing food Canadian consumers want to eat. Example: Grapes - import $700M fresh + $800M dry/wet so this one product can knock $1.5B of off our import food bill. Crazy!
  3. 3.     Fruit – nuts – berries – veggies 1950 – 90% made in CANADA 2013 – 10% made in CANADA 2020... 5% ????? NEEDS GROWING FORWARD: 1) need farmers to learn how to grow what is being imported 2) need “made in CANADA” genetics for our farmers to plant 3) need new genetics for grapes/apples/pears/quince/cherry and many other fruit, nuts, berries, veggies. 4) need “export” farmers smart enough to switch crops???
  4. 4. must PRESERVE the PAST by mixing older genetics while FEEDING the FUTURE! with new SEEDS of change(RAGS)
  5. 5. LOCAL vs CORPORATE GENETICS Private landowners – YOU must learn how to create local food genetics that meet YOUR needs!  SEEDS Regionally Adapted Genetics  Genetics Riches? ! first then maybe RAGS to ----RAGS----    or ----GMO’s---- If Monsanto is allowed to control the genetics of YOUR food supply – then expect more genetically engineered food in future. Regionally adapted genetics (RAGS) are not funded here in Canada ! O’CANADA – GMO free? Give out seeds SEEDS SEEDS
  6. 6. *see ACRES USA- Dec 2013 “Rogue Science” by Dr. Judy Carmen -JC sees GMO’s causing major human health problems: 1) GMO’s toxicity can cause kidney distress by overtaxing its cleansing function. 2) Pig studies show GMO’s cause ovary distress and thus reproductive problems 3) Study showed GMO’s caused pig’s intestinal wall to turn red/swollen - an allergic response resulting in severe gut inflammation(Crones, Diverticulitis,Celiacs) 4) Cancer initiation likely from GMO food and GMO farm fields( Nico, RUp, Aor) 5) GMO bad molecular structure = gluten intolerance,like HDL(good) vs LDL (bad) Taylor-made RAGS - no GMO’s
  7. 7. 1) start with open-pollinated seeds --- ---------------NO controlled crosses or engineered genetics! 2) select for higher nutrient density food--- -------instead of higher volume food 3) select for superior taste ------------------------- ------before cosmetic factors like colour, size and shape! 4) select rainbow of deep colours as indicator of higher/healthier antioxidant content ------less white! 5) select maximum diversity so better adapted to climate extremes in cold/drought/rain/wind 6) select for pest and disease resitance so better adapted to organic agriculture and permaculture. 7) select for better storage capability ---NOT better shipability (like those « tennis ball » tomatoes) 8) select for better shade tolerance for food forests,permaculture guilds and other shaded locations 9) select for higher valued genetics to get higher $$ yields/acre - Grapes($40,000/acre) vs Corn($400/a)       Finally RAGS can be selected to meet specific local needs(resiliency): URBAN TORONTO? - maybe select for ethnic preferences – Toronto’s Asian community loves persimmons - maybe better root genetics capable of absorbing/assimilating soil nutrients in poor urban soil - maybe Nitrogen-fixing plant genetics to replenish fertilizer in deficient urban soils   - maybe plant genetics that can ripen crop to perfection in shade of tall urban building  
  8. 8. some traits that needed improvement RAGS used to make improved crops Bartlett pear genetics get fireblight , go mushy and cannot take cold below -25C but have great flavour found pear genetics that resist fireblight , store for months, take -40 C and great flavour – Northbrite, TAP Concord grape has large seeds, sour skin, late ripening but great flavour cooked in pies/jam/etc found grapes that are seedless, very cold hardy, early to ripen and great flavour – Earliblue, Mars, Kiwi MacIntosh apple is a tasty, cold hardy Ontario native but has scab problems and poor storage. found genetics that keep Mac taste but have scab resistance and better storage – SuperMac, NovaMac Mt Royal blue plum dies young from black knot disease mix genes of apricot or sand cherry into plum and get black knot resistance - Taylor Plumcot,Kappa Chum but is sweet and delicious Bing sweet cherries are not hardy, tricky to pollinate, attract birds, great fresh but make terrible cherry pie. Butternuts are getting chancre disease, are hard to crack but have great flavour and Canadian hardiness Lets look at the better genetic selections we have grown over past 30 yrs at our GB Farm many better cherry genetics found such as Black Duke, Cupid, Cornelian, Nanking and Tehranivee mix in genes of juglans cordiformis to get disease resistance , easy cracking, and retain flavour -Buartnut RAGS>>>>>>>>
