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Peach Systems: Training
and Production
Stephen Miller
USDA-ARS, AFRS,
Kearneysville, WV
Objectives in Tree Training:
Promote favorable growth patterns
Bring trees into early production
Develop a strong framewor...
Promote favorable growth patterns

Naturally Round, bush-like

Some
variation
Bring trees into early
production

Yield - bushels/acre

300
250
200
150

OC (156 t/ac)
Quad - V (218)
Tri - V (366)
Perp....
Develop a strong
framework
Promote
penetration of
sunlight

Light –
• 15% FS or less shoot
loss
• 40% FS @ 40-60
DAFB
• 45% FS 3 wks before
harvest
•...
Improve ease of
management
Training is accomplished by:

Training aids

Support systems - trellis

Tying

Pruning
Pruning Objectives
Remove poor, unproductive wood
Encourage new growth
Remove broken and pest damaged
wood
Promote light p...
Pruning Cuts – the basic concepts

To
produce
new
growth

To direct
growth
Pruning technique can affect Cytospora infection

Flush
cut

Stub
cut

Treatment

% Cytospora
infection

Pruning time

Col...
Prune to retain “quality
bearing wood”:
¼” to 3/8” diam., 12 to 24”
long (and no longer than 30”),
reddish-brown color
Sho...
Pruning should be used to direct growth and
with the goal of retaining a select number
of “quality bearing shoots”. Rememb...
Directing growth through training and pruning Starts at planting
with a quality
nursery tree

Classic
systems

45° to 60°
...
Pruning at planting
– the classic
approach
Begin by heading at
18”- 28” to force
laterals

At planting

≈ 2 mo after plant...
Factors to consider when pruning:
“Bench cuts” produce
strong vertical growth
at the cut
A variation of
classic open center –
the Italian Delayed
Vase
• requires a high quality
feathered tree or an
additional ye...
Pruning at planting – the upright forms
Whip

Feathered

Head tree at
planting to 18” to
20”

≈ 30-45
days after
planting
...
Training
and
pruning
upright
forms

First dormant
pruning

2nd leaf
and
beyond
Second leaf
peach tree
AFTER major
pruning to the
perpendicular V
system
Maintain young
bearing wood
on the primary
scaffolds
Excessive
structural
wood
reduces
yields
Establish lower
scaffolds &
leader

Pruning
central
leader
forms
Select fruiting wood &
remove competition

At planting

H...
In central leader tree avoid structural
wood in upper leader

Upright growth habit

Standard growth habit
Goal of pruning and training as trees
begin to crop maintain bearing wood throughout canopy
produce high quality fruits

S...
Summer pruning at pit
hardening to improve
flowering

Percent of full sunlight

50
40
30
20

6th leaf

10
0
Pillar

Uprigh...
Flower density (FD) in ‘Redhaven’ peach* as
influenced by photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) one
year after shade treatments...
4- year-old
Multi-leader peach at
5 ft. spacing

7- year-old

Vigor coupled with
no summer pruning
results in low canopy
v...
Dormant pruning time
- sec/tree

500
400
300
200
100
0
2000

2001

Summer pruned

Summer pruning reduced
dormant pruning t...
Summer pruning and training system
affect fruit color - ???? -

Shearing HD ‘Redskin’ ≈ 2 wks before
harvest increased red...
Peach Production Systems
Open center (Open vase)
Delayed vase
Quad – V
Tri – V
Perpendicular – V (Kearney – V)
Central lea...
Open Center

Delayed vase

Peach
Training
Systems

Quad - V

Tri - V
Perpendicular - V

Central leader

Peach
Training
Systems

Fusetto
(Slender spindle)
Yield - bushels/acre (48 lb/bu)

Annual yield for ‘Norman’ peaches as influenced
by tree density
600

HIGH (299)

500

'No...
From R. Marini and D. Sowers. 2000. HortSci. 35:837-842.
Yield for ‘Redglobe’ peaches planted in three training systems in
Georgia
350

