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Netflix presentation   final Netflix presentation final Presentation Transcript

    • Semantic Technology Overview
    • Trends, Applications
    • November 29, 2010
    12/01/10
  • About Recognos
    • Established 1999 ( www.recognos.com )
    • California S-Corporation – Offices in San Rafael, San Mateo
    • In 2000 created Recognos Romania
    • Office in Romania situated in Cluj ( www.cluj4all.com )
    • 70 employees
    • Semantic technologies R&D
    • Started a meetup : http://www.meetup.com/Cluj-Semantic-WEB/
    • Applications in Finance, CRM, Life Sciences, etc.
    12/01/10
  • What is the Semantic Technology
    • WEB 3.0 ?
    • Gives meaning through relationships
    • Building bloc – statements
    • The statements describe: concepts, logic, restrictions and individuals (instances)
    • WWW is for human consumption
    • Semantic WEB – for machines
    • Relationships: definitions, associations, aggregations and restrictions
    12/01/10
  • World Wide Web vs. Semantic WEB 12/01/10
  • 12/01/10 Major Difficulty Open World vs Closed World Anybody can say ANYTHING about ANYTHING! You don’t know what you don’t know!
  • Semantic Technology vs. Semantic WEB
    • Semantic Technology – “machines” try to understand :
      • Natural Language Text
      • Images
      • Sounds
      • Machine learning
    • Semantic WEB Technology – part of the Semantic Technology (semantic search, semantic tagging, microformats (FOAF), web site federation), Linked Open Data
    12/01/10
  • Semantic WEB Model 12/01/10
  • How to represent the knowledge
    • Gives meaning through relationships
    • Everybody to understand the same thing
    • The machines could understand
    • Eliminates ambiguities through URI – Uniform Resource Identifier – PURL – Persistent Uniform Locator
    • Need software that will be able to read these and “understand”
    • Describe things on the internet using such a universal language
    12/01/10
  • Building Block RDF 12/01/10 “ There is a Person identified by http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me, whose name is Eric Miller, whose email address is em@w3.org, and whose title is Dr.". Triplets: (i) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me , http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#fullName , "Eric Miller" (ii) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me , http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#personalTitle , "Dr." (iii) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me , http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type , http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#Person (iv) http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me , http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#mailbox , em@w3.org
  • Ontologies - OWL 12/01/10 http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en
  • Ontologies - OWL 12/01/10 http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/geoinfo.asp?lang=en
    • An Ontology is a kind of dictionary that describes information in a certain domain using concepts and relationships. It is often implemented using OWL
    • A Concept is defined as abstract knowledge. (Example: Movie, Country, Organizatiuon). Concepts are explicitly implemented in the ontology with individuals and classes :
      • An individual is defined as an object perceived from the real world. (The Sound of Music is a Movie , and belongs to the musical genre .
      • A class is defined as a set of individuals sharing common properties. In the geopolitical domain, Ethiopia , Republic of Korea or Italy are individuals of the class country ; Relationships between concepts are explicitly implemented by:
      • Object properties between individuals of two classes. For example, has member and is in group properties.
      • Datatype properties between individuals and literals or XML datatypes. For example, the individual “United States” has the datatype property CodeISO3 with the value “USA".
      • Restrictions in classes and/or properties. For example, the property spoken Language of the class Movie has been restricted to have only one value, this means that a movie canb have oly one spoken language ] .
  • The Movie Ontology – 12/01/10
  • The Geo Spatial Ontology – 12/01/10
  • The Movie Ontology – www.movieontology.org 12/01/10
    • The main entities can be represented as Class using an ontology language (Movie , Person, Role)
    • Other attributes (movie rating, movie genres,…) can be represented as Properties of the appropriate Classes
    12/01/10 Movie Person Role acted film Brad Pitt Troy Achilles acted film
  • 12/01/10 Movie Person Literal title, year, runtime, country, languages, genres, rating, votes, plot, colorInfo, certificate company production_companies, distributor, soundMix, miscCompanies Literal birth_date, death_date, birth_name, longname, spouse, trivia Role teammember crewmember stuntPerformer, soundCrew director castingDirector, artDirector assistantDirector Cast, composer, producer, productionDesigner, artDepartment, productionManager, specialEffects, setDecorator, editor, writer, Cinematographer, costumeDesigner acted film (foaf)
  • 12/01/10 Troy title 2004 year 163 runtime English language 6.9 85463 rating votes Alejandro Avendano longname stuntPerformer Jack El Despertador title setDecorator Romero title film acted
    • i.e.
    • Alejandro Avendano as
    • Actor
    • Stunt Perfomer
    • Set Decorator
    p1 m1 m2 m3 r1 p1:http://www.imdb.com/Person/Avendano m1:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/Troy m2:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/Romero m3:http://www.imdb.com/Movie/JackElDespertador r1:http://www.imdb.com/Role/DeathSquadMember
    • find resources according to specific criteria
      • i.e. Find movies with Roger Bratt as a cinematographer, or movies with producer Halle Berry’s spouse
    • and simpler queries
      • i.e. Find movies with genre = War, Romance etc
    12/01/10
  • How to represent the knowledge 12/01/10 Feature Relational Database Knowledgebase Structure Schema Ontology Statements Data Rows Instance Elements Admin language DDL Ontology Statements (OWL) Query language SQL SPARQL Relationship Foreign Keys Multidimensional Logic External of DB / triggers Formal logic statements Uniqueness Key for table Uniqueness Restriction
  • How to store the knowledge 12/01/10
    • RDF Stores
    • These are “referential databases”
    • Oracle 11g – stores RDF in relational database
    • http://www.franz.com/agraph/allegrograph/ - Allegrograph
    • AllegroGraph RDFStore is a high-performance, persistent RDF graph database. AllegroGraph uses disk-based storage, enabling it to scale to billions of triples. AllegroGraph supports SPARQL, RDFS++, and Prolog reasoning.