  11. 11. Higher Nutrient - means the food has more of anything needed by human body for optimum health..vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, fibre, etc Higher Density - means more quantity(m) of nutrients in a lower quantity of food(D=m/vol)…eat more nutrients(m) instead of more calories(v) Higher Nutrient Density Food Blueberries/almonds/sprouted 12 seeds
  12. 12. Nutrients in Pawpaw = total banana+apple+mango
  13. 13. Save skin for insect repellant
  14. 14. CHUM JAM >>> >>>> PAWPAW CAKE <<<<<<
  15. 15. selecting for  superior taste____  rather than cosmetic factors such as colour, size, shape      
  16. 16. Manor CHUM pie
  17. 17. Pyrus X Sorbus cross = SHIPOVA
  18. 18. K E E P F L E S H -makes great jam/pies/etc
  19. 19. Best Flavour
  20. 20.     Select for rainbow of deep coloured flesh___ as indicator of higher/ healthier antioxidant content
  21. 21. Deep Red = lots of lycopene >>>>>>>>>>> <<<<<<<<<<<<<
  22. 22. This 25 lb Montreal Melon has GREEN flesh! GREEN FLESH
  23. 23. Anne – golden raspberries BleuNuit – purple raspberries Early Black – black raspberries
  24. 24. WHITE – can be great too
  25. 25. Select maximum diversity  -better adaptability to climate change  - handles weather extremes in cold,  heat, drought, rain, UV, wind, etc        
  26. 26. seaberry Berry genetic characteristics we aim for:         Berry good to eat - superior taste Fruit has storage capability Fruit is quick to pick by hand ($$/hr) Plant is hardy in zone 5 and colder Plant is adaptable to poor growing conditions Select best for disease /insect resistance Easy culture – “plant and pick” MULBERRY>>>>>
  27. 27. 3 seedless grape colours          Somerset, Earliblue, Mars, Magenta, Redliance, Polar Green, etc Year round imports supply 100% of $600M/yr Canadians spend on grapes Canadian farm vineyards produce wine grapes but no eating grapes Grape import prices are high ……$4/lb Easy to grow only if you select right genetics Overproduction can be processed: raisins, juice, jam, pies, vinegar- another $900M/yr Grape expectations: 10lbs/vine X $4/lb X 1000 vines/ac X 100 acres = $4,000,000/yr Need lots of Canadian grapes to meet present demand – lets get planting! Wine farms are “hot fad ” but eating grapes make much more sense for future farmers.
  28. 28. 25 yr old tree-no care! HEARTNUT walnuts TAKE -40 C temps No Pests No Disease High Quality protein Best Carbon Sequestering tree Taste like butternut Better adapted to climate change. STORES for over 12 months • • • • $6 per pound retail 100 lbs/treeX200 trees/ac $120,000/acre---WOW! 10ac = $1.2 million/year So Easy to Crack!
  29. 29. No pests- no disease! - Looks like an apple tastes like a pear - $3/lb x150 lbs/tree x 200 trees/acre = $90,000/acre 1 acre corn = $40 1 acre TAP = $90,000 • • • • Dual market-apple/pear STORES for 12 months 100% China import now Exotic category means no commodity competion
  30. 30. Took 5 years to acclimatize genetics No disease or pests STORES 12 months as flavour gets better and better-- tropical notes!
  31. 31. Asians and Italians love this fruit Seeds from our GB farm crop
  32. 32. Taylor Gold Plumcot grown from seed Never gets BLACKNOT DISEASE that kills most plums
  33. 33. KEEP YOUR SEEDS!
  34. 34. BLACK DUKE Cherry---birds can’t pull off cherry to swallow fruit! CORNELIAN FROSTY cherry -birds choke on oblong pit and then leave fruit alone as they are used to round seeds in cherries Tehranivee Sweet Cherry
  35. 35.  Select for  Select plants with better root systems capable of absorbing/assimilating soil nutrients.  Select as many Nitrogen-fixing fruit trees as possible…free fertilizer!       
  36. 36. CHERRY OLIVE Fixes Nitrogen and thrives in poor urban soil
  37. 37. Happily Growing 50 ft tall 35 yr old walnuts Talking to each other
  38. 38. cherry apple Freedom Farming Baby Banana for free
  39. 39. Lets get those seeds planted!
