Local Gov't Presentation to Constitutional Modernization Commission
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Local Gov't Presentation to Constitutional Modernization Commission

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GOPC presented an overview of Ohio's local government terrain to the Eduation, Public Institutions and Miscellaneous and Local Government Committee of the Ohio Constitutional Modernization Commission ...

GOPC presented an overview of Ohio's local government terrain to the Eduation, Public Institutions and Miscellaneous and Local Government Committee of the Ohio Constitutional Modernization Commission on July 11, 2013.

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  • The Mission of the Greater Ohio Policy Center is to champion revitalization and sustainable growth in Ohio.Ohio’s “smart growth” organizationPromote – through research, public education and grassroots advocacy – public policy to grow Ohio’s economy and improve the quality of life through intelligent land useNon-partisan, non-profit, primarily foundation-funded
  • Ohio local government costs can be burdensom.
  • * 20th highest tax burden: http://taxfoundation.org/article/state-and-local-tax-burdens-all-years-one-state-1977-2010* 34th highest for state taxes as % of income: http://www.taxadmin.org/fta/rate/12taxbur.html; http://www.tax.ohio.gov/communications/news_releases/news_release_100331.aspx* 45th in population growth from 2010-2012 US Census
  • *Ohio’s monthly local government payroll is 29% above peer state average (IN, MI, PA, KY, IL) and,Almost double the national average for monthly local government payrollWE USE MONTHLY LOCAL GOVERNMENT PAYROLL AS A PROXY TO UNDERSTAND COSTS OF GOVERNMENT. PAYROLL IS THE BEST NUMBERS WE HAVE TO LOOK AT LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AS A DATASETPeer state average: http://www2.census.gov/govs/apesCompared to national average for local gov’t payroll: http://www2.census.gov/govs/apes/11locus.txt (50 state +DC/total payroll)School rankings: http://www.daytondailynews.com/news/news/ohio-ranks-46th-in-classroom-spending-1/nMrXT/Schools: Ohio ranks 46th nationwide in spending for instruction and 12th in administration spending
  • Monthly employment expenditures for local government are almost 3 times that of state government.SOURCE: 2003, 2007 and 2011 Annual Surveys of Public Employment and Payroll. U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Governmentshttp://www.census.gov/govs/apes/how_data_collected.html.
  • Not all government components are listed here, so numbers won’t add to $1.8b. But it does show the range of payroll costs for key parts of Ohio’s local government landscape.Source: 2011 Annual Survey of Public Employment and Payroll. US Census Bureau, Census of Governments http://www2.census.gov/govs/apes/11locoh.txt
  • Per capita, Ohio is in the middle of the pack compared to peers. And just a few dollars below the US average of per capita costs of local government2011 per capita cost of local government = 2011 payroll data/2012 population 2011 payroll data: http://www.census.gov/govs/apes/ 2011 Local Government, Viewable Data, state summary tables.2012 state population estimate: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html
  • Why are local gov’t costs what they are.
  • Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 Census of Governments: Organization Component Preliminary Estimates. Randy Cole’s research, personal communication with GOPC.
  • # of localgovt: 2012 Census of Governments: http://www2.census.gov/govs/cog/2012/many_layers_prelim_map.pdf
  • Size of state: http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_general.html#one# of localgovt: 2012 Census of Governments: http://www2.census.gov/govs/cog/2012/many_layers_prelim_map.pdf
  • In 2012 Ohio has 12.7 more local governments per county than the national average.Map found at: http://www2.census.gov/govs/cog/2012/many_layers_prelim_map.pdf
  • The number of citizens these local governments serve varies tremendously. US Census of Governments completes a comprehensive census of local, state and federal governments on years that end in “2” and “7.” Numbers in this presentation come from the 2007 Census, which used some data from previous years. These numbers will be updated in Fall 2013 when 2012’s information is released.
