Glass architecture


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Description of Glass architecture from late 18th century to the present in Germany.

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  • (First produced in the Machines des Galeries in Paris, and later mimicked in the Behrens AEG turbine hall.)
  • Behrens became the
  • -main conference room- for competition study, inspired by horses head
  • Glass architecture

    1. 1. Modern History of Glass Architecture Christy Gray ARTH 205 May 11, 2010
    2. 2. 19 th Century: Early Modern Glass Architecture <ul><li>New materials and technology </li></ul><ul><li>-Exoticism </li></ul><ul><li>-The illusion of Nature in a post-industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>-show of wealth </li></ul>
    3. 3. 19 th Century German Glass Architecture 9 4 4 Berlin 9 Biebrich Bonn Dresden Frankfurt Gottingen Karlsruhe Kassel Cologne Leipzing Magdeburg Meiningen Munich 4 Stuttgart 4 Tubingen
    4. 4. -first known iron-framed house in Germany and possibly the entire continent - Roman ticism - exiled Prince was looking for an exotic escape Stuttgart- Hohenheim Hohenheim Park Iron Conservatory Built: 1789
    5. 5. Berlin Pfaueninsel Palm House architect : Albert Ditrich Schadow (assisted by Karl Friedrich Schinkel) Built: 1829-1831 Burned Down: 1880 -wood and iron building -one of the first large hothouses in Germany (prototype for future hothouses) -onion shaped cupola expresses exotic world enshrined in the building -romanticism/ exoticism Included ruined castle, a mausoleum, farmhouse. etc -largest display of plant specimens at the time -back wall masonry
    6. 6. Stuggart Wilhelma and Conservatories Architects: Ludwig Von Zanth Built: 1842-1846 Exoticism - inspired by Moorish architecture -building displays the attributes of ironwork and the ability to produce fine details -Made for the part time residence of King William of Wurttemberg and rumors were said that it was his “fairy castle”
    7. 7. Karlsruhe Residenz Conservatories Architect: Heinrich Hubsch Built: 1853-1857 - Historicism - use of caryatids emphasize temple –like appearance -load baring masonry support reduced to a skeleton
    8. 8. Munich Old Botanical Garden- Glass Palace Architect: August Von Voit Built: 1853-54 Burnt Down: 1931 -One of the largest glass and iron buildings built during the 19 th century -Originally built for an exhibition hall -the building was completed in 87 days (thanks to prefabrication and mass production) -1700 tons of iron and 37,000 pains of glass -Inspired by Joseph Paxton’s crystal palace, completed for the London exhibition 2 years prior -held, 5 industrial exhibitions, 32 art exhibitions, 26 agricultural exhibitions and an electrical-goods exhibition, plays and festivals -there was talk of dismantling it in 1912, although some were for preservation…in 1931 it burned down
    9. 9. Berlin-Schoneberg Royal Botanical Garden Great Palm House Architect: Karl Friedrich Schinkel Built: 1857 Demolished: 1907 -early example of 19 th century Neue Sachlichkeit (new objectivity) -1/2 inch glass with reinforced wire -double installation “ a demonstration therefore that even northerly climates the iron structure can be considered advantageous for hothouses” -green design- rain water catch system, hot water heating -series gardens and hot houses, the earliest was built in 1821 by Schinkel -1907 demolished to make a new botanical garden @ Dahlem
    10. 10. Munich Old Botanical Garden Luisen-Sophienstasse Great Palm House Architect: August von Voit Built : 1860-1965 Demolished : ? -functioned as a conservatory and museum -plans were to recycle the glass palace to built, but glass palace cont. to be used
    11. 11. Cologne Botanical Garden- Flora Architects: H Martens and Georg Eberlein Built: 1864 Demolished: 1914 -1 st type in Germany to combine public recreation center with a palm house -served as a model for the London Crystal Palace
    12. 12. Berlin Central Hotel Winter Garden Architects: Hermann von der Hude and Julius Hennicke Built: 1880-01 Demolished: ? -hotel that was to provide accommodation as well as entertainment -concerts in every weather -no interior column, utilized the same technology in bridge construction and railway stations
    13. 13. Berlin-Schoneberg Royal Botanical Garden Victoria Regia House Architect: Schulze Built: 1882 Demolished: 1907
    14. 14. Herrenhausen Park Herrenhausen Palm Houses Built : 1882 -tallest hothouse in Europe