  40. 40. THE END
  41. 41.  LUNCH TIME  Lets Eat  How to propagate(1:15-4:15)
  42. 42. FROM OPEN POLLINATED SEEDS FROM MOTHER TREE BUDWOOD ”Discovery” apple seeds Love this Mother tree
  43. 43.         Propagating from seed in fruit..........SEEDLING Propagating a piece of tree branch.....CUTTING Propagating by joining scion to root.......GRAFT Propagating by joining bud to stem..BUDDING Propagating in science lab.......TISSUE CULTURE Propagating by bending branch to soil....LAYER Propagating with a piece of root......ROOTING Propagating with a leaf pad.......Pear Cactus!
  44. 44. WHY PROPAGATE SEEDLINGS? Easy- to stratify seed but timing is critical. Nov outdoors or Feb indoors and 60-90d cold damp stratification needed. Diversity - of traits expressed(every seedling different) so YOU can select for winter hardiness, superior fruit, disease resistance or any other local adaptability requirement you decide is important. Cost Effective - trees from seed( seedlings) are cheap - BUT superior “made in Canada” fruit/nut/berry seeds are very hard to find! Ownership - all OP seedling fruit varieties are “owned” by you so corporate interests cannot interfere – DO NOT grow GMO seedlings ! Resilient - seedling trees grow more vigorously and show more resistance to cold/wind/etc than grafted trees with fragile callus tissue Rootstocks - they make great rootstocks for grafting superior Mother trees onto. KRISTINA’S SEEDLING APPLE PIE
  46. 46. - Cherry apple seed is the only malus that comes “true to seed” so every seedling tree is identical----a rarity in fruit world! - Seedlings grow well in all kinds of soils even heavy wet clay - Takes -40C cold ....that’s Ag Canada Zone 1 - Trunk bark resists rodent damage in winter Gives a Dwarf fruit tree for cold climates - Can be used as rootstock for grafting onto - Gives high nutrient dense food for humans - Fruit hangs on tree all winter for wildlife - Great shelterbelt for permaculture farm maybe Cherry apple?
  47. 47. Grafter enjoys his solitude or gets help>>
  48. 48.  Uses actively growing tree (rootstock) of 3/8” calibre or more  Uses fresh new bud from favourite fruiting mother tree  Inserts cambium of bud into cambium of rootstock tree  “ T – bud” is most common method of joining the two cambiums  Stabilizing the “bud insert” is done with budding rubber elastic  Bud dehydration is prevented by tightly wrapping the bud with the budding rubber  Callusing of cambiums of bud and rootstock occurs quickly in Aug  Successful bud grafts should be well callused within 2-3 weeks
  49. 49. Bench grafting:           Uses bare root dormant tree of 1/4”- 3/8” calibre as rootstock Uses 10 -15 cm dormant scion of favourite Mother tree branch Attaches cambium of scion with cambium of rootstock tree Whip & Tongue is most common way to join the two cambiums Taylor method is simplification of whip and tongue tongue! Proper cuts are crucial and will be demonstrated The cambium joint or graft is stabilized with tape Dehydration of graft is prevented with grafting wax or Parafilm Callusing of cambiums requires warmth Successful grafts should shoot scion buds in 2-3 weeks.
  50. 50.  What are they? -Plant section taken from branch or root that are used to develop a new plants -Two methods used: 1) Hardwood cuttings: uses dormant plant material ( in winter hibernation) 2) Softwood: uses actively growing plant material ( done during summer)  How to initiate rooting in cuttings? - hardwood cuttings done with bottom heat( 25 C) in cold environment( 5 C) - softwood cuttings done with mist chamber with high humidity/temps( 25 C) - softwood cuttings are not stable so must be used quickly after cutting - medium for rooting of cuttings must be very porous to prevent disease (rot) These self–rooted trees have no graft union to worry about!
  53. 53. Planting your genetics like this?
