Study of God
this branch is also called
deals with why people
believe in a higher power and
tackles about rituals and
how people should act.
Examples of religion:
Christianity, Judaism, Islam
2. Rational Psychology
studies man as having body and
”Rational” here indicates
psychological investigations based on
reason alone, rather than on
The method of rational psychology
is to describe and study mental
organizations and phenomena by the
most fit mathematical concepts.
(from the Greek logos: 'a
Studies man as having
The method is by using
Critical thinking and
Example of Logic:
• 5 + X = 9
• X = 4
• Girls have long hair.
• Ariel has long hair
• Ariel is a girl.
Validity of human knowledge
Studies man as having intellect (like
is the study of
the nature and scope of knowledge
and justified belief
•Agnosticism- the doctrine that conclusive knowledge
of ultimate reality is an outright impossibility
•Skepticism- the doctrine that any true knowledge is
impossible or that all knowledge is uncertain.
•A posteriori- the reasoning that experience comes first
and knowledge afterwards. Latin “from behind-hand”
•A priori- the reasoning that knowledge can be acquired
through pure reason alone, independently and
perhaps, before experience. Latin “from beforehand”
5. Ethics/ Moral Philosophy
Studies man as having will
This branch deals mainly with morality
Is there a right and wrong?
Is right and wrong the same for
It helps people determine what is right
and wrong and how we can achieve the
The good life
This is where a
person has balance
•Cosmology is the study of the
Universe and its components, how
it formed, how its has evolved and
what is its future.
•To religious studies, cosmology is
about a theistically created world
ruled by supernatural forces
‘meta’ means beyond = outside universe
Metaphysics is the study of origins
Asks why we are here and what is our
purpose in life.
Metaphysics is the foundation of
philosophy. Without an explanation or an
interpretation of the world around us, we
would be helpless to deal with reality.