    15. 15. Berlin- Dahlem New Botanical Gardens- Great Palm House Architects: Alfred Koerner Built : 1905-1907 damaged: 1943 rebuilt: 1960’s - New objectivity - absence of monumental motifs made it one of the “most modern buildings of the time” - German Expressionism - pointed arches and “faceted” interpretation of glass paneling -Inspired Paul Scheebart in his Architecttura Celesta -rebuilt royal garden due to scarcity of land after speculative period -1943- damage from war/ bombs, refitted with large acrylic panels- lost the netting look -Girder support system expresses the “might of the industry” -represented the “new art of industrial construction” - Most important building of its time - span of interior space astounding at the time
    16. 16. Berlin- Dahlem New Botanical Gardens Subtropical House Architect: Alfred Koerner Built: 1905-1907 rebuilt : 1958 Inspirations: -references castle ruin in the garden of the original Berlin Royal garden -German expressionism seen in crystal ornamented towers - “west work” and plan similar to Basilica
    17. 17. 20 th century: The Modern ‘Glass house” <ul><li>-Expressionalism Vs. Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>-Bruno Taut and inspiration from Paul Scheerbart </li></ul><ul><li>-Taut: Durability and Transparency= social reform and reaction to the World War </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Architecture - by Paul Scheerbart: </li></ul><ul><li>#1 Our culture is to a certain extent the product of our architecture. If we want our culture to rise to a higher level, we are obliged. . .to change our architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>-#31 glass mosaic skin is probably the most durable building material which we have so far discovered. </li></ul><ul><li>#68 (the aerial torpedo) Inevitably draws attention to the danger of brick architecture; if a brick church tower is struck down by a torpedo, it will in every case collapse, kill many people and </li></ul><ul><li>reduce and entire group of buildings to rubble. . . A glass tower, when it is torpedo; a few iron members will be bent, and number of glass panels will have holes or cracks, but such damage is simple to repair.” </li></ul>Remains of an iron structure after 1931 fire- is glass really durable
    18. 18. Munich Jungfrauenaquarium (Virgin Aquarium or the Steiff factory Built: 1903 -Richard Steiff attended the Stuttgart school of Arts and Crafts -Company founded in 1880, factory established to manufacture toy bears -built by unknown architect, but glass seemed to be utilized in a utilitarian fashion; provide light and well ventilated room to the employees
    19. 19. Berlin Turbinenfabrik (Turbine factory or AEG building) Architect: Peter Behrens Built: 1909 -steel arches- similar technology used in bridges and railway stations -ferroconcrete covering with historicist detailing- hinting at the monumentalism of a classical temple –steel support recall a classical colonnade (interior compared to a giant colonnade) -glass curtain – “proclaims the present and promises the future”
    20. 20. Cologne Cologne Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition Glashaus Architect: Bruno Taut Built : 1914 -concrete and glass bricks -German Expressionism -Bruno Taut wanted to free architecture of it’s “Unitarian demands” Glass = purity and perfection, a material that would instill social change “ Glass is completely new, pure material in which matter is melted down and recast. Of all the materials we have it works in the most elementary way. All other materials next to glass are derivative and like leftovers.” Functional and practical architecture is outdate. -responsible for starting the Glaserne Kette (Crystal Chain)- where he spread the ideas of Paul Scheerbart
    21. 21. Cologne Cologne Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition Fagus Factory Architects: Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer Built: 1911- 1914 <ul><li>Gropius was a pupil of Peter Behrens </li></ul><ul><li>-supersedes the Turbinenfabrik by bending the curtain wall around the entire building </li></ul><ul><li>-utilizes paneling to reveal the 3-storied interior </li></ul>
    22. 22. Dessau Bauhaus Architect : Walter Gropius Built: 1925-26 -in comparison to the evolution of factory types- the Bauhaus once again supersedes all predecessors -the workshop wing consists of an entire curtain wall (without paneling) and is suspended in the air -inspired by local airplane factory in shape and conception
    23. 23. Barcelona, Spain *(International exposition representing Germany) Barcelona Pavilion Architect: Mies Van Der Rohe Built: 1929 <ul><li>Fusion of De Stijl, open form and overlapping planes in floating space and… </li></ul><ul><li>-Le Corbusier’s domino principle </li></ul><ul><li>-chrome-plated steel columns, travertine pavements, Tinian (green) marble, onyx and glass walls- all contributed to the sheen and transparency </li></ul>