  • Townships do not collect income tax from residents or business taxes from businessesTownships can request the county engineer to fund and carry out road and infrastructure repairsCounty sheriff provides policing services in townships that do not support their own police force
  • Municipalities are guaranteed home rule under the constitution, which means they can exercise powers not prohibited by the constitution or by general laws of the state. * cities and villages can tax, adopt a police force, enforce sanitary regulations, etc. * municipalities must fund their own responsibilities and powersTownships are ʺcreatures of statute"ʺ and have only the authority and powers expressly conferred on them by state law and the powersTownships can adopt limited home rule to adopt a police force, etc.Can request the county engineer to fund and perform road and infrastructure repairsCounty sheriff provides policing services in townships that do not support their own police forceCounties can exercise home rule by adopting a charter (eg. Cuyahoga and Summit)
  • Earlier this year the state of Ohio commissioned GOPC to develop a series of white papers on governmental collaboration and efficiency. We want to quickly share some key findings from that research.All reports can be found at GOPC’s website:http://greaterohio.org/initiatives/restoring-prosperityhttp://greaterohio.org/policy-and-research/sales-tax-analysishttp://greaterohio.org/policy-and-research/2013-shared-services-research-briefs-2010 Restoring Prosperity to Ohio, a report co-written with the Brookings Institution2011 study on the disparities in sales tax capture rates among counties2013 research briefs on service and resource sharing among local governments and agencies
  • In 2011, amendments to ORC 9.482 “Contracting for services between political subdivisions” removedmany barriers to collaboration between local governments and special districts governmentsMore legislative/constitutional guidance required to structure contractual relationships between state and local governmenthttp://columbusregion.com/connect-with-us/our-partners/ed411/Lake County Capital Equipment Utilization Study. Ohio Auditor of State (2012) hhttp://www.ohioauditor.gov/publications/issues/LakeCountyCapitalEquipmentUtilizationStudy040912.pdfCuyahoga Co Western Reserve Plan: Expanded County-Provided Services Available to Communities http://regionalcollaboration.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_regionalcollab/en-US/ExpandedCountyProvidedServices.pdf
  • Metropolitan Planning OrganizationsMORPC & technology working grouphttp://columbusregion.com/connect-with-us/our-partners/ed411/County EngineersTrumbull Co. shared salt storage facility will save tax payers ~$1,418,364 over 10 years County Executive or County CommissionersCuyahoga Co Western Reserve Plan: expanded county-provided services such as IT, healthcare regionalization, public workshttp://regionalcollaboration.cuyahogacounty.us/pdf_regionalcollab/en-US/ExpandedCountyProvidedServices.pdfLake County Capital Equipment Utilization Study. Ohio Auditor of State (2012) hhttp://www.ohioauditor.gov/publications/issues/LakeCountyCapitalEquipmentUtilizationStudy040912.pdfBy sharing road equipment, local governments in Geauga County will save an estimated $495,000 over 10 yearshttp://greaterohio.org/files/policy-research/county-township5-24-13final.pdfhttp://development.ohio.gov/files/redev/LGIF_Round3/L03001.pdf‎
  • ex: Auditor of State found that fleet equipment owned by Lake Co. Engineer and 23 local jurisdictions were idle 50% or more of the time that the pieces could be possibly utilized. In other words, there is more equipment than needed in Lake Co.Lake County Capital Equipment Utilization Study. Ohio Auditor of State (2012) http://www.ohioauditor.gov/publications/issues/LakeCountyCapitalEquipmentUtilizationStudy040912.pdf
  • Apples to apples comparisons are nearly impossible
  • when county or regional entity provides services, can serve as a nuetral 3rd party, rising above city-to-city relationships that can be fraught