    • Sesame
    • Virtuoso
  • Applications
    • Are used to solve complicated problems
    • All problems could be solved manually or with conventional applications but with much more effort
    • The Semantic WEB core idea is to “teach” the machine to “mimic” the human reasoning – simplistic approach
    • This is in fact “recycled AI techniques”
    • Alternative to data warehouses
    • Using inference to find new facts
    • Integrates formatted with non-formatted docs
    • Cross technology queries
    12/01/10
  • Potential for Netflix
    • Applications Categories:
    • Data Integration of Heterogeneous data silos
    • Semantic Search
      • a) Semantic Tagging
      • b) Faceted Search
      • c) NL Queries
    • Use of Open Linked Data
    • (Others: Market Sentiment Analysis – blogs, forums; Advertising)
    12/01/10
  • Data Integration using Ontologies 12/01/10
  • 12/01/10 https://pub.needlebase.com/actions/visualizer/V2Visualizer.do?domain=Oscar-History&query=2009+Awards
  • Semantic Search
    • Wolfram Alpha, Semantifi
    • Faceted Search ( www.needlebase.com )
    • Micro Formats
    • Good Relations
    • Open Linked Data
    • Using natural language as a query language
    12/01/10
  • Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB
    • www.wolframalpha.com , www.google.com
    • www.semantifi.com
    12/01/10
  • Deep WEB vs. Shallow WEB 12/01/10
  • Faceted Search 12/01/10 http://www.needlebase.com/cases/events
  • 12/01/10 Faceted Search http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/rdf-type:Film/ Wikipedia Dbpedia – semantified wikipedia
  • Microformats 12/01/10
    • A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a web-based approach to semantic markup which seeks to re-use existing HTML / XHTML tags to convey metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS . This approach allows software to process information intended for end-users (such as contact information , geographic coordinates , calendar events, and the like) automatically. Examples:
    • hAtom – for marking up Atom feeds from within standard HTML
    • hCalendar – for events
    • hCard – for contact information; includes:
          • adr – for postal addresses
          • geo – for geographical coordinates ( latitude , longitude )
    • hNews - for news content
    • hProduct – for products
    • hRecipe - for recipes and foodstuffs.
    • hResume – for resumes or CVs
    • hReview – for reviews
    • rel- directory – for distributed directory creation and inclusion [7]
  • Good Relations 12/01/10 http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/
  • Open Linked Data - Folksonomies 12/01/10 http://linkeddata.org/ Open Linked Data "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data , information , and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF ." http://esw.w3.org/DataSetRDFDumps www.wikipedia.com www.freebase.com – bought by Google i9n July, 2010 – Metaweb Folksonomy - Folksonomy is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a URL) for one's own retrieval. The tagging is done in a social environment (usually shared and open to others). Folksonomy is created from the act of tagging by the person consuming the information. (Thomas Vander Wal – 2004)
  • Open Linked Data 12/01/10 http://linkeddata.org/
  • Freebase 12/01/10
  • 12/01/10 http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
  • 12/01/10 http://www.freebase.com/view/film/film
  • LinkedMDB 12/01/10
  • Data.gov & Data.gov.uk
    • … ..
    12/01/10
  • The Future: Using NL as a query language 12/01/10 Comedies with John Travolta filmed in the US All movies with Clint Eastwood as director Coppola family movies Documentaries about the genocide in Africa Movies filmed in San Francisco Marina Where can I buy the music from Love Story ? Is any tour based on the Da Vinci Code ? Movies based on novels written by 19 th Century British writers
  • Using NL as a query language 12/01/10
  • What is behind a semantic search 12/01/10
  • 12/01/10 Extracting knowledge from text Expert System – Cogito Application in Financial Complex Documents Document Advisor Blogs Forums
  • 12/01/10 Extracting knowledge from text - A look behind the scene
  • Tools
    • Open Source, Licensed
    • RDF Stores
    • Ontology Management : Protégé – Stanford – Open Source
    • Data Integration Tools – Cambridge Semantics, Metatomix
    • NLP Tools – COGITO (Expert Systems), GATE
    • Etc…
    12/01/10
  • Semantic Technology Companies 12/01/10
  • How can Recognos Help 12/01/10
    • Recognos is a Semantic Applications Developer
    • Works with vendors to develop applications
    • Help Netflix create a Semantic Group
    • Help selecting technologies
    • Build search applications for Linked Data, Faceted Search
    • Detect similarities between film descriptions
    • Data Integrations
    • Leverage the 3 years experience in developing semantic applications (data integration, NLP, semantic search)
    • etc.
  • Contact Info 12/01/10 George Roth – CEO Recognos Inc Skype Id: grecognos eMail: [email_address] WEB Site: www.recognos.com Adonis Damian – Senior Semantic Application Architect eMail: [email_address]