    24. 24. Bonn Chancellors bungalow Architect: Sep Rug Built : 1958-59 -functions in comparison to the White House, the ceremonial home for the West German Chancellor -the wing that is purposed for public function is nearly all glass -the glass architecture was meant to induce and exemplify the government’s transparency, honesty and clarity
    25. 25. Bonn Der Lange Eugen Architect: Egon Eiermann Built : 1969 -government building -Use of glass but not as transparent -interior also consists of glass elements in partition walls and screens
    26. 26. 21 st Century: Present Glass Construction <ul><li>“ What used to be the boundary of material, its terminus, has become an entryway hidden in most imperceptible entity. From here on, the appearance of surfaces and superficies conceals a secret of transparency, a thickness without thickness, a volume with out volume, an imperceptible quantity”- Marc Taylor Hidden </li></ul><ul><li>A search for “lightness of being” </li></ul>
    27. 27. Berlin Reichstag Architect - Paul Wallot, (later) Paul Baumgarten, Norman Foster, Built: 1884 Fire: 1933 Bombed: 1945 Redesigned: 1960 and 1991-1992 (to present state) -1960- refurbished with new modern lines- symbolic cleansing of pompous parliament and hateful dictatorship -1991- symbolizes the reunification of Germany
    28. 28. The Bundesverfassungsgericht
    29. 29. Berlin DZ Bank Architect: Frank Gehry and Partners Built: 2001 <ul><li>Originally 19 th century square that laid to waste between East and West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>-Albert Speer’s (Hitler's architect) bunker wartime bunker found under site </li></ul><ul><li>“ reversal of solids and voids” </li></ul><ul><li>Changes the dichotomy of glass- the curved canopy is capable only through complex geometric planning </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Dusseldorg </li></ul><ul><li>Colorium </li></ul><ul><li>Architects: Alsop Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Built: 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Glass curtain with pre-fabricated screen printed glass enveloped in an aluminum frame </li></ul><ul><li>-”Combined with the sophistication of modern glass curtain wall building technology, in which Germany is a recognized leader, the Colorium illustrates the rich and exciting possibilities for the future of glass façade treatments.” </li></ul>
    31. 31. Finish Embassy, Berlin Meteorit Exhibition Centre- Essen Soebeck house, Stuttgart Photonics Centre, Berlin Dormund Municipal Library, Dormund
    32. 32. North German Regional Clearing Bank, Hannover Embassy of the Nordic Countries, Berlin Mont- Cenis Academy, Sodigen <ul><ul><li>“ Glass continues its transformation from the physical to the sensorial and which in its poetic state is at once transient, transcendental and profound. And so the journey continues . . . towards the light” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And the List goes on….. </li></ul><ul><li>check out: </li></ul><ul><li>for more Glass Architecture </li></ul>P&C Department Store, Cologne
    33. 33. Bibliography <ul><li>Barnston, Ascher. The Transparent State: Architecture and Politics in Postwar Germany . New York: Routledge, 2005. Print. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Ersoy, U.. (2007). The fictive quality of glass . Arq : Architectural Research </li></ul><ul><li>Quarterly, 11(3-4), 237-243.  Retrieved April 19, 2010, from Arts Module. (Document ID: 1451395241). </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; germany « Search Results « AEWORLDMAP.COM.&quot; AEWORLDMAP.COM . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlmaier, Georg. Houses of Glass: A Nineteenth-Century Building Type . First edition first printing. ed. Pennsylvania: Mit Press (Ma), 1986. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Richards, Brent. New Glass Architecture . New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Scheerbart, Paul, and Sharp, Dennis, and Taut, Bruno,   Glass architecture, by Paul Scheerbart; and Alpine architecture, by Bruno Taut. Edited with an introd. by Dennis Sharp. Glass architecture translated by James Palmes. Alpine architecture translated by Shirley Palmer  Praeger New York,  1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Whyte, Iain Boyd. Bruno Taut and the Architecture of Activism (Cambridge Urban and Architectural Studies) . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. Print. </li></ul>