  54. 54.    A) An al crops such as corn, soya, wheat, veggies, canola, etc? B) Beastie crops such as milk, meat, eggs, etc? C) Continual crops such as fruit, nuts, berries, crosnes, etc? nu
  55. 55.  Canadian Organic –our organic consumer dollar increasingly spent on imported organic... local now becoming more important to consumer!   Permaculture – concepts OK... but Canadian content(genetics) poor! Freedom Farming– reduce farm work(inputs) and go for walk in the woods( food forest). Let nature decide the genetic choices..what lives/what dies! Transform growing methods by: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Selecting/breeding “new” varieties adapted to Canadian climatic extremes Switching high intervention crops(organic apples) to more ”hands –off” crops(apple pears) Changing from row cropping to “guild” cropping to better capture “sun fuel” Custom design your own food trees to handle your local conditions - “tailor-made” Focus on $$ return/acre instead of crop yields/acre
  56. 56.          Started first CSA in Mtl area - 300 customers in 1980’s – ran for 6 years Planted 3000 tree traditional Apple orchard in 1980’s….. Built and ran “on-farm organic market” in converted cow barn – 25 yrs Started own breeding programs – “rebirthed” the famous Montreal melon Selected regional adapted seeds for 100’s of garden growing kits(Seracon) Tree crop breeding/selecting became main focus in 90’s and this led to an incredible new tree crop diversity never grown before in Canada Cut down monoculture orchard in 2000 and started building guilds with this new genetic diversity Nick(son) did black current research at OACC and this inspired him to return and help me bring our farm research trials to fruition so as to benefit future generations of young farmers. Toughest transformation now – how old farmer Ken will phase himself out!
  57. 57. Good storage Easy to maintain Large market Disease resistant 125 lbs per tree 200 trees per acre $50,000 per acre
  58. 58.   Photos above. Ice cider winter apples Photo right. Purple passion flowers
  59. 59. Wonder Red
  60. 60.       These are shade loving vines with fragrant white flowers. Vigorous vines are great for covering fences, walls or trellis. Northern kiwi are very hardy(Z2) Fruit has smooth skin and are much sweeter and less acid than the commercial fuzzy ones. Only female kiwi give fruit but need male kiwi close by for pollination. Great for climbing trees and adaptable to poor soils.
  61. 61.      $2 /lb 100 lbs per tree 250 trees per acre Good producers $50,000 per acre • • • Some are black knot resistant Delicious Good producers
  62. 62.      “Potato on a tree” = tree chestnut Better carb than rice/bread/ annual replanting New blight resistant chestnuts = profit potential Thrives in sandy “potato soils” even acidic ones Easily stored for extended year-round sales(freeze)
  63. 63.    Our hazels are a mix of wild Canadian hazels crossed with larger European filberts to give offspring that are very cold hardy (Z3), early maturing, disease resistant and produces large, high quality nuts in three years. These small, multi-stemmed trees (3m) have beautiful dense foliage. The nuts which have a higher nutritional value than acorns and beechnuts are also loved by all kinds of wildlife
  64. 64.     Beautiful tree Liked by deer and people Produces late in the season Can hold fruit until winter sets in
  65. 65.  Blueberries are an easy sell and are very productive  Perfect for northern climates
  66. 66.         Attractive hardy (Z2) bush (1M) with very early yellow flowers (April) Tolerates shade very well and wind Hanging blue fruit ripens in mid-June earliest of all bush berries…even before strawberries. Birds love them…must protect-netting Disease and pest resistant. Need two varieties for pollination. Berry blue, blue belle , tundra, borealis
  67. 67.         Dense shrub beautiful silver leaves (2m/Z2) Berries have pineapple-citrus flavour Used to make health tonics, fruit syrups, jams, chef “coulis” Orange oil from the seeds is delicious ($$ $) Seaberries have higher ORAC (antioxidants) than blueberries. Plants tolerate sandy soil, salt spray, drought , extreme cold and no care Roots improve soil fertility by fixing nitrogen. Berries hold on branches all winter
  68. 68.     retail $4.95 per pint 2 pounds per plant 1000 plants per acre $20,000/acre • • • • • • No suckers- easy culture Sweet and delicious Not as “seedy” as wild blacks High ORAC Good storage for berry Easy/Quick to pick
  69. 69.        Small, very cold hardy bush (1m / Z2) with incredible crops of sweet acid fruit Researching thornless varieties Researching larger fruit Researching colour variants Some gooseberry fruit stores well Eat fresh or cooked in pies, preserves, chutney, etc. …good value added Quick to pick but thorny
  70. 70.     Sparkle is heritage variety with sweet, dark-red, flavourful berry Bounty is hardy, productive plant with large sweet berries Albion is tastiest, everbearing variety. Large firm berries Strawberries spread easily, great for ground cover
  71. 71.      Shade tolerant bush (1m / Z2) Currants are full of nutrients (ORAC) Wide range of flavours Store well Easy to process
  72. 72.     Best pear for really cold northern climates (Zone 2) Matures very early Delicious, sweet and juicy Prolific crops
  73. 73.       A mix of cherry and plum, combining the best characteristics of both. Fruit are the shape of a cherry but larger like a plum, varying in color from red to dark purple. Chum is very hardy (Z2) bush (2m) Tolerate sandy poor soil, withstand drought and usually bear fruit one year after planting. Masses of beautiful, fragrant flowers cover bare branches in spring Need two varieties for pollination.