'Redglobe'/Lovell, planted 1999

Yield - lb...
Average tree, pruning, and thinning costs and gross/net income
for ‘Redglobe’ peaches grown in three training systems

Tra...
Average yield for three varieties in six training
systems in New York
2500

Open Cneter
Quad - V
Tri - V

1500

Perpendicu...
Effect of six planting systems on fruit size, color and
farm gate value for two peaches and a nectarine grown
in New York ...
Yield per Acre for Three Peach Tree Growth Habits Planted
at a Recommended Spacing in West Virginia (AFRS)
1600
Yield - bu...
Performance in the 5th, 6th, and 7th seasons:
Pillar

UP

Number of trees per acre

622

419

109

Avg. yield, bus./ac (48...
Mean fruit size (diameter) for three peach tree growth habits
planted at four in-row spacings over four harvest seasons at...
Thank You

QUESTIONS ?
Peach system training
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Transcript of "Peach system training"

  1. 1. Peach Systems: Training and Production Stephen Miller USDA-ARS, AFRS, Kearneysville, WV
  2. 2. Objectives in Tree Training: Promote favorable growth patterns Bring trees into early production Develop a strong framework Promote sunlight penetration Improve ease of management
  3. 3. Promote favorable growth patterns Naturally Round, bush-like Some variation
  4. 4. Bring trees into early production Yield - bushels/acre 300 250 200 150 OC (156 t/ac) Quad - V (218) Tri - V (366) Perp.- V (641) CL (444) Fusetto (748) 100 50 0 2000 2001 Year (Trees planted, 1999) 2002 After Hoying, Robinson, and Anderson. NY Fruit Quart. 15(4):13-18, 2007
  5. 5. Develop a strong framework
  6. 6. Promote penetration of sunlight Light – • 15% FS or less shoot loss • 40% FS @ 40-60 DAFB • 45% FS 3 wks before harvest • light = productivity
  7. 7. Improve ease of management
  8. 8. Training is accomplished by: Training aids Support systems - trellis Tying Pruning
  9. 9. Pruning Objectives Remove poor, unproductive wood Encourage new growth Remove broken and pest damaged wood Promote light penetration throughout the canopy Maintain the tree within the allotted space
  10. 10. Pruning Cuts – the basic concepts To produce new growth To direct growth
  11. 11. Pruning technique can affect Cytospora infection Flush cut Stub cut Treatment % Cytospora infection Pruning time Collar cut January March August 35.4 a 20.0 a 21.3 a Type cut the collar Stub Flush Collar 26.5 ab 31.0 a 19.3 b
  12. 12. Prune to retain “quality bearing wood”: ¼” to 3/8” diam., 12 to 24” long (and no longer than 30”), reddish-brown color Shoot length Less than 1” 1” to 12” 18” to 24” p – value Fruit Diameter (cm) Weight (g) 6.44 143 6.54 148 6.80 165 0.0214 Effect of retaining long (> 12”) or short (< 12”) shoots on yield, average fruit weight (FW) and crop value of ‘Redhaven’ peaches. Fruit Yield Avg. Crop value FW (g) ($/tree) Treatment per tree (lbs/tree) Short shoots 1593 404 106 20 Long shoots 1813 416 111 30 From R. Marini, 2004, Fruit Grower News 43(4)17-20 0.0462
  13. 13. Pruning should be used to direct growth and with the goal of retaining a select number of “quality bearing shoots”. Remember Vertical limbs produce growth near the top Horizontal limbs produce upright growth
  14. 14. Directing growth through training and pruning Starts at planting with a quality nursery tree Classic systems 45° to 60° from vertical 20° to 30° from vertical ¼” to ½” caliper tree best; 5/8” OK; 3/4” too large Highdensity systems