Local Gov't Presentation to Constitutional Modernization Commission Local Gov't Presentation to Constitutional Modernization Commission Presentation Transcript

  • Ohio Constitutional Modernization Commission for the Education, Public Institutions, Miscellaneous and Local Government Committee July 11,2013 Alison D. Goebel Associate Director Greater Ohio Policy Center agoebel@greaterohio.org Lavea Brachman Executive Director Greater Ohio Policy Center lbrachman@greaterohio.org Overview of Local Government in Ohio
  • Greater Ohio Policy Center: “Think” and “Do” tank An outcome-oriented statewide non-profit organization that develops and implements policies and practices to: • revitalize Ohio’s urban cores and metropolitan regions • achieve sustainable land reuse and economic growth
  • Sustainable Growth and Local Government Ohio’s current local government structure impacts sustainable growth: • Communities and taxpayers face the legacy costs of a 19th century structure in a 21st century economy • Ohio’s population growth is stagnating • 45th in population growth, but 8th in land consumption • Fragmented and duplicative local governments prevent effective economic competition on world market
  • State of Local Government in Ohio How much does Ohio’s local government cost? How does Ohio compare nationally?
  • Cost of Ohio’s Local Government • 20th highest local tax burden in U.S. (2010) • 34th highest for state taxes, as a % of income (2012) • 45th in population growth, but 8th in land consumption
  • Cost of Ohio’s Local Government • 29% above peer state average (IN, MI, PA, KY, IL) in monthly local government payroll • ~2x national average for monthly local government payroll
  • Monthly payroll expenditures for local government in Ohio cost $1.8 billion in 2011 Monthly employment expenditures for local government are almost 3 times that of state government. $483,289,081 $597,895,507 $653,416,073 $2,054,318,446 $1,692,070,025 $1,817,460,033 $0 $500,000,000 $1,000,000,000 $1,500,000,000 $2,000,000,000 $2,500,000,000 $3,000,000,000 2003 2007 2011 state gov't payroll local gov't payroll
  • Greater Ohio Policy Center monthly payroll costs of key components of local gov’t, March 2011 Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, Census of Governments; Government Organization, 2011 $0 $20,000,000 $40,000,000 $60,000,000 $80,000,000 $100,000,000 $120,000,000 $140,000,000 $160,000,000 fire protection total corrections local libraries judicial and legal police protection total health
  • Ohio is MIDDLE of the pack in per capita costs of local government payroll in the midwest and peer states state 2011 per capita cost of local government Indiana $130.71 Michigan $137.22 Pennsylvania $139.79 Wisconsin $153.49 Minnesota $156.19 Ohio $157.49 Illinois $176.30 New York $251.60 US Total $160.58
  • State of Local Government in Ohio How much local government does Ohio have? How does Ohio’s local government system compare nationally?
  • Ohio has over 3,600 local government jurisdictions Source: : U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 Census of Governments, Organization Component Preliminary Estimates2012 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 counties (88) municipalities (940) townships (1,308) traditional school districts (614) types and number of local governments
  • and over 4,000 special district governments Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, Census of Governments; Government Organization, 2012, research by Randy Cole 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 metro. housing auth. (75) park districts (90) airports (97) joint fire or ambulance district (145) municipal & county courts (165) library districts (251) senior centers (450) examples of special district governments
  • Ohio ranks 7th nationally in raw numbers of local governments per state rank state # of local gov'ts 1Illinois 6,968 2Pennsylvania 4,905 3Texas 4,856 4California 4,350 5Kansas 3,806 6Missouri 3,752 7Ohio 3,702 8Minnesota 3,633 9New York 3,454 10Wisconsin 3,123 Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, US Census of Governments, 2012
  • and 8th nationally in local governments per square mile Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, US Census of Governments, 2012 rank state Size of state in square mile # of local govts govts/sq mi 1 New Jersey 8,214 1,344 0.164 2 Delaware 2,396 338 0.141 3 Illinois 57,914 6,968 0.120 4 Connecticut 5,543 644 0.116 5 Rhode Island 1,231 134 0.109 6 Pennsylvania 46,055 4,905 0.107 7 Massachusetts 9,240 852 0.092 8 Ohio 44,825 3,702 0.083 9 Vermont 9,614 728 0.076 10 Indiana 36,418 2,694 0.074
  • Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, US Census of Governments, 2012 In 2012, we had 42.1 local governments per county compared to the national average of 29.4.
  • In Ohio, there are 410 municipalities with 1,000 or fewer residents * 2012 estimates will be available in fall 2013 Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, Census of Governments; Government Organization, 2007 252 158 165 110 61 57 32 57 13 12 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 number of municipalities by 2005 population*
  • 224 townships with 1,000 or fewer residents and 30 with more than 20,000 residents Source: Greater Ohio Policy Center, Census of Governments; Government Organization, 2002 48 176 511 290 176 71 20 9 6 5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 number of townships by 2006 population
  • Responsibilities and powers of local governments vary • Municipalities have home rule powers • Townships are a “creature of statute” but can have limited home rule powers • Counties are governed by general rules. Charter counties have home rule powers
  • Observations on local government efforts to collaborate and become more efficient State of Local Government in Ohio
  • Successful collaborations and efforts to become more efficient often require a leader or steward. Finding #1 from GOPC white papers
  • Stewards often have the highest levels of capacity and resources to lead collaboration efforts. Examples include: • Metropolitan Planning Organizations • Education Service Centers • County Engineers • County Executive or County Commissioners • Major cities Stewarding collaboration and efficiency efforts
  • Collaboration and efficiency efforts are often prompted by economic changes Local governments have begun to “right-size” equipment and staff so resources are maximally utilized Finding #2 from GOPC white papers
  • Comparing local governments and measuring efficiency can be difficult • Ohio has no set standard reporting instrument for a detailed breakdown of local government expenditures • Local governments are assessing themselves and soliciting third party inventories to better understand their efficiency opportunities Finding #3 from GOPC white papers
  • 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1952 1962 1972 1982 1992 1997 2002 Numbers and Types of Local Government in Ohio County Municipal Townships School Districts Special Districts Consolidations and mergers are not new for Ohio
  • Results of intergovermental collaboration • economies of scale • improved local government accountability • equalization of service quantity and quality • coordinated economic competitiveness • ability to retain local community character and flavor
  • Visit our website: http://greaterohio.org/ Greater Ohio blog: http://greaterohio.org/blog Follow us on Twitter: @GreaterOhio Like Greater Ohio Policy Center on Facebook QUESTIONS?