  74. 74.              Freedom: Jonagold X Golden Delicious. Tree is disease resistant and immune to apple scab. Fruit is large, yellow with red blush. Crisp, juicy flesh has “old – heritage” apple taste. Stores as well Yellow Transparent: Excellent for cooking, sauces and pies. Earliest, disease resistant applelate July. Gold Rush: A delicious late maturing apple. Disease resistant. Store well. Hangs on tree. Golden Russet: The champagne of old-time cider apples. Used for cider, dried apples, fresh eating and cooking. Excellent keeper. Ripens late October. Liberty: juicy, red-blushed apple with aromatic, old-fashioned apple taste. Nova Spy, Novamac, Nova Easy Grow Red Free, Williams Pride Olympic, Bellemac, Eden, Reinette, etc PURPLE PASSION - dark red flesh, purple skin WONDER RED- red flesh, red skin KEN’S RED – red flesh, red flowers, dwarf tree PINK PEARL- red flesh, yellow skin Selecting new red-flesh apples every year RED DELICIOUS offspring ( not scab-free) HONEYCRISP – latest “fad” variety  Gala like apples – Ambrosia, etc  Lobo, Cortland, McIntosh, Empire…NO!  Photo. ‘Dore’ apple
  75. 75.      We import more than $400 million worth of table grapes/yr +$400m raisins + $200m juice We import 100% of many tree crops from China such as Asian pears, Pine nuts, Goji, etc Canada list no commercial growers of Asian pears, Pine nuts, goji or even table grapes There are no commercial growers of Heartnuts In effect there are fewer and fewer tree crop farmers in Canada than 25 yrs ago!
  76. 76.     Would you put all your money in one stock or investment? You minimize crop loss (1 fruit can have a bad year, 4 bad crops is unlikely) Time your crops (spread them out over the course of a season) Make your sales target much easier to attain (more diversity to the same outlet)
  77. 77.        Easy to grow and maintain (plant and pick) Good producer hardy Easy to sell crop Profitable Storage Rarity/Diversity
  78. 78.          Strawberries (mid June) Mixed Raspberries (mid July) Blueberries (early August) Plums (mid August) Euro pears (late August) Grapes (early September) Asian pears (late August-mid September) Heartnut (end of September/October) Food that stores…Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb- June
  79. 79.     Saves time Saves work Promotes growth Retains water
  80. 80. Plastic laid in fall for early spring planting Black raspberries in plastic
  81. 81.   Orchard Interventions by Ken Taylor 11:10am-12:10pm Orchard interventions such as pesticide spraying, watering, fertilizing, pruning and thinning will be discussed. Harvest timing, methods and storage will be briefly covered as well. OR Why STUN ORCHARDING led to GENETICS of FREEDOM FARMING ?  Stop controls...fate of your food forest “set free”...let nature decide what survives and what dies!
  82. 82.       Cuttings (softwood, hardwood, root) Suckers Seedlings Grafting (bench, budding) Layering Tissue culture
  83. 83.     Contact local distributors/wholesalers/retailers Go to local markets/grocery Canadian produce marketing association Contact the government Brian Render Food Value Chain Bureau/Bureau de la chaîne de valeur des aliments Horticulture and Special Crops Division/Division de l'horticulture et des cultures spéciales Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada | Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada 1305 Baseline Road, Tower 5, 5th Floor Ottawa, ON K1A 0C5 Telephone | Téléphone 613-773-0266 Facsimile | Télécopieur 613-773-0299 Teletypewriter | Téléimprimeur 613-759-7470 Government of Canada | Gouvernement du Canada
  84. 84.      20 years without missing a crop Berries picked from mid June to freeze up Super sweet with no acidity – black juice! Never needs spraying for anything Wildlife are addicted to mulberries
  85. 85. Transitioning to a Diverse Orchard with Ken Taylor 9:00-10:00am Join Ken Taylor of Green Barn Farm for an explanation on how he diversified the farm into a more resilient fruit, nut, berry plantation to fit lifestyle expectations of less inputs, less work and more profit. Whether contemplating a business venture or more simply an adventure into food sustainability, this workshop will offer inspiration. WHAT did I learn from 50 years of farming TRIALS & TRIBULATIONS ?
  86. 86.       All 3 are bush cherries (2m) Very hardy (z3) Eat fresh or process Easy to protect from birds Plant and pick cherry July-August