  15. 15. Pruning at planting – the classic approach Begin by heading at 18”- 28” to force laterals At planting ≈ 2 mo after planting Pinch or tip the more upright shoots to force growth into desired permanent branches and help spread.
  16. 16. Factors to consider when pruning: “Bench cuts” produce strong vertical growth at the cut
  17. 17. A variation of classic open center – the Italian Delayed Vase • requires a high quality feathered tree or an additional year in the orchard • maintaining a weak leader for several years is the key to this system
  18. 18. Pruning at planting – the upright forms Whip Feathered Head tree at planting to 18” to 20” ≈ 30-45 days after planting Shorten all laterals to ≈ 2” or at least 2 buds Removing unwanted narrow angled shoots and pinching can be done during summer
  19. 19. Training and pruning upright forms First dormant pruning 2nd leaf and beyond
  20. 20. Second leaf peach tree AFTER major pruning to the perpendicular V system
  21. 21. Maintain young bearing wood on the primary scaffolds Excessive structural wood reduces yields
  22. 22. Establish lower scaffolds & leader Pruning central leader forms Select fruiting wood & remove competition At planting Head at ≈ 40” & stub 1st dormant pruning Stub some shoots for new wood 2nd dormant pruning 3rd year and beyond
  23. 23. In central leader tree avoid structural wood in upper leader Upright growth habit Standard growth habit
  24. 24. Goal of pruning and training as trees begin to crop maintain bearing wood throughout canopy produce high quality fruits SUMMER PRUNING – essential, especially in HD plantings
  25. 25. Summer pruning at pit hardening to improve flowering Percent of full sunlight 50 40 30 20 6th leaf 10 0 Pillar Upright Before SP Standard After SP Light level in 3rd leaf 24 hours after summer pruning SP NSP 40% greater light levels 1 wk before harvest
  26. 26. Flower density (FD) in ‘Redhaven’ peach* as influenced by photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) one year after shade treatments during four periods. Light (PPF) 16 June to (%) 4-Jul Shade period 4 July to 31 July to 31-Jul 30 Sept. 16 June to 30 Sept. FD (flowers/m of shoot length) 100 45 23 17 9 Signif. 50 47 37 34 28 43 51 41 44 31 41 37 42 44 40 73 30 20 25 4 L Q n.s. Q * Mature open center trees; whole tree shade treatments. From R. Marini and D. Sowers, 1990. HortSciince 25:331-334.
  27. 27. 4- year-old Multi-leader peach at 5 ft. spacing 7- year-old Vigor coupled with no summer pruning results in low canopy void and pushes quality bearing wood higher in the tree
  28. 28. Dormant pruning time - sec/tree 500 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 Summer pruned Summer pruning reduced dormant pruning time an average of 34% over 5 seasons 2002 2003 Not summer pruned 2004
  29. 29. Summer pruning and training system affect fruit color - ???? - Shearing HD ‘Redskin’ ≈ 2 wks before harvest increased red color from 36 to 49% (MD) Shearing tops of LD ‘Loring’ in June and/or July increased red color on fruit from tops vs. interior (61% vs 44%) but tree’s avg. color was not affected (NJ)
  30. 30. Peach Production Systems Open center (Open vase) Delayed vase Quad – V Tri – V Perpendicular – V (Kearney – V) Central leader Fusetto Supported systems – Tatura, Palmette
  31. 31. Open Center Delayed vase Peach Training Systems Quad - V Tri - V
  32. 32. Perpendicular - V Central leader Peach Training Systems Fusetto (Slender spindle)
  33. 33. Yield - bushels/acre (48 lb/bu) Annual yield for ‘Norman’ peaches as influenced by tree density 600 HIGH (299) 500 'Norman' peach, planted 1988 HIGH - LOW LOW (150) 400 300 200 100 0 1991 1992 1993 Year 1995 1996 From Marini and Sowers, 2000, HortSci 35:837-842; crop loss from freeze in 1994 Trees trained to central leader and open vase; yield not affected by training form; HIGH – LOW treatment reduced from 299 t/ac to 150 t/ac in 1994.
  34. 34. From R. Marini and D. Sowers. 2000. HortSci. 35:837-842.
  35. 35. Yield for ‘Redglobe’ peaches planted in three training systems in Georgia 350 'Redglobe'/Lovell, planted 1999 Yield - lbs/tree or bushels/acre 300 OC - (134) 250 Quad - V - (269) 200 Perp. - V - (403) a ab b 150 b c 100 a ab c 50 0 a 2001 2002 Yield per tree From Taylor, K. 2003 PA Fruit New s 83(6):19-24 2001 2002 Yield per acre
  36. 36. Average tree, pruning, and thinning costs and gross/net income for ‘Redglobe’ peaches grown in three training systems Training system Average tree costs ($) Total pruning and thinning costs/acre ($) Gross income ($) Net income ($) Open center 278 825 4526 3425 b Quad – V 558 1815 9112 6699 a Perp. – V 836 1405 8392 6151 a Pruning and thinning costs over 3 year period; income costs over 2 years. Open center = 134 trees/ac, Quad – V = 269 t/ac, and Perp.- V = 403 t/ac. From K. Taylor, PA Fruit News 83(6):19-24, 2003
  37. 37. Average yield for three varieties in six training systems in New York 2500 Open Cneter Quad - V Tri - V 1500 Perpendicular V Cumulative Yield bushels/acre 2000 Central Leader Fusetto 1000 500 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year ‘Allstar’ and ‘Blushingstar’ peach and ‘Flavortop’ nectarine From S. Hoying, T. Robinson, and R. Anderson. 2007. NY Fruit Quart 15(4):13-18 2006
  38. 38. Effect of six planting systems on fruit size, color and farm gate value for two peaches and a nectarine grown in New York over 6 years Tree density Av. Fruit size (g) Fruit red color (%) 2004 Open Center 156 182 a 46 b 6,057 d Quad - V 218 179 a 62 a 9,987 c Tri - V 366 172 b 57 a 11,572 b Perpendicular V 641 161 c 61 a 15,667 a Central Leader 444 170 b 62 a 11,568 b Fusetto 748 168 b 60 a 14,658 a System Farm gate vlaue does not include picking, storage and packing costs From S. Hoying, T. Robinson, and R. Anderson. 2007. NY Fruit Quart 15(4):13-18 Cumulative farm gate crop value/acre ($)
  39. 39. Yield per Acre for Three Peach Tree Growth Habits Planted at a Recommended Spacing in West Virginia (AFRS) 1600 Yield - bushels/acre 1400 Pillar (622) 1200 Upright (419) Standard (109) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2000 First leaf- 1999 2001 2002 2003 2004 Spacing: P = 5’ x 14’; UP = 6.5’ x 16’; S = 20’ x 20’ Yields based on mean yields over 4 in-row spacings and 2 training forms 2005 Frost damage 2002
  40. 40. Performance in the 5th, 6th, and 7th seasons: Pillar UP Number of trees per acre 622 419 109 Avg. yield, bus./ac (48 lb bu) 736 721 406 Fruit diameter (in) 2.7 2.8 2.5 41.1 36.6 22.1 Dormant pruning (hrs./ac) Standard *spacing - Pillar = 5’ x 14’, UP = 6.5’ x 16’, ST = 20’ x 20’ Yields based on actual yields for designated in-row spacing for each growth habit; dormant pruning time based on 2003 & 2004 seasons only.
  41. 41. Mean fruit size (diameter) for three peach tree growth habits planted at four in-row spacings over four harvest seasons at AFRS Mean fruit diameter - cm 7.5 7 6.5 5 6.5 13 In-row tree spacing in ft. 20 6 2002 2003 2004 2005 ‘Crimson Rocket’, ‘Sweet-N-UP’, and ‘Harrow Beauty’ planted in 1999
  42. 42. Thank You QUESTIONS ?
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